Cardinal (bird)

Cardinals, in the family Cardinalidae, are passerine birds found in North and South America. They are also known as cardinal-grosbeaks and cardinal-buntings.

The South American cardinals in the genus Paroaria are placed in the Tanager family Thraupidae. Contrariwise, DNA analysis of the genera Piranga (which includes the scarlet tanager, summer tanager, and western tanager), Chlorothraupis, and Habia showed their closer relationship to the cardinal family.[1] They have been reassigned to that family by the American Ornithological Society.[2]

Northern Cardinal Broadside
Male northern cardinal
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Superfamily: Passeroidea
Family: Cardinalidae
Ridgway, 1901


Male Cardinal feeding
An American male cardinal feeds on a sunflower seed.

Species list

(1) "Masked" clade:

Female Northern Cardinal in my garden
A female northern cardinal
Male Northern Cardinal - Manhasset, NY 02
Male Northern Cardinal - Manhasset, New York
Cardinal side view
A male cardinal in Texas
Cardinal babies
Newly hatched cardinals in Texas

(2) "Blue" clade:

(3) Ant tanager clade:

(4) "Chat" clade:

(5) "Pheucticus" clade:


They are robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. The family's smallest member is the 12-cm (4.7-in), 11.5-g (0.40-oz) orange-breasted bunting. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinctive appearances. The northern cardinal type species was named by colonists for the male's red crest, reminiscent of a Catholic cardinal's biretta.[3]

The "North American buntings" are known as such to distinguish them from buntings of the Old World family Emberizidae. The name "cardinal-grosbeak" can also apply to the cardinalid family as a whole.

Most species are rated by the IUCN as being of least concern, though some are near threatened.[4]

Biological suppression of west nile virus

A study conducted in 2016 in Atlanta, Georgia, on West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in the United States, found that unlike other species, cardinals biologically suppress the disease upon infection.[5]


  1. ^ Yuri, T.; Mindell, D. P. (May 2002). "Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fringillidae, "New World nine-primaried oscines" (Aves: Passeriformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 23 (2): 229–243. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00012-X. PMID 12069553.
  2. ^ "Family: Cardinalidae". American Ornithological Society. Retrieved Feb 1, 2019.
  3. ^ Duchesne, Bob (September 21, 2012). "Proliferation of cardinals a fairly recent event". Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014.
  4. ^ Search "cardinalidae" at IUCN Red List Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine for more info.
  5. ^ Levine, Rebecca S.; et al. (9 June 2016). "Supersuppression: Reservoir Competency and Timing of Mosquito Host Shifts Combine to Reduce Spillover of West Nile Virus". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  • Stiles and Skutch, A guide to the birds of Costa Rica ISBN 0-8014-9600-4
  • Hilty, Steven L (2003) Birds of Venezuela London: Christopher Helm, ISBN 0-7136-6418-5
  • ffrench, Birds of Trinidad and Tobago ISBN 0-7136-6759-1
  • "National Geographic" Field Guide to the Birds of North America ISBN 0-7922-6877-6
  • Klicka, John; Burns, Kevin; Spellman, Garth M. (December 2007). "Defining a monophyletic Cardinalini: A molecular perspective". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 45 (3): 1014–1032. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.07.006. PMID 17920298.

External links

Baldwin the Eagle

Baldwin the Eagle, an anthropomorphized bald eagle, is the mascot of the Boston College Eagles.

The nickname "Eagles" goes back to 1920 when Rev. Edward McLaughlin, unhappy at seeing a newspaper cartoon which represented Boston College as a cat after a track victory, wrote to the college newspaper The Heights:

It is important that we adopt a mascot to preside at our pow-wows and triumphant feats.... And why not the Eagle, symbolic of majesty, power, and freedom? Its natural habitat is the high places. Surely the Heights is made to order for such a selection. Proud would the B.C. man feel to see the B.C. Eagle snatching the trophy of victory from old opponents, their tattered banner clutched in his talons as he flies aloft.

Buzz (mascot)

Buzz is the current official mascot of the Georgia Institute of Technology. Buzz is usually represented as a stylized yellowjacket with yellow-and-black fur, white wings, a yellow head, and antennae. Buzz is almost never drawn with six legs, but rather with arms, legs, hands (in white gloves) and feet (in black Converse high tops), like a human. Invented in 1972 and restyled in 1979, Buzz reflects the tradition of referring to Georgia Tech students as "Yellow Jackets." Buzz is also one of Georgia Tech's emblems and trademarks, one that they defended in a 1998 legal conflict with the Salt Lake Buzz.

Cardinal (color)

Cardinal is a vivid red, which may get its name from the cassocks worn by Catholic cardinals (although the color worn by cardinals is scarlet). The cardinal bird takes its name from this color.

The first recorded use of cardinal as a color name in English was in the year 1698.

Cardinal Bird (mascot)

Louie the Cardinal is the mascot of the University of Louisville. The Cardinal was chosen as the mascot after 1913, selected because the northern cardinal is the state bird of Kentucky. The school colors of black and red were adopted later.

The Cardinal appears at university sporting events, notably skydiving into Cardinal Stadium for each home football game. He also attends other community events during the year. He is considered a part of the "Spirit Groups" and is a member of the Cheerleading team. In 2004, the Cardinal Bird was presented with the National Cheerleaders Association's Most Collegiate Mascot award. On occasion, the Cardinal will travel over to the school marching band's section to conduct the players from the band's podium.

The Cardinal is nicknamed "Louie". This is an homage to the name of both its school and city, as they are sometimes pronounced as "Louie-ville." Others choose to abbreviate his name, nicknaming him "C.B." His costume weighs over 50 pounds.

Demon Deacon

The Demon Deacon is the mascot of Wake Forest University, a school located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Probably best known for its slightly unorthodox name and appearance, the Demon Deacon has become a mainstay in the world of U.S. college mascots.

Dollarway High School

Dollarway High School is a comprehensive public high school in Pine Bluff, Arkansas that serves grades 9 through 12. It is one of three public high schools in Pine Bluff and the only high school managed by the Dollarway School District. Within the state, the school is often referred to as Pine Bluff Dollarway.

Dollarway High serves sections of Pine Bluff as well as Altheimer, Sherrill, and Wabbaseka. A small portion of White Hall is in the Dollarway school district. It also serves the unincorporated areas of Tucker, Plum Bayou, Pastoria, and Wright.


Fredbird is the official mascot for the St. Louis Cardinals major league baseball team. He is an anthropomorphic cardinal wearing the team's uniform. Fredbird can always be found entertaining young children during baseball games at Busch Stadium. His name is derived from "Redbird", a synonym for the cardinal bird and for the Cardinals themselves.Fredbird was introduced in April 6, 1979 by the Cardinals, then owned by Anheuser-Busch, to entertain younger fans at the games.

He quickly became popular with fans for his dancing, habit of "beaking" the heads of supporters, and for throwing T-shirts into the stands. In later years, he has been joined by "Team Fredbird", a group of young women employed by the club who help him with his T-shirt toss and occasionally in other duties. He can also be seen rallying the crowd regularly during pregame on-field ceremonies, and, occasionally, he finds time to sit behind (or on top of) the dugout to get the crowd going. After every Cardinal home victory, Fredbird takes a flag with the team's logo onto the field and waves it around. He is one of baseball's best-known mascots, and he makes hundreds of appearances year-round in the St. Louis area. Fredbird can also be seen on television once a week on the Cardinal's Kids TV show with former Cardinal Brad Thompson.

In May 2015, a controversial photo of Fredbird posing with a "Police Lives Matter" sign was released to the public. The photo was posted to the St. Louis Police Department's Facebook page, but was removed at the team's request. The Cardinals then apologized for the photo, stating their mascot should not be involved in any political activity or social commentary. The team also said that Fredbird was not aware of the sign's content.


The HokieBird is the official mascot of Virginia Tech. It has spawned a series of children's books featuring college and pro sports mascots, including Hello, HokieBird, published by Mascot Books.

Index of Illinois-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of Illinois.

Louisville Cardinals football

The Louisville Cardinals football team represents the University of Louisville in the sport of American football. The Cardinals compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and compete in the Atlantic Coast Conference.

Notre Dame Leprechaun

The Notre Dame leprechaun is the mascot of the University of Notre Dame (Notre Dame) Fighting Irish athletics department. It appears at athletic events, most notably at football games. It was designed by sports artist Theodore W. Drake in 1964 for US$50.The Leprechaun was featured in the cover of TIME magazine in November 1964.

Osceola and Renegade

Osceola and Renegade are the official mascots of the Florida State University Seminoles. Osceola, representing the historical Seminole leader Osceola, and his Appaloosa horse Renegade introduce home football games by riding to midfield with a burning spear and planting it in the turf.

Osceola and Renegade debuted in 1978, and are the most recent of several mascots used by the school. FSU has tried to ensure a dignified depiction of Osceola. The portrayal is supported by leaders of the Seminole Tribe of Florida, but it remains controversial in some quarters.

Otto the Orange

Otto the Orange is the mascot for the Syracuse Orange, the athletic teams of Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York, USA. Otto is an anthropomorphism of the color orange, wearing a large blue hat and blue pants. Otto can usually be seen at Syracuse sporting events in the Carrier Dome and other university sporting events.

Rameses (mascot)

Rameses is the ram mascot of the North Carolina Tar Heels. Three versions of Rameses appear at UNC sporting events. One is a member of the UNC cheerleading team in an anthropomorphic ram costume; the second is also an anthropomorphic ram costume, and the third is a live Dorset Horn sheep named Rameses who attends Carolina football games with his horns painted Carolina blue.

Sebastian the Ibis

Sebastian the Ibis is the official mascot for the University of Miami. He is an anthropomorphized American white ibis with a Miami Hurricanes football jersey, number 0. Sebastian is the first and only Hispanic-American college mascot and identifies as Cuban.

The Tiger (mascot)

The Tiger is the mascot of the Clemson Tigers, the athletic teams of Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. The anthropomorphized tiger is costumed in Acrylic/polyester fur, and in recent years wears a football, basketball, or baseball jersey or a T-shirt. The Tiger has a smaller companion, The Cub, who wears shorts, oversized sneakers, and a jersey numbered ​1⁄2.

USS Cardinal (AM-6)

USS Cardinal (AM-6) was a Lapwing-class minesweeper in the United States Navy. She was named after the cardinal bird.

Cardinal was launched 29 March 1918 by Staten Island Shipbuilding Co., New York; sponsored by Ms. I. Nelson; and commissioned on 23 August 1918 as Minesweeper No.6, Lieutenant, junior grade N. Drake in command.


Zitkála-Šá (1876–1938) (Lakota: Red Bird = Cardinal (bird)), also known as Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, her missionary-given and later married name, was a Yankton Dakota Sioux writer, editor, translator, musician, educator, and political activist. She wrote several works chronicling her struggles with cultural identity and the pull between the majority culture she was educated within and her Dakota Sioux culture into which she was born and raised. Her later books were among the first works to bring traditional Native American stories to a widespread white English-speaking readership, and she has been noted as one of the most influential Native American activists of the 20th century.

Working with American musician William F. Hanson, Zitkala-Ša wrote the libretto and songs for The Sun Dance Opera, (1913), the first American Indian opera. It was composed in romantic musical style, and based on Sioux and Ute cultural themes.)She was co-founder of the National Council of American Indians in 1926, which was established to lobby for Native people’s right to United States citizenship and other civil rights they had long been denied. Zitkala-Ša served as the council’s president until her death in 1938.

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