Cardea or Carda was the ancient Roman goddess of the hinge (Latin cardo, cardinis), Roman doors being hung on pivot hinges. The Augustan poet Ovid conflates her with another archaic goddess named Carna, whose festival was celebrated on the Kalends of June and for whom he gives the alternative name Cranê or Cranea, a nymph. Ovid's conflation of the goddesses is likely to have been his poetic invention,[1][2] but it has also been conjectured that Carna was a contracted form of Cardina,[3] and at minimum Ovid was observing that their traditions were congruent.[4]

Cardea and doorways

0 Sarcophage - Quatre saisons - Musei Capitolini - MC1185 (2)
Allegorical depiction of the Four Seasons (Horae) and smaller attendant figures that flank a Roman double-doorway representing the entrance to the afterlife,[5] on a mid-3rd century AD sarcophagus

In the Christian polemic of the Church Fathers, Cardea is associated with two otherwise unknown deities who preside over doorways: Forculus, from fores, "door", plural in form because double doors were common on public buildings and elite homes (domūs); and Limentinus, from limen, liminis, "threshold" (compare English "liminal").[6] St. Augustine mocks the apparent triviality of these "little gods" in one of his "attacks against the multitude of Gods,"[7] noting that while one doorkeeper is adequate for a human household, the Roman gods require three: "evidently Forculus can't watch the hinge and the threshold at the same time." Modern scholarship has pointed out that this particular set of divinities belongs to rituals of marking out sacred space and fixing boundaries, religious developments hypothesized to have occurred during the transition from pastoralism to an agrarian society. Among Roman deities of this type, Terminus was the most significant.[8]

Stefan Weinstock conjectured that these three doorway deities had a place in cosmology as the Ianitores terrestres, "doorkeepers of the earth," guarding the passage to the earthly sphere. In the schema presented by Martianus Capella, the Ianitores terrestres are placed in region 16 among deities of the lowest ranks, while Janus, the divine doorkeeper par excellence,[9] is placed in region 1. This arrangement may represent the ianuae coeli, the two doors of the heavens identified with the solstices.[10] Isidore of Seville says that there are two ianuae coeli, one rising (that is, in the East) and one setting (the West): "The sun advances from the one gate, by the other he recedes."[11]

Isidore's definition is followed immediately by an explanation of the cardines (plural of cardo), the north-south pivots of the axis on which the sphere of the world rotates. These are analogous to the top-and-bottom pivot hinges of a Roman door.[12]

In addition to the meaning of "door hinge," the cardo was also a fundamental concept in Roman surveying and city planning. The cardo was the main north-south street of a town, the surveying of which was attended by augural procedures that aligned terrestrial and celestial space. The cardo was also a principle in the layout of the Roman army's marching camp, the gates of which were aligned with the cardinal points to the extent that the terrain permitted.[13]

Carna and the Bean-Kalends

Macrobius[14] (5th century) says that the name Carna was derived from caro, carnis, "flesh, meat, food" (compare English "carnal" and "carnivore"), and that she was the guardian of the heart and the vital parts of the human body. The power to avert vampiric striges, which Ovid attributes to the conflated Cardea-Carna, probably belonged to Carna, while the charms fixed on doorposts are rightly Cardea's.[15]

Carna's feast day was marked as nefastus on the calendar; that is, it was a public holiday when no assembly or court could convene. Mashed beans and lard — a dish perhaps to be compared to refried beans or hoppinjohn[16]— were offered to her as res divinae, and thus the day was known as the Kalendae fabariae, the Bean-Kalends, since at this time the bean harvest matured. Beans had many magico-religious properties in ancient Greece and Rome in addition to their importance as a food crop.[17]

William Warde Fowler took Carna to be an archaic goddess whose cult had not been revivified by religious innovation or reform and thus had lapsed into obscurity by the end of the Republic.[18] Auguste Bouché-Leclercq considered Carna a goddess of health.[19] Her elusive nature is indicated by the wildly divergent scholarly conjectures she has prompted: "she was considered a chthonic divinity by Wissowa, a lunar goddess by Pettazzoni, a bean-goddess by Latte, and a patroness of digestion by Dumézil".[20]

In Ovid's Fasti

The rape of Cranaë

In the Fasti of Ovid, the nymph Cranaë is raped by Janus, a god otherwise portrayed by the poet as avuncular and wise.[21] As a poetic work of art, the Fasti is a unique fabrication blending authentic folklore, antiquarian knowledge, and fictional elaboration. It has been interpreted as Ovid's challenge to the prevailing orthodoxy of Augustus's religious reforms, which were often innovations of Imperial propaganda under the cloak of archaic revivalism.[22]

Ovid begins by noting that the first day of the month is dedicated to Carna. He then identifies her as the goddess of the hinge, who is elsewhere known as Cardea, a name Ovid does not use: "By means of her divine presence (numen) she opens things that have been closed, and closes things that have been opened." The source of her powers (vires) have become obscured by time (aevum), but he promises that his poem (carmen) will clarify the matter (6.101–104).

The setting is the sacred grove (lucus) of the otherwise unknown god Alernus, for whom, Ovid claims, the state priests still carry out sacra, sacred rites. The nymph named at that time Cranaë was born there. She was a huntress, often mistaken for the "sister of Phoebus," that is, Diana, except that she used hunting javelins and nets rather than a bow and arrow. When her many would-be lovers attempted to seduce her, she demurred claiming lack of privacy, and played the same trick on each one: "lead the way to a secluded cave, and I'll follow." As the gullible youth went ahead, Cranaë held back until she was camouflaged among the bushes (6.105–118).

Janus too was seized by desire for the nymph. She responded to his sweet-talk (verbis mollibus) by attempting the same ruse; however, as Ovid points out in a characteristic moment of comedy and cruelty colliding, the two faces of Janus allow him to see what goes on behind, and Cranaë was unable to elude him. She was powerless (nil agis, "you can do nothing," the poet repeats twice); the god "occupies her with his embrace," and after overpowering her to achieve his goal, treats the encounter as contractual: "In exchange for our intercourse (pro concubitu), the right (ius) of the hinge will be yours; take that as payment for the virginity you deposited" (6.119–128).

As a pledge, he gives her the whitethorn, or hawthorn, which has the power to repel injurious influences from the entrances to houses (6.129–130). This is the "hinge" or turning point of the unnamed Cardea's transformation from a maiden nymph of the wild to a goddess who polices the threshold or boundaries (limina) of domesticity.[23] The tale of Cranaë's rape, though stocked by Roman rather than Greek figures, would be not out of place in Ovid's Metamorphoses: the heroine doesn't change into a tree, but her transformation resides in the token of the whitethorn tree.[24]

Carna and the striges

The aition of the whitethorn explains why, Ovid says, a branch or twig of it is used to repel tristes … noxas, "baleful harms," from doorways (fores). Why is this necessary? Because there are greedy winged creatures ready to fly in and suck the blood from sleeping infants so young they still take only breast milk.[25] Ovid describes these creatures (6.131–142) as having a large head, prominent eyes, and beaks suited for snatching and carrying off; their wings are white, and their talons are like hooks. They are given the name striges, singular strix, the word for an owl as a bird of evil omen and supposedly derived from the verb strideo, stridere, "shriek." At the same time, Ovid says that they are the winged creatures who tormented the marooned Phineus by stealing the food off his table — that is, the Harpies. They are a "disconcerting composite" that recalls images on certain curse tablets, one of which shows a "heart-feasting Hecate" that matches Ovid's description.[26][27] The poet himself emphasizes that it's hard to tell what they really are, whether they were born as birds, or whether they had been transformed by an incantation (carmen, the word Ovid has just used to describe his own account). He then glosses carmen as "a crone's Marsian chant" (neniaque … Marsa …anūs).


  1. ^ Newlands, Carole E. (1995), Playing with Time: Ovid and the Fasti, Cornell University Press, p. 14
  2. ^ Fowler, William Warde (1908), The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic, London, p. 131.
  3. ^ Thomas Keightley, Ovid's Fasti (London, 1848, 2nd edition), p. 210.
  4. ^ McDonough (1997), "Carna, Proca, and the Strix on the Kalends of June," Transactions of the American Philological Association 127, p. 330.
  5. ^ Melissa Barden Dowling, "A Time to Regender: The Transformation of Roman Time," in Time and Uncertainty (Brill, 2004), p. 184.
  6. ^ Augustine of Hippo, De civitate Dei 4.8; Tertullian, De corona militaris 13 and De idolatria 15; Cyprian, De idolorum vanitate 4.
  7. ^ Maijastina Kahlos, Debate and Dialogue: Christian and Pagan Cultures c. 360–430 (Ashgate, 2007), p. 139.
  8. ^ Roger D. Woodard, Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult (University of Illinois Press, 2006), pp. 246–247.
  9. ^ McDonough (1997), p. 333.
  10. ^ Stefan Weinstock, "Martianus Capella and the Cosmic System of the Etruscans," Journal of Roman Studies 36 (1946), p. 106. See also René Guénon, Fundamental Symbols (Cambridge: Quinta Essentia, 1995), chapter 37, "The Solstitial Gate."
  11. ^ Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae 13.1.7: Ianuae caeli duae sunt, oriens et occasus. Nam una porta sol procedit, alia se recipit.
  12. ^ See drawings of Roman door hinges in Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities, vol. 1, p. 279
  13. ^ Alan Richardson, in a series of articles in Oxford Journal of Archaeology: "The Numerical Basis of Roman Camps," 19.4 (2000) 425–437; "The Order of Battle in the Roman Army: Evidence from Marching Camps," 20.2 (2001) 171–185; "The Orientation of Roman Camps and Forts," Oxford Journal of Archaeology 24.4 (2005) 415–426.
  14. ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.12.
  15. ^ Fowler, Festivals, pp. 131–132.
  16. ^ McDonough (1997), p. 315.
  17. ^ McDonough (1997) pp. 328–329, 339–341.
  18. ^ Fowler, Festivals, p. 130.
  19. ^ Auguste Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire de la divination dans l'antiquité (Jérôme Millon, 2003, originally published 1879–82), p. 741.
  20. ^ McDonough (1997), p. 316.
  21. ^ Ovid, Fasti 6.110ff. Riley, Thomas H. (1851) tr., Fasti, p. 214ff
  22. ^ Newlands, Playing with Time, pp. 126, 144, et passim.
  23. ^ McDonough (1997), p. 310.
  24. ^ Thomas Habinek, The World of Roman Song: From Ritualized Speech to Social Order (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), pp. 17–19.
  25. ^ For other child-stealing demons and creatures who prey on infants in the folklore of the Mediterranean world or Near East, see Lilith, Lamashtu, Gello, and Abyzou. See also Christopher A. Faraone, "The Undercutter, the Woodcutter, and Greek Demon Names Ending in -tomos (Hom. Hymn to Dem. 228–9)," American Journal of Philology 122.1 (2001) 1–10, on the "woodcutter" demon who might cause pain in the gums of teething babies.
  26. ^ McDonough (1997), pp. 324–326.
  27. ^ For the drawing, see John G. Gager, Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World (Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 181 online (also on the cover).
  • McDonough, Christopher Michael (1997). "Carna, Proca and the Strix on the Kalends of June". Transactions of the American Philological Association. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 127: 315–344. doi:10.2307/284396. JSTOR 284396
Alibi (NCIS)

"Alibi" is the eighth episode of the eleventh season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, and the 242nd episode overall. It originally aired on CBS in the United States on November 12, 2013. The episode is written by George Schenck and Frank Cardea and directed by Holly Dale, and was seen by 19.37 million viewers.


Anthelioi (Ancient Greek: Ἀνθήλιοι δαίμονες) or Antelii or Anthelii were certain divinities whose images stood before the doors of houses, and were exposed to the sun, from which they derived their name, which is literally "gods that face the sun". The sun conceptually was to animate the statues with its pneuma.These deities were similar in character to a number of other gateway-gods, including Cardea, and Apollo under the epithet Apollo Thyraeus, protector of doorways.

Cardea (DRM)

Cardea is the codename for portable version of Windows Media DRM for network devices, whose marketing name is Windows Media DRM for Network Devices (or in short form WMDRM-ND) introduced by Microsoft. It is used for streaming protected digital media across a network for immediate playback.

Janus (DRM) is a similar system for portable devices, but is used for synchronization.

Cardea (disambiguation)

Cardea may refer to:

Cardea, an ancient Roman goddess of the door-hinge.

Cardea (DRM), a codename for Microsoft Windows Media DRM

Cardea, the precursor group to San Francisco lesbian-feminist BDSM organization Samois

Cardea, an atoll of the former micronation the Republic of Minerva

Cardea, the marketing name given to a large housing development at Stanground, a suburb of Peterborough

Caryatis Cardea, former editor of the journal Sinister Wisdom

Frank Cardea, writer on the television series NCIS

Crazy Like a Fox (TV series)

Crazy Like a Fox is an American television series set in San Francisco, California, that aired on CBS from December 30, 1984 to May 3, 1986.

Enemy on the Hill

"Enemy on the Hill" is the fourth episode in the ninth season of the police procedural drama, NCIS, and the 190th episode overall. It originally aired on CBS in the United States on October 11, 2011. The episode is written by George Schenck and Frank Cardea, directed by Dennis Smith and registered 18.98 million viewers following airing.

George Schenck

George Schenck is an American screenwriter. His credits include Futureworld, the TV-movie The Phantom of Hollywood and numerous episodes of NCIS.

Schenck became an executive producer during NCIS season nine. As of October 4, 2016, Schenck had written 43 episodes of NCIS. Schenck and Frank Cardea were named co-showrunners in October 2016 following the death of Gary Glasberg.

Linda Hudson

Linda Parker Hudson is an American businesswoman, currently the Chairman & CEO of The Cardea Group and former President and CEO of BAE Systems Inc. and Chief Operating Officer, BAE Systems plc.

She currently serves on the board of directors for Bank of America and Ingersoll Rand.

NCIS (season 14)

The fourteenth season of the American police procedural drama NCIS premiered on September 20, 2016, in the same time slot as in the previous seasons, Tuesdays at 8 pm. The season concluded on May 16, 2017.

NCIS revolves around a fictional team of special agents from the Naval Criminal Investigative Service, which conducts criminal investigations involving the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. The series was renewed for fourteenth and fifteenth seasons by CBS on Monday, February 29, 2016.

Need to Know (NCIS)

"Need to Know" is the 17th episode of the ninth season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, and the 203rd episode overall. It originally aired on CBS in the United States on February 28, 2012. The episode is written by George Schenck & Frank Cardea and directed by Michelle MacLaren, and was seen by 18.20 million viewers.In the episode, a Chief Petty Officer is murdered right before Gibbs' eyes when he is about to reveal information connected to an international arms dealer.

Playing with Fire (NCIS)

"Playing With Fire" is the 22nd episode of the ninth season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, and the 208th episode overall. It aired on CBS in the United States on May 1, 2012. The episode was written by George Schenck and Frank Cardea and directed by Dennis Smith, and was seen by 17.58 million viewers.

Prime Suspect (NCIS)

"Prime Suspect" is the 17th episode of the tenth season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, and the 227th episode overall. It originally aired on CBS in the United States on March 5, 2013. The episode is written by George Schenck and Frank Cardea and directed by James Whitmore, Jr., and was seen by 20.81 million viewers.Gibbs tries to help clear his barber's son's name after the barber suspects his son may be a murderer. Meanwhile, Tony takes Probationary Agent Ned Dorneget on his first undercover assignment.

Revenge (NCIS)

"Revenge" is the 22nd episode of the tenth season of the American police procedural drama NCIS and the 232nd episode overall. It originally aired on CBS in the United States on April 30, 2013. The episode is written by George Schenck and Frank Cardea and directed by James Whitmore, Jr., and was seen by 18.29 million viewers.The story arc was initiated in January when secondary characters Eli David (Michael Nouri) and Jackie Vance (Paula Newsome) were killed off in a shooting at the end of "Shabbat Shalom". Subsequent episodes featured Ziva David and Leon Vance's efforts to find the killer, eventually revealed to be Eli's protégé Ilan Bodnar, and exact vengeance.

In the closing scenes of the previous episode, "Berlin", Tony and Ziva are in a car crash instigated by Bodnar. "Revenge" focuses on the team's hunt for Bodnar against the wishes of Homeland Security, culminating in Vance and Ziva finally getting closure when the latter kills him in a physical fight to the death.


Samois was a lesbian-feminist BDSM organization based in San Francisco that existed from 1978 to 1983. It was the first lesbian BDSM group in the United States. It took its name from Samois-sur-Seine, the location of the fictional estate of Anne-Marie, a lesbian dominatrix character in Story of O, who pierces and brands O. Among the co-founders were writer Pat Califia and feminist academic Gayle Rubin.

The roots of Samois were in a group called Cardea, a women's discussion group within the mixed-gender S/M group, the Society of Janus. Cardea existed from 1977 to 1978 before discontinuing, but a core of lesbian members, including Califia and Rubin, were inspired to start Samois, an exclusively lesbian BDSM group.Samois was strongly rebuked (and sometimes picketed) by Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media (WAVPM), an early anti-pornography feminist group. WAVPM, like later anti-pornography feminists, was very strongly opposed to sadomasochism, seeing it as ritualized violence against women. Samois members felt strongly that their way of practicing SM was entirely compatible with feminism, and held that the kind of feminist sexuality advocated by WAVPM was conservative and puritanical. Samois openly confronted WAVPM with their position, and the exchanges between the two groups were among the earliest battles of what later became known as the Feminist Sex Wars, with Samois being among the very earliest advocates of what came to be known as sex-positive feminism. The book Coming to Power, edited by members of the Samois group and published in 1981, was a founding work of the lesbian BDSM movement.

Samois split up in 1983 amid personal infighting; however, in 1984 Gayle Rubin went on to form another organization called The Outcasts. The Outcasts lasted until 1997, until they too split due to infighting. A breakaway group, The Exiles, is still extant as of 2012 and carries on in the tradition of Samois and The Outcasts. In 1996, Pat Califia and Robin Sweeny published an anthology titled The Second Coming: A Leatherdyke Reader that also contained historical information on The Outcasts, as well as other lesbian BDSM groups such as the Lesbian Sex Mafia and Briar Rose.

The Great Defender (TV series)

The Great Defender is an American drama television series created by Frank Renzulli. The series stars Michael Rispoli, Peter Krause, Kelly Rutherford, Rhoda Gemignani and Richard Kiley. The series aired on Fox from March 5, 1995, to July 31, 1995.

The Namesake (NCIS)

"The Namesake" is the fifth episode of the tenth season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, and the 215th episode overall. It originally aired on CBS in the United States on October 30, 2012. The episode is written by George Schenck and Frank Cardea and directed by Arvin Brown, and was seen by 18.83 million viewers.

Under the Radar (NCIS)

"Under the Radar" is the third episode of the eleventh season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, and the 237th episode overall. It originally aired on CBS in the United States on October 8, 2013. The episode is written by George Schenck and Frank Cardea and directed by Dennis Smith, and was seen by 18.33 million viewers.

Windows Media DRM

Windows Media DRM or WMDRM, is a Digital Rights Management service for the Windows Media platform. It is designed to provide delivery of audio or video content over an IP network to a PC or other playback device in such a way that the distributor can control how that content is used.

WMDRM includes the following components:

Windows Media Rights Manager (WMRM) SDK for packaging content and issuing licenses

Windows Media Format SDK (WMF SDK) for building Windows applications which support DRM and the Windows Media format

Windows Media DRM for Portable Devices (WMDRM-PD) for supporting offline playback on portable devices (Janus)

Windows Media DRM for Network Devices (WMDRM-ND) for streaming protected content to devices attached to a home network (Cardea)Windows Media DRM was replaced in Windows 10 Anniversary Update in favor of Microsoft PlayReady.

You Better Watch Out (NCIS)

"You Better Watch Out" is the tenth episode of the tenth season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, and the 220th episode overall. It originally aired on CBS in the United States on December 18, 2012. The episode is written by George Schenck and Frank Cardea and directed by Tony Wharmby, and was seen by 19.59 million viewers.

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