Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals. The two major types are limestone, which is composed of calcite or aragonite (different crystal forms of CaCO3) and dolostone, which is composed of the mineral dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2).
Calcite can be either dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases.
When conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures.
Karst topography and caves develop in carbonate rocks because of their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave formation.
Alkalinity (from Arabic "al-qalī") is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic. (It should not be confused with basicity which is an absolute measurement on the pH scale.) Alkalinity is the strength of a buffer solution composed of weak acids and their conjugate bases. It is measured by titrating the solution with a monoprotic acid such as HCl until its pH changes abruptly, or it reaches a known endpoint where that happens. Alkalinity is expressed in units of meq/L (milliequivalents per liter), which corresponds to the amount of monoprotic acid added as a titrant in millimoles per liter.
Although alkalinity is primarily a term invented by oceanographers, it is also used by hydrologists to describe temporary hardness. Moreover, measuring alkalinity is important in determining a stream's ability to neutralize acidic pollution from rainfall or wastewater. It is one of the best measures of the sensitivity of the stream to acid inputs. There can be long-term changes in the alkalinity of streams and rivers in response to human disturbances.Boundstone (rock)
A Boundstone is a special type of carbonate rock in the Dunham classificationCarbonate
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of CO2−3. The name may also refer to a carbonate ester, an organic compound containing the carbonate group C(=O)(O–)2.
The term is also used as a verb, to describe carbonation: the process of raising the concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in water to produce carbonated water and other carbonated beverages – either by the addition of carbon dioxide gas under pressure, or by dissolving carbonate or bicarbonate salts into the water.
In geology and mineralogy, the term "carbonate" can refer both to carbonate minerals and carbonate rock (which is made of chiefly carbonate minerals), and both are dominated by the carbonate ion, CO2−3. Carbonate minerals are extremely varied and ubiquitous in chemically precipitated sedimentary rock. The most common are calcite or calcium carbonate, CaCO3, the chief constituent of limestone (as well as the main component of mollusc shells and coral skeletons); dolomite, a calcium-magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2; and siderite, or iron(II) carbonate, FeCO3, an important iron ore. Sodium carbonate ("soda" or "natron") and potassium carbonate ("potash") have been used since antiquity for cleaning and preservation, as well as for the manufacture of glass. Carbonates are widely used in industry, e.g. in iron smelting, as a raw material for Portland cement and lime manufacture, in the composition of ceramic glazes, and more.Chalk
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells (coccoliths) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Flint (a type of chert) is very common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk. It is probably derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction. Flint is often deposited around larger fossils such as Echinoidea which may be silicified (i.e. replaced molecule by molecule by flint).
Chalk as seen in Cretaceous deposits of Western Europe is unusual among sedimentary limestones in the thickness of the beds. Most cliffs of chalk have very few obvious bedding planes unlike most thick sequences of limestone such as the Carboniferous Limestone or the Jurassic oolitic limestones. This presumably indicates very stable conditions over tens of millions of years.
Chalk has greater resistance to weathering and slumping than the clays with which it is usually associated, thus forming tall, steep cliffs where chalk ridges meet the sea. Chalk hills, known as chalk downland, usually form where bands of chalk reach the surface at an angle, so forming a scarp slope. Because chalk is well jointed it can hold a large volume of ground water, providing a natural reservoir that releases water slowly through dry seasons.Dolomite
Dolomite may refer to:
Dolomite (mineral), a carbonate mineral
Dolomite (rock), also known as dolostone, a sedimentary carbonate rock
Dolomite, Alabama, unincorporated community in Jefferson County
Dolomite, California, unincorporated community in Inyo County
Dolomites, section of the Alps
Triumph Dolomite (1934–40), sporting cars made by Triumph Motor Company
Triumph Dolomite, popular small car made by the British Leyland Corporation in the 1970s and 1980sDolomite (mineral)
Dolomite ( ) is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite. An alternative name sometimes used for the dolomitic rock type is dolostone.Dolomite (rock)
Dolomite (also known as dolostone, dolomite rock or dolomitic rock) is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. In old USGS publications, it was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolomites or magnesium-rich limestones. Dolomite has a stoichiometric ratio of nearly equal amounts of magnesium and calcium. Most dolomites formed as a magnesium replacement of limestone or lime mud before lithification. Dolomite is resistant to erosion and can either contain bedded layers or be unbedded. It is less soluble than limestone in weakly acidic groundwater, but it can still develop solution features (karst) over time. Dolomite can act as an oil and natural gas reservoir.
The term dolostone was introduced in 1948 to avoid confusion with the mineral dolomite. The usage of the term dolostone is controversial because the name dolomite was first applied to the rock during the late 18th century and thus has technical precedence. The use of the term dolostone is not recommended by the Glossary of Geology published by the American Geological Institute. It is, however, used in some geological publications.
The geological process of conversion of calcite to dolomite is known as dolomitization and any intermediate product is known as "dolomitic limestone."The "dolomite problem" refers to the vast worldwide depositions of dolomite in the past geologic record eluding a unified explanation for their formation.
The first geologist to distinguish dolomite rock from limestone was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778.Floatstone
Floatstone is a type of carbonate rock.
The original Dunham classification (Dunham, 1962) of limestones did not consider the separate classification of coarse grained carbonate lithologies. In an attempt to rectify this, Embry & Klovan (1971) introduced the terms rudstone (grain supported) and floatstone (matrix supported) for coarse-grained allochthonous limestones. This definition of a floatstone was most recently clarified as "a carbonate-dominated rock where more than 10% of the volume is grains larger than 2 mm and the fabric is supported by the component that is 2 mm and smaller".Grainstone
Under the Dunham classification (Dunham, 1962) system of limestones, a grainstone is defined as a grain-supported carbonate rock that contains less than 1% mud-grade material. This definition has recently been clarified as a carbonate-dominated rock that does not contain any carbonate mud and where less than 10% of the components are larger than 2 mm. The spaces between grains may be empty (pores) or filled by cement.Greenbrier Group
The Greenbrier Limestone, also known locally as the "Big Lime", is an extensive limestone unit deposited during the Middle Mississippian Epoch (345.3 ± 2.1 – 326.4 ± 1.6 Ma), part of the Carboniferous Period. This rock stratum is present below ground in much of West Virginia and neighboring Kentucky, and extends somewhat into adjacent western Maryland and southwestern Virginia. The name derives from the Greenbrier River in West Virginia.
Greenbrier Limestone is in some places more than 400 feet (120 metres) thick, allowing it to trap large quantities of oil and gas. Since this carbonate rock erodes quickly in the region's wet climate, outcrops are not prominent and are often quarried.
The Greenbrier Limestone is subdivided into six stratigraphic units. In ascending order, they are Denmar Limestone, Taggard Shale, Pickaway Limestone, Union Limestone, Greenville Shale, and Alderson Limestone. The limestones in this interval are predominantly skeletal grainstones or packstones. The Pickaway and especially the Union contain oolitic grainstones.
Numerous solution caves are developed within the Greenbrier Formation.Heart Mountain (Wyoming)
Heart Mountain is an 8,123-foot (2,476 m) klippe just north of Cody in the U.S. state of Wyoming, rising from the floor of the Bighorn Basin. The mountain is composed of limestone and dolomite of Ordovician through Mississippian age (about 500 to 350 million years old), but it rests on the Willwood Formation, rocks that are about 55 million years old—rock on the summit of Heart Mountain is thus almost 300 million years older than the rocks at the base. For over one hundred years, geologists have tried to understand how these older rocks came to rest on much younger strata.
The carbonate rocks that form Heart Mountain were deposited on a basement of ancient (more than 2.5 billion years old) granite when the area was covered by a large shallow tropical sea. Up until 50 million years ago, these rocks lay about 25 miles (40 kilometers) to the northwest, where the eastern Absaroka Range now stands.
Between 75 and 50 million years ago, a period of mountain-building called the Laramide Orogeny caused uplift of the Beartooth Range and subsidence of the Bighorn and Absaroka Basins. Just south of the Beartooth Range, this orogeny uplifted an elongate, somewhat lower plateau which sloped gently to the southeast toward the Bighorn Basin and to the south toward the Absaroka Basin. Immediately following this period of mountain-building, volcanic eruptions began to form the now extinct volcanoes of the Absaroka Range that lie to the south of the Beartooths and extend into Yellowstone National Park. Between 50 and 48 million years ago a sheet of rock about 500 square miles (1,300 square kilometers) in area detached from the plateau south of the Beartooths and slid tens of kilometers to the southeast and south into the Bighorn and Absaroka Basins. This sheet, consisting of Ordovician through Mississippian carbonate rocks and overlying Absaroka volcanic rocks, was probably originally about 4–5 kilometers thick. Although the slope was less than 2 degrees, the front of the landslide traveled at least 25 miles (40 km) and the slide mass ended up covering over 1,300 square miles (>3,400 km2). This is by far the largest rockslide known on land on the surface of the earth and is comparable in scale to some of the largest known submarine landslides.Many models have been proposed to explain what caused this huge slab of rocks to start sliding and what allowed it to slide so far on such a low slope, fragmenting, thinning and extending as it went. Most geologists who have worked in the area agree that Absaroka volcanism played a role in the sliding and many suggest that a major volcanic or steam explosion initiated movement. Another model involves injection of numerous igneous dikes with the resulting heating of water within pores in rocks causing an increase in pressure which initiated sliding. Some geologists have suggested that hot pressurized water (hydrothermal fluids), derived from a volcano which sat north of Cooke City, Montana, effectively lubricated the sliding surface. Another possibility is that once the slide was moving, friction heated the limestone along the sliding surface, creating pseudotachylite, which then further broke down to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide gas (or supercritical fluid). The gas supported the slide in the way that air pressure supports a hovercraft, allowing the slide to move easily down the very low slope. When the rockslide stopped, the carbon dioxide cooled and recombined with calcium oxide to form the cement-like carbonate rock now found in the fault zone. The consensus favors catastrophic sliding and calculations suggest that the front of the sliding mass may have advanced at a speed of over 100 miles/hour (160 km/h), meaning that the mountain traveled to its present location in approximately 30 minutes.In the 48 million years since the slide occurred, erosion has removed most of the portion of the slide sheet which moved out into the Bighorn Basin, leaving just one big block of carbonate rocks—Heart Mountain. Farther south, a large block of carbonate rock forms Sheep Mountain, which lies just south of the road that goes from Cody into Yellowstone Park. Some of the best views of the sliding surface, called the Heart Mountain fault, can be found along the Chief Joseph Highway (Wyoming Highway 296). The fault is particularly well exposed in Cathedral Cliffs, where it appears as a remarkably straight and nearly horizontal line just above a 2–3-meter-high cliff.
The nearby Heart Mountain War Relocation Center, where a number of Japanese Americans were interned during World War II, was named after the peak.Lithophile
Lithophiles are micro-organisms that can live within the pore interstices of sedimentary and even fractured igneous rocks to depths of several kilometers.Some are known to live on surface rocks, and make use of photosynthesis for energy.
Those that live in deeper rocks cannot use photosynthesis to gather energy, but instead extract energy from minerals around them. They live in cracks in the rock where water seeps down. The water contains dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) which the organisms use for their carbon needs. They have been detected in rocks down to depths of nearly three km, where the temperature is approximately 75 °C.
Terrestrial Lithophiles can be found in canyons primarily composed of granite, an igneous rock, and soils saturated with fractured rock. Organisms from the genus Elliptochloris, a subaerial photosynthetic green algae, demonstrate lithophilic preferences through colonization in granite cracks and in proximity to terrestrial lichens. Lithophilic lichens from the genus Collema form tight symbiotic relationships between fungi and photosynthetic algae such as Elliptochloris in order to produce necessary saturated fatty acid secondary metabolites. Lithophilic algal species colonizing fractured rock outcroppings individually exhibit coccal morphological shape while aggregating into an elliptical or globular arrangement during adulthood.Lithobiontic Ecological Niches further classify lithophiles into sub-categories determined by their spatial niche specificity. The term, Lithic, refers to an association with rock and can be further explained by the term, lithobiontic, regarded as organisms living both on, and within rock surfaces. Sub-surface rock organisms, endoliths, primarily exhibit niche preference within fissures, cavities, or tunnels of various rocks. While many endoliths degrade and effectively excavate the available carbonate rock surface, many are preyed upon by select gastropod, and echinoderm species. This habitat preference can be further threatened by suspension feeding organisms searching for acquired shelter.Micrite
Micrite is a limestone constituent formed of calcareous particles ranging in diameter up to four μm formed by the recrystallization of lime mud.Micrite is lime mud, carbonate of mud grade. In the Folk classification micrite is a carbonate rock dominated by fine-grained calcite. Carbonate rocks that contain fine-grained calcite in addition to allochems are named intramicrite, oomicrite, biomicrite or pelmicrite under the Folk classification depending on the dominant allochem.
Micrite as a component of carbonate rocks can occur as a matrix, as micrite envelopes around allochems or as peloids.
Micrite can be generated by chemical precipitation, from disaggregation of peloids, or by micritization.
The term was coined in 1959 by Robert Folk for his carbonate rock classification system. Micrite is derived from MICRocrystalline calcITE.North Branch Mahantango Creek
North Branch Mahantango Creek is a tributary of Mahantango Creek in Snyder County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is 13.3 miles (21.4 km) long and flows through West Perry Township, Perry Township, and Chapman Township. The creek's mouth is at 438 feet (134 m) above sea level.
The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in North Branch Mahantango Creek is 18 to 1. The annual loads of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the part of the creek that is considered impaired by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection are 2,963,043 pounds (1,344,014 kg), 32,045.85 pounds (14,535.75 kg), and 1,807.092 pounds (819.683 kg), respectively. The main rock types in the watershed are shale, interbedded sedimentary rock, carbonate rock, and sandstone. The creek's watershed has an area of approximately 37 square miles.Packstone
Under the Dunham classification (Dunham, 1962) system of limestones, a packstone is defined as a grain-supported carbonate rock that contains 1% or more mud-grade fraction. This definition has been clarified by Lokier and Al Junaibi (2016) as a carbonate-dominated lithology containing carbonate mud (<63 μm) in a fabric supported by a sand grade (63 μm to 2 mm) grain-size fraction and where less than 10% of the volume consists of grains >2 mm'.Speleogen
A speleogen is a geological feature within a karst system that is created by the dissolution of bedrock. As rain water falls through the atmosphere it picks up carbon dioxide and more as it passes through organic material in the soil. As water moves through joints and cracks in calcium carbonate bedrock, more dissolution of the bedrock occurs and the bedrock features that are left are the speleogens. This process called speleogenesis is what leads to secondary formations or speleothems. The United States Code defines speleogens as "relief features on the walls, ceiling, and floor of any cave or lava tube which are part of the surrounding bedrock, including anastomoses, scallops, meander niches, petromorphs and rock pendants in solution caves and similar features unique to volcanic caves." "Speleogens are irregular or distinctive shapes of carbonate rock etched from bedrock by dripping or running water. Speleogens can form where bedrock is not uniform in chemical composition. Consequently, the less soluble rock dissolves slower than adjacent more soluble rock through time. The less soluble rock tends to stand in relief and projects from walls and ceilings of caves."Summit, Alabama
Summit is an unincorporated community in Blount County, Alabama, United States. Summit is located along County Route 48 (CR-48) near US-231/SR-53, 10.1 miles (16.3 km) northeast of Blountsville.
Alabama is home to a wealth of caves; northeast Alabama is considered a cave "hotspot" in the United States because of its many caves and the number of animals inhabiting those environments. This area contains approximately two-thirds of the state's caves, but numerous other parts of the state possess the geology necessary for cave formation—beds of carbonate rock.
Summit, along with its many caves, is the setting of O. Henry's short-story "The Ransom of Red Chief"Wackestone
Under the Dunham classification (Dunham, 1962) system of limestones, a wackestone is defined as a mud-supported carbonate rock that contains greater than 10% grains. Most recently, this definition has been clarified as a carbonate-dominated rock in which the carbonate mud (<63 μm) component supports a fabric comprising 10% or more very fine-sand grade (63 μm) or larger grains but where less than 10% of the rock is formed of grains larger than sand grade (>2 mm).Wetterstein limestone
Wetterstein limestone (German: Wettersteinkalk) and Wetterstein dolomite (Wettersteindolomit) are the most common names for a carbonate rock from the Middle Triassic epoch of the Ladinian stage, comparable to the German stage in which Muschelkalk rock strata were formed.
The rock gets its name from the Wetterstein Mountains, because the Wetterstein limestone is the bedrock of large mountains here. The center of its distribution, however, is in the Karwendel Mountains. It occurs in the Northern and Southern Limestone Alps and in the Western Carpathians.