Carbonation is the chemical reaction of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.[1] In chemistry, the term is sometimes used in place of carboxylation, which refers to the formation of carboxylic acids.

In inorganic chemistry and geology, carbonation is common. Metal hydroxides (MOH) and metal oxides (M'O) react with CO2 to give bicarbonates and carbonates:

MOH + CO2 → M(HCO3)
M'O + CO2 → M'CO3

In reinforced concrete construction, the chemical reaction between carbon dioxide in the air and calcium hydroxide and hydrated calcium silicate in the concrete is known as neutralisation.

Henry's law

Henry's law states that PCO2=KBxCO2 where PCO2 is the partial pressure of CO2 gas above the solution. KB is Henry's law constant. KB increases as temperature increases. xCO2 is the mole fraction of CO2 gas in the solution. According to Henry's law carbonation increases in a solution as temperature decreases.[2]


  1. ^ "Impregnation or treatment with carbon dioxide; conversion into a carbonate."Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2018.
  2. ^ "Henry's Law". ChemEngineering. Tangient LLC. Retrieved 7 November 2017.

Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world. It is also the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is also commonly available on draught, particularly in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. The strength of modern beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV), although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above.Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games.

Candi sugar

Candi sugar is a Belgian sugar product commonly used in brewing beer. It is particularly associated with stronger Belgian style ales such as dubbel and tripel. Chemically, it is an unrefined sugar beet derived sugar which has been subjected to Maillard reaction and caramelization. A common misconception is to consider this is the same as invert sugar while actual candi sugar is a subject of multiple complicated chemical reactions happening during the Maillard process.Also used as a priming sugar, to aid in bottle-conditioning, and carbonation, with the same benefits as listed above.

Carbonated water

Carbonated water (also known as soda water, sparkling water or, especially in the U.S., seltzer or seltzer water) is water containing dissolved carbon dioxide gas, either artificially injected under pressure or occurring due to natural geological processes. Carbonation causes small bubbles to form, giving the water an effervescent quality. Common forms include sparkling natural mineral water, club soda, and commercially produced sparkling water.Club soda, sparkling mineral water, seltzer and many other sparkling waters contain added or dissolved minerals such as potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate, or potassium sulfate. These occur naturally in some mineral waters but are also commonly added artificially to manufactured waters to mimic a natural flavor profile. Various carbonated waters are sold in bottles and cans, with some also produced on demand by commercial carbonation systems in bars and restaurants, or made at home using a carbon dioxide cartridge.It is thought the first person to aerate water with carbon dioxide was William Brownrigg in 1740, although he never published a paper. Carbonated water was independently accidentally invented by Joseph Priestley in 1767 when he discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide after suspending a bowl of water above a beer vat at a brewery in Leeds, England. He wrote of the "peculiar satisfaction" he found in drinking it, and in 1772 he published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air. Priestley’s apparatus, which featured a bladder between the generator and the absorption tank to regulate the flow of carbon dioxide, was soon joined by a wide range of others. However, it wasn’t until 1781 that carbonated water began being produced on a large scale with the establishment of companies specialized in producing artificial mineral water. The first factory was built by Thomas Henry of Manchester, England. Henry replaced the bladder in Priestley’s system with large bellows.While Priestley is regarded as "the father of the soft drink", he did not benefit financially from his invention. He did however receive scientific recognition when the Council of the Royal Society "were moved to reward its discoverer with the Copley Medal" in 1772.


Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide. The opposite reaction is decarboxylation. In chemistry, the term carbonation is sometimes used synonymously with carboxylation, especially when applied to the reaction of carbanionic reagents with CO2. More generally, carbonation usually describes the production of carbonates.

Concrete degradation

Concrete degradation may have various causes. Concrete can be damaged by fire, aggregate expansion, sea water effects, bacterial corrosion, calcium leaching, physical damage and chemical damage (from carbonatation, chlorides, sulfates and non-distilled water). This process adversely affects concrete exposed to these damaging stimuli.

Ginger ale

Ginger ale is a carbonated soft drink flavoured with ginger. It is consumed on its own or used as a mixer, often with spirit-based drinks. There are two main types of ginger ale. The golden style is credited to the Irish doctor Thomas Joseph Cantrell. The dry style (also called the pale style), a paler drink with a much milder ginger flavour, was created by Canadian John McLaughlin.

Glenbrook, Lake County, California

Glenbrook (formerly, Glenbrook Resort) is an unincorporated community in Lake County, California. It is located 10 miles (16 km) south-southeast of Kelseyville, at an elevation of 2293 feet (699 m).A post office operated at Glenbrook from 1877 to 1911.Astorg Spring (also called Tunnel Spring) is located 1 mile (1.6 km) southeast of Glenbrook. Water from this disused mining shaft was sent by tanker to San Francisco for carbonation and distribution to the public.

Green Spot (soft drink)

Green Spot is a non-carbonated non-caffeinated orange-based soft drink that is sold in Venezuela, Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

Developed in 1934 in the United States after the introduction of Orangeade, the brand established operations in Thailand in 1954. While the brand is no longer popular in the United States, the current brand is now focused on the Asian market.

Formerly only available in bottles, Green Spot is now also sold in a 325 ml can with carbonation (fizz).

Green Spot was once popular in Hong Kong, but it has since ceased to sell their bottle drinks and Tetra Pak boxes are sold in small quantities. The soft drink was for sale in The Netherlands as well. In 1962 the Dutch artist Wim T. Schippers emptied a bottle in the sea near Petten. He managed to make it an international news item.


Grodziskie (Polish pronunciation: [ɡrɔˈd͡ʑiskʲɛ]; other names: Grätzer, Grodzisz) is a historical style of beer from Poland that is typically made from oak-smoked wheat malt. The beer can be described as having a clear, light golden color, high carbonation, low alcohol content, low to moderate levels of hop bitterness, and a strong smoke flavor and aroma. The taste is light and crisp, with primary flavors coming from the smoked malt, the high mineral content of the water, and the strain of yeast used to ferment the beverage. The beer was nicknamed "Polish Champagne" because of its high carbonation levels, and because it was valued as a high-quality beverage to be used for special occasions.

Grodziskie is brewed from wheat malt that has been dried by circulating oak smoke through the grains. The smokiness of the grain and the mineral profile of the water used to brew the beverage gives the style its characteristic flavor. Polish breweries historically used locally grown hops and one or two strains of brewer's yeast in its production. Before packaging, the beer is filtered to produce a bright, clear appearance. The beer is packaged before all of the fermentable sugars have been converted to alcohol by the yeast, earlier in the process than is typical in beers. Fermentation continues after packaging, and the carbon dioxide that is produced remains dissolved in the beer, resulting in a very high level of carbonation in the final product.

The beer was originally produced by brewers in the town of Grodzisk Wielkopolski in the 14th or 15th century. Strict regulations regarding the quality of the beer were established by the local brewers' guild, and helped it develop a good reputation in the surrounding cities and neighboring countries. At the peak of its fame, it was exported to 37 countries and was regarded as an exceptionally good beer. The brewing industry in the town flourished. After the Second World War, beer production was nationalized, and the beer entered a period of decline under the Communist government of Poland. By 1993, the last brewery that was producing the style was shut down. After a period of years when the style was not available from any commercial brewers, several breweries began producing seasonal or year-round recreations of the historic style, spurred by interest in the style from the homebrewing community around the world.


Homebrewing is the brewing of beer, mead, and ciders on a small scale for personal, non-commercial purposes. Supplies, such as kits and fermentation tanks, can be purchased locally at specialty stores or online. Alcohol has been brewed on the domestic level since its advent, thousands of years prior to its commercial production, although its legality has varied according to local regulation. In the United States, a permit is required to distill spirits such as moonshine.

Hydraulic lime

Hydraulic lime (HL) is a general term for varieties of lime (calcium oxide), or slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), used to make lime mortar which set through hydration. These contrast with varieties of air lime, the other common types of lime mortar, which set through carbonation (re-absorbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air).

Hydraulic lime provides a faster initial set and higher compressive strength than air lime and eminently hydraulic lime will set in more extreme conditions including under water.

The terms hydraulic lime and hydrated lime are quite similar and may be confused but are not necessarily the same material: hydrated lime is any lime which has been slaked whether it sets through hydration, carbonation, or both.

Calcium reacts in the lime kiln with the clay minerals to produce silicates that enable some of the lime to set through hydration; any unreacted calcium is slaked to calcium hydroxide which sets through carbonation: These are sometimes called semi-hydraulic lime and include the classifications feebly and moderately hydraulic lime, NHL 2 and NHL 3.5.


Perrier ( PERR-ee-ay, also US: -⁠AY, French: [pɛʁje]) is a French brand of natural bottled mineral water captured at the source in Vergèze, located in the Gard département. Perrier is best known for its naturally occurring carbonation, distinctive green bottle, and higher levels of carbonation than its peers.

Perrier was part of the Perrier Vittel Group SA, which became Nestlé Waters France after the acquisition of the company by Nestlé in 1992. Nestlé Waters France also includes Vittel, S.Pellegrino and Contrex.


Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation. Phenolphthalein is often used as an indicator in acid–base titrations. For this application, it turns colorless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions. It belongs to the class of dyes known as phthalein dyes.

Phenolphthalein is slightly soluble in water and usually is dissolved in alcohols for use in experiments. It is a weak acid, which can lose H+ ions in solution. The phenolphthalein molecule is colorless, and the phenolphthalein ion is pink. When a base is added to the phenolphthalein, the equilibrium shifts, leading to more ionization as H+ ions are removed. This is predicted by Le Chatelier's principle.

Premix and postmix

Premix and postmix are two methods of serving – usually carbonated – soft drinks that are alternatives to bottles and cans.


SJORA is a light-tasting drink available in Mango Peach and Tropical Pineapple flavors, both in regular and diet versions, that was introduced in 2007 by Nestlé.

All flavors contain no high fructose corn syrup, caffeine, or carbonation, and are made with natural flavors. The regular version is made with all natural ingredients, while the diet version contains an artificial sweetener to reduce caloric content. Containing 10% milk and 5% juice, the beverage has a uniquely smooth texture.

This beverage is currently being tested at Mad Greens restaurant locations throughout Colorado.


SodaStream International Ltd. is an Israel-based manufacturing company best known as the maker of the consumer home carbonation product of the same name. The device, like a soda syphon, carbonates water by adding carbon dioxide from a pressurized cylinder to create soda water (or carbonated water) to drink. The company also sells more than 100 types of concentrated syrups and flavourings to make carbonated drinks. It now distributes in 80,000 individual retail stores across 45 countries.The company was founded in 1903 in England. After the company merged with Soda-Club in 1998, it was relaunched with an emphasis on healthier drinks. It went public on the NASDAQ stock exchange in November 2010. SodaStream is headquartered in Lod, Israel and has 13 production plants. In August 2018, SodaStream agreed to be acquired by PepsiCo for $3.2 billion. PepsiCo was attracted to the company, due to its technological innovations, and a desire to move into providing more healthy products.Until 2015 its principal manufacturing facility was located in the Mishor Adumim industrial park in the West Bank, creating controversy and a boycott campaign. In October 2015, under pressure from BDS activists, SodaStream closed its factory in Ma'ale Adumim, and moved to a new facility in Lehavim, and was therefore forced to lay off more than 500 Palestinian workers.

Swizzle stick

A swizzle stick is a small stick used to stir drinks. The original swizzle sticks were created in the 18th century at a rum plantation in the West Indies using the branch of the Quararibea turbinata (also known as the "Swizzle stick tree"). In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, stir sticks made of glass were created to shake out the bubbles from champagne, whose carbonation caused indigestion for some drinkers.

Swizzle sticks became particularly ornate with the advent of themed establishments such as the tiki bar and are sometimes kept as a souvenir or collected.

Talc carbonate

Talc carbonates are a suite of rock and mineral compositions found in metamorphosed ultramafic rocks.

The term refers to the two most common end-member minerals found within ultramafic rocks which have undergone talc-carbonation or carbonation reactions: talc and the carbonate mineral magnesite.

Talc carbonate mineral assemblages are controlled by temperature and pressure of metamorphism and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide within metamorphic fluids, as well as by the composition of the host rock.


Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms. Weathering occurs in situ (on site), that is, in the same place, with little or no movement, and thus should not be confused with erosion, which involves the movement of rocks and minerals by agents such as water, ice, snow, wind, waves and gravity and then being transported and deposited in other locations.

Two important classifications of weathering processes exist – physical and chemical weathering; each sometimes involves a biological component. Mechanical or physical weathering involves the breakdown of rocks and soils through direct contact with atmospheric conditions, such as heat, water, ice and pressure. The second classification, chemical weathering, involves the direct effect of atmospheric chemicals or biologically produced chemicals also known as biological weathering in the breakdown of rocks, soils and minerals. While physical weathering is accentuated in very cold or very dry environments, chemical reactions are most intense where the climate is wet and hot. However, both types of weathering occur together, and each tends to accelerate the other. For example, physical abrasion (rubbing together) decreases the size of particles and therefore increases their surface area, making them more susceptible to chemical reactions. The various agents act in concert to convert primary minerals (feldspars and micas) to secondary minerals (clays and carbonates) and release plant nutrient elements in soluble forms.

The materials left over after the rock breaks down combined with organic material creates soil. The mineral content of the soil is determined by the parent material; thus, a soil derived from a single rock type can often be deficient in one or more minerals needed for good fertility, while a soil weathered from a mix of rock types (as in glacial, aeolian or alluvial sediments) often makes more fertile soil. In addition, many of Earth's landforms and landscapes are the result of weathering processes combined with erosion and re-deposition.

Types of compounds
Related branches of chemistry


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