Carbonated water

Carbonated water (also known as soda water, sparkling water or, especially in the U.S., seltzer or seltzer water) is water containing dissolved carbon dioxide gas, either artificially injected under pressure or occurring due to natural geological processes. Carbonation causes small bubbles to form, giving the water an effervescent quality. Common forms include sparkling natural mineral water, club soda, and commercially produced sparkling water.[1]

Club soda, sparkling mineral water, seltzer and many other sparkling waters contain added or dissolved minerals such as potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate, or potassium sulfate. These occur naturally in some mineral waters but are also commonly added artificially to manufactured waters to mimic a natural flavor profile. Various carbonated waters are sold in bottles and cans, with some also produced on demand by commercial carbonation systems in bars and restaurants, or made at home using a carbon dioxide cartridge.

It is thought the first person to aerate water with carbon dioxide was William Brownrigg in 1740, although he never published a paper.[2] Carbonated water was independently accidentally invented by Joseph Priestley in 1767 when he discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide after suspending a bowl of water above a beer vat at a brewery in Leeds, England.[3] He wrote of the "peculiar satisfaction" he found in drinking it, and in 1772 he published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air.[4][5] Priestley’s apparatus, which featured a bladder between the generator and the absorption tank to regulate the flow of carbon dioxide, was soon joined by a wide range of others. However, it wasn’t until 1781 that carbonated water began being produced on a large scale with the establishment of companies specialized in producing artificial mineral water.[3] The first factory was built by Thomas Henry of Manchester, England.[3] Henry replaced the bladder in Priestley’s system with large bellows.[3]

While Priestley is regarded as "the father of the soft drink", he did not benefit financially from his invention.[3] He did however receive scientific recognition when the Council of the Royal Society "were moved to reward its discoverer with the Copley Medal" in 1772.[6]

Drinking glass 00118
A glass of sparkling water
External audio
“Fizzy Water”, Distillations Podcast Episode 217, Science History Institute


Natural and manufactured carbonated waters may contain a small amount of sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium sulfate, or disodium phosphate, depending on the product. These occur naturally in mineral waters but are added artificially to commercially produced waters to mimic a natural flavor profile.

Artesian wells in such places as Mihalkovo in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains, Medžitlija in North Macedonia, and most notably in Selters in the German Taunus mountains, produce naturally effervescent mineral waters.[7]

Health effects

By itself, carbonated water appears to have little impact on health.[8] While carbonated water is somewhat acidic, this acidity can be partially neutralized by saliva.[9] A study found that sparkling mineral water is slightly more erosive to teeth than non-carbonated water but is about 100 times less erosive to teeth than soft drinks are and only slightly more erosive then tap water. A 2017 study, by the American Dental Association showed that although seltzer water is more erosive than tap water, it would take over 100 years of daily drinking to cause damage to human teeth. However, if there is added sugar or artificial flavoring this does not apply. Natural flavoring will have minimal to no impact on human teeth.[10]

Carbonated water may increase irritable bowel syndrome symptoms of bloating and gas due to the release of carbon dioxide in the digestive tract.[11] It does not appear to have an effect on gastroesophageal reflux disease.[12] There is tentative evidence that carbonated water may help with constipation among people who have had a stroke.[13]

Carbonated water such as club soda or sparkling water is defined in US law as a food of minimal nutritional value, even if minerals, vitamins, or artificial sweeteners have been added to it.[14]


Bonds in carbonic acid are more easily broken at high temperatures resulting in the generation of water and gaseous carbon dioxide. Thus sparkling water at lower temperatures (far right) holds more carbonation than at high (far left).[15]

Carbon dioxide gas dissolved in water at a low concentration (0.2–1.0%) creates carbonic acid (H2CO3)[16] according to the following reaction:

The acid gives carbonated water a slightly tart flavor. The pH level between 3 and 4[17] is approximately in between apple juice and orange juice in acidity, but much less acidic than the acid in the stomach. A normal, healthy human body maintains pH equilibrium via acid–base homeostasis and will not be materially adversely affected by consumption of plain carbonated water.[11] Alkaline salts, such as sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, or potassium citrate, will increase pH.

The amount of a gas that can be dissolved in water is described by Henry's Law. In the carbonization process, water is chilled, optimally to just above freezing, to maximize the amount of carbon dioxide that can be dissolved in it. Higher gas pressure and lower temperature cause more gas to dissolve in the liquid. When the temperature is raised or the pressure is reduced (as happens when a container of carbonated water is opened), carbon dioxide effervesces, thereby escaping from the solution.


PSM V05 D400 Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley pioneered a method of carbonation in the 18th century

Many alcoholic drinks, such as beer, wine and champagne, were naturally carbonated through the fermentation process for centuries. In 1662 Christopher Merret was creating 'sparkling wine'.[18] William Brownrigg was apparently the first to produce artificial carbonated water, in the early 1740s, by using carbon dioxide taken from mines.[19] In 1750 the Frenchman Gabriel François Venel also produced artificial carbonated water, though he misunderstood the nature of the gas that caused the carbonation.[20] In 1764, Irish chemist Dr. Macbride infused water with carbon dioxide as part of a series of experiments on fermentation and putrefaction.[21][22] In 1766 Henry Cavendish devised an aerating apparatus that would inspire Joseph Priestley to carry out his own experiments with regards to carbonated waters.[23] Cavendish was also aware of Brownrigg's observations at this time and published a paper on his own experiments on a nearby source of mineral water at the beginning of January in the next year.[24]

Priestley Joseph pneumatic trough
Equipment used by Priestley in his experiments on gases and the carbonation of water

In 1767, Joseph Priestley discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide when he suspended a bowl of water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds, England.[25][26] The air blanketing the fermenting beer—called 'fixed air'—was known to kill mice suspended in it. Priestley found water thus treated had a pleasant taste, and he offered it to friends as a cool, refreshing drink. At that time, as even now, sodium bicarbonate was used in medicines and for making baking powder. Known as 'soda bicarb', it was produced by bubbling carbon-dioxide through a solution of sodium carbonate obtained from the ashes of plants. In 1772, Priestley published a paper titled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he describes dripping "oil of vitriol" (sulfuric acid) onto chalk to produce carbon dioxide gas, and encouraging the gas to dissolve into an agitated bowl of water.[4] Priestley referred to his invention of soda water as being his "happiest" discovery.[27]

Priestley’s apparatus, which featured a bladder between the generator and the absorption tank to regulate the flow of carbon dioxide, was soon joined by a wide range of others, but it wasn’t until 1781 that carbonated water began being produced on a large scale with the establishment of companies specialized in producing artificial mineral water.[3] The first factory was built by Thomas Henry of Manchester, England.[3] Henry replaced the bladder in Priestley’s system with large bellows.[3] J. J. Schweppe developed a process to manufacture bottled carbonated mineral water based on the discovery of Priestley, founding the Schweppes Company in Geneva in 1783. Schweppes regards Priestley as “the father of our industry”.[28] In 1792 he moved to London to develop the business there. In 1799 Augustine Thwaites founded Thwaites' Soda Water in Dublin. A London Globe article claims that this company was the first to patent and sell "Soda Water" under that name.[29] The name soda water arose from the observation by Richard Bewley, an 18th-century English chemist from Norfolk, that the addition of a little sodium carbonate to the water greatly facilitated the absorption of carbon dioxide.[30]

Modern carbonated water is made by injecting pressurized carbon dioxide into water. The pressure increases the solubility and allows more carbon dioxide to dissolve than would be possible under standard atmospheric pressure. When the bottle is opened, the pressure is released, allowing gas to exit the solution, forming the characteristic bubbles.


Belfast Evening Post, August 7, 1786
Belfast Evening Post, Belfast, Ireland, August 7, 1786

In the United States, carbonated water was known as soda water until World War II, due to the sodium salts it contained. These were added as flavoring and acidity regulators with the intent of mimicking the taste of natural mineral water. During the Great Depression, it was sometimes called "two cents plain", a reference to its being the cheapest drink at soda fountains (i.e. without the addition of three cents' worth of flavored syrup).

In the 1950s, terms such as sparkling water and seltzer water gained favor. The term seltzer water is a genericized trademark that derives from the German town Selters, which is renowned for its mineral springs.[31] Naturally carbonated water, Selters, has been commercially bottled and shipped from this town since the 18th century or earlier. Generally, seltzer water has no added sodium salts, while club soda still retains some of the sodium salts that once were used. The term "Seltzer water" is virtually unknown in Britain and most Commonwealth countries, although Australians of a certain age remember Selza Saline powder in metal tins with lids which had to be opened for each use with the back of a spoon, sold during the 1950s.[32]

In the United Kingdom and Canada today, drink mixers sold as soda water or club soda contain bicarbonate of soda, which gives them a specific flavor and differentiates them from carbonated water. It is popularly used for mixed drinks such as whiskey and soda and Campari soda.

Products for carbonating water


Soda siphons

A soda siphon circa 1922

The soda siphon, or seltzer bottle—a glass or metal pressure vessel with a release valve and spout for dispensing pressurized soda water—was a common sight in bars and in early- to mid-20th-century homes where it became a symbol of middle-class affluence.

The gas pressure in a siphon drives soda water up through a tube inside the siphon when a valve lever at the top is depressed. Commercial soda siphons came pre-charged with water and gas, and were returned to the retailer for exchange when empty. A deposit scheme ensured they were not otherwise thrown away.

Home soda siphons can carbonate flat water through the use of a small disposable steel bulb containing carbon dioxide. The bulb is pressed into the valve assembly at the top of the siphon, the gas injected, then the bulb withdrawn. Soda water made in this way tends not to be as carbonated as commercial soda water because water from the refrigerator is not chilled as much as possible, and the pressure of carbon dioxide is limited to that available from the cartridge rather than the high-pressure pumps in a commercial carbonation plant.


Late Victorian seltzogene made by British Syphon

The gasogene (or gazogene, or seltzogene) is a late Victorian device for producing carbonated water. It consists of two linked glass globes: the lower contained water or other drink to be made sparkling, the upper a mixture of tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate that reacts to produce carbon dioxide. The produced gas pushes the liquid in the lower container up a tube and out of the device. The globes are surrounded by a wicker or wire protective mesh, as they have a tendency to explode.[33]

Codd-neck bottles

Codd-neck Soda Water Bottle from Kerala
The Codd-neck bottle's special shape is designed to contain a marble which seals in the carbonation.

In 1872, British soft drink maker Hiram Codd of Camberwell, London, designed and patented the Codd-neck bottle, designed specifically for carbonated drinks. The Codd-neck bottle encloses a marble and a rubber washer/gasket in the neck. The bottles were filled upside down, and pressure of the gas in the bottle forced the marble against the washer, sealing in the carbonation. The bottle was pinched into a special shape to provide a chamber into which the marble was pushed to open the bottle. This prevented the marble from blocking the neck as the drink was poured.

Soon after its introduction, the bottle became extremely popular with the soft drink and brewing industries mainly in Europe, Asia and Australasia, though some alcohol drinkers disdained the use of the bottle. One etymology of the term codswallop originates from beer sold in Codd bottles, though this is generally dismissed as a folk etymology.[34]

The bottles were regularly produced for many decades, but gradually declined in usage. Since children smashed the bottles to retrieve the marbles, they are relatively rare and have become collector items, particularly in the UK. They could be found at retail shops and restaurants in many parts of the world until recently. Due to the risk of explosion and injuries from fragmented glass pieces, use of this type of bottle is no longer encouraged in most countries. The Codd-neck design is still used for the Japanese soft drink Ramune and in the Indian drink called Banta.

Soda makers

A typical all-in-one soda maker for home use found in supermarkets. A refillable carbon dioxide canister and a high pressure bottle are often included.

Soda makers or soda carbonators are appliances that carbonate water with multiple-use carbon dioxide canisters. Soda makers may reach a higher level of carbonation than home soda siphons. A variety of systems are produced by manufacturers and hobbyists.[35][36] The commercial units may be sold with concentrated syrup for making flavored soft drinks.

One major producer of soda carbonators is SodaStream. Their products were popular during the 1970s and 1980s in the United Kingdom, and are associated with nostalgia for that period and have experienced a comeback in the 2000s.[37][38]


Soda gun
A modern bar soda gun

The process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water is called carbonation. Commercial soda water in siphons is made by chilling filtered plain water to 8 °C (46 °F) or below, optionally adding a sodium or potassium based alkaline compound such as sodium bicarbonate to reduce acidity, and then pressurizing the water with carbon dioxide. The gas dissolves in the water, and a top-off fill of carbon dioxide is added to pressurize the siphon to approximately 120 pounds per square inch (830 kPa), some 30 to 40 psi (210–280 kPa) higher than is present in fermenting champagne bottles.

In many modern restaurants and drinking establishments, soda water is manufactured on-site using devices known as carbonators. Carbonators use mechanical pumps to pump water into a pressurized chamber where it is combined with CO
from pressurized tanks at approximately 100 psi (690 kPa). The pressurized, carbonated water then flows to taps or to mixing heads where it is then mixed with flavorings as it is dispensed.


Carbonated beverages

Carbonated water is a key ingredient in soft drinks: sweet beverages that typically consist of carbonated water, a sweetener and a flavoring, such as cola, root beer, or orange soda. Plain carbonated water is often consumed as an alternative to soft drinks; some brands, such as La Croix, produce unsweetened seltzer products that are lightly flavored by the addition of aromatic ingredients such as essential oils.[39][40] Carbonated water is often consumed mixed with fruit juice, or infused with flavor by the addition of cut-up fresh fruit or mint leaves.[41]

Alcoholic beverages

Carbonated water is a diluent mixed with alcoholic beverages where it is used to top-off the drink and provide a degree of 'fizz'.

Adding soda water to 'short' drinks such as spirits dilutes them and makes them 'long' not to be confused with long drinks such as those made with vermouth. Carbonated water also works well in short drinks made with whiskey, brandy, and Campari. Soda water may be used to dilute drinks based on cordials such as orange squash. Soda water is a necessary ingredient in many cocktails, such as whiskey and soda or Campari and soda.


Carbonated water is increasingly popular in cooking to provide a lighter texture to doughs and batters as compared to regular water. Kevin Ryan, a food scientist at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, says the effervescent bubbles when mixed with dough provide a light texture, as in tempura. Pockets of carbon dioxide gas are introduced into the dough and further expand when cooking.[42]

Stain remover

The popular belief that carbonated water is a good remover of clothing stains, particularly those of red wine, is based on hearsay and anecdotal evidence. The dissolved gas in water acts as a temporary surfactant. There is no underlying chemical reason why carbonated water would be superior to plain water in stain removal.[43]

See also


  1. ^ Twilley, Nicola; Graber, Cynthia (13 December 2016). "The Medical Origins of Seltzer". The Atlantic. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  2. ^ Homan, Peter Gerald (22 September 2007). "Aerial Acid: A short history of artificial mineral waters" (PDF).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Schils, René (2011). How James Watt Invented the Copier: Forgotten Inventions of Our Great Scientists. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 36.
  4. ^ a b Priestley, Joseph (1772). "Impregnating Water with Fixed Air, Page 7". Archived from the original on 21 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  5. ^ "Our fizzy seas of soda water". The Telegraph. 21 September 2016.
  6. ^ McKie, Douglas (18 July 2013). "Joseph Priestley and The Copley Medal". Ambix. 9: 1–22. doi:10.1179/amb.1961.9.1.1.
  7. ^ "Powerful Effervescence". Summer 2008. Retrieved 2019-02-13.
  8. ^ Manual of Dietetic Practice (5 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. 2014. p. 998. ISBN 9781118760574. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  9. ^ Ireland, edited by Robert S. (2010). Advanced dental nursing (2nd ed.). Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 58. ISBN 9781405192675. Retrieved 19 June 2016.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Parry J, Shaw L, Arnaud MJ, Smith AJ (August 2001). "Investigation of mineral waters and soft drinks in relation to dental erosion". J Oral Rehabil. 28 (8): 766–72. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2842.2001.00795.x. PMID 11556958.
  11. ^ a b "Can I drink carbonated water? -". Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  12. ^ Johnson, T; Gerson, L; Hershcovici, T; Stave, C; Fass, R (March 2010). "Systematic review: the effects of carbonated beverages on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 31 (6): 607–14. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04232.x. PMID 20055784.
  13. ^ Coggrave, M; Norton, C; Cody, JD (13 January 2014). "Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD002115. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002115.pub5. PMID 24420006.
  14. ^ "Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value". Appendix B of 7 CFR Part 210. Food and Nutrition Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  15. ^ Field, Simon Quellen (2012). Culinary Reactions. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-1-56976-706-1.
  16. ^ "Carbon Dioxide in Water Equilibrium, Page 1". Retrieved 2010-07-23.
  17. ^ James Monroe Jay; Martin J. Loessner; David Allen Golden (2005). Modern food microbiology. シュプリンガー・ジャパン株式会社. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-387-23180-8.
  18. ^ T. Stevenson, ed. The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia (4th Edition) pg 169–178 Dorling Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0-7513-3740-4
  19. ^ "The "Subtile Aereal Spirit of Fountains": Mineral Waters and the History of Pneumatic Chemistry » Brill Online". Early Science and Medicine. 21 (4): 303–331. 2016-11-15. doi:10.1163/15733823-00214p02. PMID 29944255.
  20. ^ Funderburg, Anne Cooper (1995). Chocolate, Strawberry, and Vanilla. ISBN 9780879726928. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  21. ^ Funderburg, Anne Cooper (2002). "Experimental+Essays+on+Fermentation+of"#v=onepage&q=Macbride%20%22Experimental%20Essays%20on%20Fermentation%20of%22&f=false Sundae Best: A History of Soda Fountains. ISBN 9780879728540.
  22. ^ "The London Medical and Physical Journal - Google Books". 1801. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  23. ^ Homan, Peter Gerald. "AERIAL ACID: a short history of artificial mineral waters" (PDF). Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  24. ^ "XI. Experiments on Rathbone-place water". Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  25. ^ "Joseph Priestley — Discovery of Oxygen — Invention of Soda Water by Joseph Priestley". 2009-09-16. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
  26. ^ "The Man Who Discovered Oxygen and Gave the World Soda Water". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2015
  27. ^ "The Man Who Discovered Oxygen (Maybe) and Gave the World Soda Water". New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2015
  28. ^ LaMoreaux, Philip E. (2012). Springs and Bottled Waters of the World: Ancient History, Source, Occurrence, Quality and Use. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 135.
  29. ^ "Invention of Soda Water". St. John Daily Sun. London Globe. 4 January 1904. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  30. ^ Hargreaves, Anne (1993). Medicine in Northumbria: Essays on the History of Medicine in the North East of England. Pybus Society. p. 269.
  31. ^ "Definition of seltzer — Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 2007-11-07.
  32. ^ "Lemon Saline Powder - Remember That?". Retrieved 2013-08-04.
  33. ^ Mixing it up: A Look at the Evolution of the Siphon-Bottle
  34. ^ Phrase Finder is copyright Gary Martin, 1996-2016. All rights reserved. "A load of codswallop". Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  35. ^ "Making Carbonated Mineral Water". Milwaukee Makerspace. 2011-09-26.
  36. ^ "Home Carbonation System". Instructibles. 2007-07-15.
  37. ^ "Sodastream". Waitrose Food Illustrated. Waitrose. 12 September 2006. Archived from the original on 12 September 2006. Retrieved 12 September 2006.
  38. ^ David Smith (18 June 2006). "Wham! Big hair and Eighties pop make internet comeback". The Observer. Retrieved 12 September 2006.
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^ Rentschler, Kay. "Sparkling water lightens foods". Chicago Tribune. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  43. ^ Wishnok, Pete. "How does club soda remove red wine stains?". Scientific American. Retrieved 15 April 2016.

External links

Apollinaris (water)

Apollinaris is a German naturally sparkling mineral water, owned by Coca-Cola.

Buckhorn Springs, Oregon

Buckhorn Springs is an unincorporated community in Jackson County, Oregon, United States. It lies along Emigrant Creek in the Siskiyou Mountains southeast of Ashland. Buckhorn Springs Road connects the community to Oregon Route 66 near Emigrant Lake.The springs at this location are known for their cold, highly carbonated water. James C. Tolman, who acquired the property around the springs in the 1890s, built a small hotel here called Tolman Springs. Subsequent owners used the property, springs, and buildings in various ways: as a hunting retreat called Buckhorn Lodge; as a picnic stop for tourists who sometimes used the carbonated water to make soda pop; as a retreat with overnight cabins and mineral mud baths; as a health spa, as a private residence; as an inn, and after 1998 as the Buckhorn Springs Retreat Center.Buckhorn Mineral Springs Resort was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. The site covers 95 acres (38 ha) and includes many structures in addition to the main lodge.

Carbonated drink

Carbonated drinks are beverages that contain dissolved carbon dioxide. The dissolution of CO2 in a liquid, gives rise to fizz or effervescence. The process usually involves carbon dioxide under high pressure. When the pressure is removed, the carbon dioxide is released from the solution as small bubbles, which causes the solution to become effervescent, or fizzy. A common example is the dissolving of carbon dioxide in water, resulting in carbonated water. Carbon dioxide is only weakly soluble in water, therefore it separates into a gas when the pressure is released.

Carbonated beverages are prepared by mixing flavored syrup with carbonated water, both chilled. Carbonation levels range up to 5 volumes of CO2 per liquid volume. Ginger ale, colas, and related drinks are carbonated with 3.5 volumes. Other drinks, often fruity ones, are carbonated less.

Carbonated milk

Carbonated milk is milk that has been carbonated and sold for human consumption.

Although carbonated milk is not sold globally, it is a popular drink in East Asia.

Vio is a mix of flavored milk and carbonated water made by The Coca-Cola Company.

Club soda

Club soda is a manufactured form of unflavored carbonated water, commonly used as a drink mixer. Potassium bicarbonate, potassium sulfate or sodium citrate are artificially added to replicate constituents commonly found in natural mineral waters.

English chemist Joseph Priestley discovered an artificial method for producing soda water, described in a pamphlet called "Directions for Impregnating Water with Fixed Air", published in 1772. The pamphlet explained the process of dripping sulfuric acid onto chalk, which produced carbon dioxide CO2 which was captured in a bowl of agitated water. Priestley thought such carbonated water was a cure for scurvy and proposed the process to Captain James Cook to prevent scurvy during his second voyage to the South Seas. Priestley never realized the commercial potential of his product, though he did refer to it as his "happiest discovery." In 1783 Jacob Schweppe, a jeweller and amateur scientist of Geneva, began the commercial production of carbonated mineral water by dissolving the CO2 under pressure. In 1807, Benjamin Silliman, a Yale chemistry professor, began producing carbonated water under pressure and selling it in New Haven, Connecticut. In the 1830s Anyos Jedlik of Hungary opened a large-scale carbonated water factory. The original trademarked club soda was made by Cantrell & Cochrane of Dublin, Ireland in 1877. The 'club' refers to the Kildare Street Club in Dublin who commissioned them to produce it.Seltzer water is a similar manufactured carbonated water, but lacks added mineral content.

Fizz (cocktail)

A "fizz" is a mixed drink variation on the older sours family of cocktail. Its defining features are an acidic juice (such as lemon or lime) and carbonated water.

Flavored syrup

Flavored syrups typically consist of a simple syrup, that is sugar (fully mixed with water while heated), with naturally occurring or artificial (synthesized) flavorings also dissolved in them. A sugar substitute may also be used.Flavored syrups may be used or mixed with carbonated water, coffee, pancakes, waffles, tea, cake, ice cream, and other foods. There are hundreds of flavors ranging from cherry and peach to vanilla to malt, hazelnut, coconut, almond, gingerbread, chocolate, peppermint, rootbeer, and even toasted marshmallow.

In addition to food and drink, flavored syrups are commonly used in pharmaceutical compounding.


The gasogene (or gazogene or seltzogene) is a late Victorian device for producing carbonated water. It consists of two linked glass globes: the lower contained water or other drink to be made sparkling, the upper a mixture of tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate that reacts to produce carbon dioxide. The produced gas pushes the liquid in the lower container up a tube and out of the device. The globes are surrounded by a wicker or wire protective mesh, as they have a tendency to explode.The earliest occurrence of the word noted in the Oxford English Dictionary dates from 1853, quoting a reference in Practical Mechanic's Journal on "Gaillard and Dubois' 'Gazogene' or Aerated Water apparatus".


Kinley is a brand of still or carbonated water owned by The Coca-Cola Company and sold in many large European and Asian countries. Its carbonated forms are used for mixers, and also available in a variety of fruit flavors.

The Kinley brand is used by Coca-Cola for two types of drinks:

Packaged water bottle

A carbonated water with a wide array of variants: tonic, bitter lemon, ginger ale, club soda and fruit flavored. Available in Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, El Salvador, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Maldives, Moldova, Nepal, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and Zambia.Kinley Lemon was one of eight international soda flavors featured and available for tasting at Club Cool in Epcot, but was retired in October 2013.

La Croix Sparkling Water

LaCroix or La Croix (;) is an American brand of carbonated water that originated in La Crosse, Wisconsin by G. Heileman Brewing Company and is now distributed by National Beverage Corporation. Some original flavors include pamplemousse, lemon, lime, cran-raspberry, orange, coconut, berry, apricot, passionfruit, tangerine, peach-pear, mango and pure. The mixed LaCroix flavors are melon pomelo, mure pepino, pina fraise, pomme baya, coconut cola, coffea exotica, cubana and lacola.


Perrier ( PERR-ee-ay, also US: -⁠AY, French: [pɛʁje]) is a French brand of natural bottled mineral water captured at the source in Vergèze, located in the Gard département. Perrier is best known for its naturally occurring carbonation, distinctive green bottle, and higher levels of carbonation than its peers.

Perrier was part of the Perrier Vittel Group SA, which became Nestlé Waters France after the acquisition of the company by Nestlé in 1992. Nestlé Waters France also includes Vittel, S.Pellegrino and Contrex.

Soda fountain

A soda fountain is a device that dispenses carbonated soft drinks, called fountain drinks. They can be found in restaurants, concession stands and other locations such as convenience stores. The device combines flavored syrup or syrup concentrate and carbon dioxide with chilled and purified water to make soft drinks, either manually, or in a vending machine which is essentially an automated soda fountain that is operated using a soda gun. Today, the syrup often is pumped from a special container called a bag-in-box (BiB).

Fountain coke is a often confused term normally referring to a handheld dispenser behind a bar or counter that are used in many countries, including Spain, France and the United Kingdom. The term ‘fountain’ helps differentiate from, ‘machine’ cola as the fountain more easily controlled and offers more flavours.

A soda fountain is also referred to as a postmix machine in some markets. Any brand of soft drink that is available as postmix syrup may be dispensed by a fountain.

The term may also refer to a small eating establishment or lunch counter, common from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century, often inside a drugstore or other business, where a soda jerk served carbonated beverages, ice cream, and sometimes light meals. The soda jerk's fountain generally dispensed only unflavored carbonated water, to which various syrups were added by hand.

Soda syphon

The soda siphon (also spelled syphon), also known as the seltzer bottle or siphon seltzer bottle is a device for dispensing carbonated or soda water.

As early as 1790, the concept of an "aerosol" was introduced in France, with self-pressurized carbonated beverages. The modern syphon was created in 1829, when two Frenchmen patented a hollow corkscrew which could be inserted into a soda bottle and, by use of a valve, allowed a portion of the contents to be dispensed while maintaining the pressure on the inside of the bottle and preventing the remaining soda from going flat.Soda syphons were popular in the 1920s and 1930s. The rise of bottled carbonated beverages and the destruction of many of the siphon manufacturers' plants in Eastern Europe during World War II led to a decline in their popularity in the years after the war. These bottles are still commonly used in some bars to make drinks.

Commercial production and delivery of pre-filled bottles of seltzer continued in the Southern California and Eastern Seaboard regions of the U.S. into 2009. As of 2009, such delivery service continues in Argentina (nationwide), Vienna, Austria by Brauerei Ottakringer and in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. As of 2015, Coca-Cola Mexico began distributing its Ciel (beverage)-branded mineral water in 1.85 litre plastic syphon bottles with a reusable plastic head assembly.

For making single-use sealed bottles, or commercially refillable bottles in a seltzer plant, the bottles are first washed and then evacuated using a vacuum pump and a rubber hose slipped over the nozzle. The bottle with most of the air removed is then held upside-down under the surface of a tub of carbonated water, which is drawn into the bottle by the vacuum inside when the valve is opened. Sometimes a pump is used to force higher pressure into the bottle.

For portable 1 litre bottles, the head of the siphon bottle is removed for filling. A rubber seal and tube are also removed. Then about 1 litre of very cold water is added to the bottle; the bottle is not completely filled. The rubber seal, tube, and head are then reassembled. An 8-gram CO2 charger is inserted and securely screwed into a port in the head; the port has a conical seal and a hollow pin that pierces the charger and lets the gas into the bottle. When the sound of the gas bubbling into the water is heard, the bottle is shaken, then left to rest. Within seconds, the trigger pull will release seltzer water.


A spritzer is a tall, chilled drink, usually made with white wine and carbonated water or sparkling mineral water.

Sunkist (soft drink)

Sunkist is a brand of primarily orange flavored soft drinks launched in 1979.

Tonic water

Tonic water (or Indian tonic water) is a carbonated soft drink in which quinine is dissolved. Originally used as a prophylactic against malaria, tonic water usually now has a significantly lower quinine content and is consumed for its distinctive bitter flavor, though it is nowadays often sweetened as well. It is often used in mixed drinks, particularly in gin and tonic.

Vio (drink)

Vio is a beverage produced by The Coca-Cola Company consisting of milk with flavored carbonated water. The flavors are Citrus Burst, Peach Mango, Very Berry, and Tropical Colada.The drink was tested on the American market in 2009 but failed to find broad appeal although as of 2010 it was still produced in limited quantities. In 2016, Coca-Cola India launched a non-carbonated flavored milk product also named Vio. The Coca-Cola Company sells a similar product in Japan called Qoo.Time magazine included Vio in its 50 Worst Inventions list published in 2010 and in its Top 10 Bad Beverage Ideas list.

Voss (water)

Voss is a Norwegian-based brand of bottled water from the village of Vatnestrøm in Iveland municipality, Aust-Agder county. Contrary to popular belief, the water is not bottled in the municipality of Voss, which is more than 400 kilometres (250 mi) away from the actual bottling site. It is available in both still and sparkling forms.

In 2016, majority control of Voss was acquired by Reignwood Group, a Thai-Chinese company. The current Chairman of VOSS is John Shulman and the current Vice-Chairman of VOSS is Please Ruayrungruang.Voss is bottled by Voss of Norway AS, an American Limited Company headquartered in New York City. The water is marketed in over 50 countries, with a particular focus on the United States.In 2007, Women's Health magazine rated Voss first among several bottled waters by water experts. For entertainment on television, tests sponsored by Finland's national broadcasting company, Yle, three blindfolded wine experts rated Voss water lowest of the six waters tested, which included Helsinki public tap water.The company's cylindrical glass bottle was designed by Neil Kraft. Voss claims its manufacturing process is completely carbon neutral. In some countries including US, UK and Australia, VOSS still water is also packaged in plastic bottles that retain the cylindrical design.

White Claw Hard Seltzer

White Claw Hard Seltzer is an alcoholic seltzer water beverage owned by Mark Anthony Brands, who also owns Mike's Hard Lemonade. The malted beverage was introduced in 2016. It is sold under six different 100-calorie (per 12 fluid ounces), 5% ABV flavors that include Black Cherry, Ruby Grapefruit, Natural Lime, Raspberry, Mango, and Pure Hard Seltzer (unflavored). White Claw is made from a blend of seltzer water, a gluten-free alcohol base, and fruit flavor.In the summer of 2019, it was reported that White Claw accounted for over half of all total hard seltzer sales; volume sales of White Claw grew 275% over the year prior. Nielsen Media Research reported that White Claw was the top growth brand for the week of July 4, 2019.White Claw has a shelf life of about 12 months.


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