Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2. The compound is used frequently as a building block in organic chemistry as well as an industrial and chemical non-polar solvent. It has an "ether-like" odor, but commercial samples are typically contaminated with foul-smelling impurities.
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||76.13 g·mol−1|
|Density||1.539 g/cm3 (−186°C)|
1.2927 g/cm3 (0 °C)
1.266 g/cm3 (25 °C)
|Melting point||−111.61 °C (−168.90 °F; 161.54 K)|
|Boiling point||46.24 °C (115.23 °F; 319.39 K)|
|2.58 g/L (0 °C)|
2.39 g/L (10 °C)
2.17 g/L (20 °C)
0.14 g/L (50 °C)
|Solubility||Soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, oil, CHCl3, CCl4|
|Solubility in formic acid||4.66 g/100 g|
|Solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide||45 g/100 g (20.3 °C)|
|Vapor pressure||48.1 kPa (25 °C)|
82.4 kPa (40 °C)
Refractive index (nD)
|Viscosity||0.436 cP (0 °C)|
0.363 cP (20 °C)
|0 D (20 °C)|
Heat capacity (C)
Std enthalpy of
Gibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||See: data page|
|GHS signal word||Danger|
|H225, H315, H319, H361, H372|
|P210, P281, P305+351+338, P314|
|Inhalation hazard||Irritant; toxic|
|Flash point||−43 °C (−45 °F; 230 K)|
|102 °C (216 °F; 375 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|3188 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
LC50 (median concentration)
|>1670 ppm (rat, 1 h)|
15500 ppm (rat, 1 h)
3000 ppm (rat, 4 h)
3500 ppm (rat, 4 h)
7911 ppm (rat, 2 h)
3165 ppm (mouse, 2 h)
LCLo (lowest published)
|4000 ppm (human, 30 min)|
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 20 ppm C 30 ppm 100 ppm (30-minute maximum peak)|
|TWA 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) ST 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) [skin]|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|Supplementary data page|
|Refractive index (n),|
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
|UV, IR, NMR, MS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
The reaction is analogous to the combustion of methane.
Global production/consumption of carbon disulfide is approximately one million tonnes, with China consuming 49%, followed by India at 13%, mostly for the production of rayon fiber. United States production in 2007 was 56,000 tonnes.
CS2 is highly flammable:
It is isoelectronic with carbon dioxide but it is more reactive toward nucleophiles and more easily reduced. These differences in reactivity can be attributed to the weaker π donor-ability of the sulfido centers, which renders the carbon more electrophilic. Amines afford dithiocarbamates:
This reaction is the basis of the manufacture of regenerated cellulose, the main ingredient of viscose, rayon and cellophane. Both xanthates and the related thioxanthates (derived from treatment of CS2 with sodium thiolates) are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.
Sodium sulfide affords trithiocarbonate:
Carbon disulfide does not hydrolyze readily, although the process is catalyzed by an enzyme carbon disulfide hydrolase.
This conversion proceeds via the intermediacy of thiophosgene, CSCl2.
CS2 polymerizes upon photolysis or under high pressure to give an insoluble material called "Bridgman's black", named after the discoverer of the polymer, Percy Williams Bridgman. Trithiocarbonate (-S-C(S)-S-) linkages comprise, in part, the backbone of the polymer, which is a semiconductor.
It is also a valued intermediate in chemical synthesis of carbon tetrachloride. It is widely used in the synthesis of organosulfur compounds such as metam sodium, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, which are used in extractive metallurgy and rubber chemistry.
It can be used in fumigation of airtight storage warehouses, airtight flat storages, bins, grain elevators, railroad box cars, shipholds, barges and cereal mills. Carbon disulfide is also used as an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, nursery stock, in fresh fruit conservation and as a soil disinfectant against insects and nematodes.
Carbon disulfide is highly toxic. It has been linked to both acute and chronic forms of poisoning. To identify the effects of carbon disulfide, it is necessary to confirm exposure, compatible signs and symptoms, and exclude other health conditions, as its effects are non-specific. Typical recommended TLV is 30 mg/m3, 10 ppm. Symptoms include tingling or numbness, "cramps, muscle weakness, pain, distal sensory loss, and neurophysiological impairment".
Antimony pentasulfide is an inorganic compound of antimony and sulfur, also known as antimony red. It is a nonstoichiometric compound with a variable composition. Its exact structure is unknown. Commercial samples are usually contaminated with sulfur, which may be removed by washing with carbon disulfide in a Soxhlet extractor.Barking dog reaction
The "Barking Dog" is an exothermic chemical reaction that results from the ignition of a mixture of carbon disulfide and nitrous oxide. When ignited in a cylindrical tube, the reaction produces a bright flash and a loud "woof" - reminiscent of a barking dog.
In simple terms, the ‘Barking Dog’ reaction is a combustion process, in which a fuel (carbon disulfide, CS2) reacts with an oxidizing agent (nitrous oxide, N2O), producing heat and elemental sulfur. The flame front in the reaction is a zone of very hot, luminous gas, produced by the reactants decomposing.
8 N2O + 4 CS2 → S8 + 4 CO2 + 8 N2In April 1853, Justus von Liebig performed the demonstration in front of the Bavarian royal family; however, the glass container shattered, and shards of glass inflicted minor injuries on the faces of Queen Therese, her son Prince Luitpold, and Liebig himself.Benzoquinonetetracarboxylic dianhydride
Benzoquinonetetracarboxylic dianhydride is an organic compound with formula C10O8 (an oxide of carbon) which can be seen as the result of removing two molecules of water H2O from benzoquinonetetracarboxylic acid.
It is a red solid, stable in dry air up to 140 °C and insoluble in ether, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, and carbon disulfide. It reacts with acetone, ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, ethanol, and water. It dissolves in methylated derivatives of benzene to give solutions ranging from orange to violet. When the molecule is exposed to moist air it quickly turns blue.
The compound was synthesized in 1963 by P. R. Hammond who claimed it was "one of
the strongest π-electron acceptors so far described."Calcium permanganate
Calcium permanganate is an oxidizing agent and chemical compound with the chemical formula Ca(MnO4)2. It consists of the metal calcium and two permanganate ions. It is noncombustible, but, being a strong oxidizing agent, it will accelerate the burning of combustible material. If the combustible material is finely divided, the resulting mixture may be explosive. Contact with liquid combustible materials may result in spontaneous ignition. Contact with sulfuric acid may cause fires or explosions. Mixtures with acetic acid or acetic anhydride can explode if not kept cold. Explosions can occur when mixtures of calcium permanganate and sulfuric acid come into contact with benzene, carbon disulfide, diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, petroleum, or other organic matter.
It is prepared from the reaction of potassium permanganate with calcium chloride or from the reaction of aluminium permanganate with calcium oxide. It can be also prepared by reacting manganese dioxide with a solution of calcium hypochlorite and a little bit of calcium hydroxide to increase the pH level. If manganese dioxide is heated with calcium hydroxide with an oxidier such as Ca(NO3)2, Ca(ClO3)2, or Ca(ClO4)2, it will produce calcium manganate or mangamite ('hypomanganate').Carbon diselenide
Carbon diselenide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CSe2. It is a yellow-orange oily liquid with pungent odor. It is an analogue of carbon disulfide (CS2). This light-sensitive compound is insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents.Carbon disulfide (data page)
This page provided supplementary chemical data on carbon disulfide.Carbon disulfide hydrolase
Carbon disulfide hydrolase is an enzyme with a molecular mass of 23,576 Da. The enzyme is hexadecameric. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carbon disulfide.Carbon disulfide occurs naturally in the mudpots of volcanic solfataras. It is a precursor to hydrogen sulfide, which is an electron donor. The hyperthermophilic Acidianus strain was found to convert CS2 into H2S and CO2.The enzyme is similar to that of carbonic anhydrases. The enzyme monomer of CS2 hydrolase displays a typical β-carbonic anhydrase fold and active site. Two of these monomers form a closely intertwined dimer with a central β-sheet capped by anα-helical domain. Four dimers form a square octameric ring through interactions of the long arms at the N and C termini. Similar ring structures have been seen in strains of carbonic anhydrases, however, in CS2 hydrolase is an enzyme consisting of two octameric rings form a hexadecamer by interlocking at right angles to each other. This results in the blocking of the entrance to the active site and the formation of a single 15-Å-long, highly hydrophobic tunnel that functions as a specificity filter. This provides a key difference between carbonic anhydrase and CS2 hydrolase. This tunnel determines the enzyme's substrate specificity for CS2, which is hydrophobic as well.Carbonyl sulfide
Carbonyl sulfide is the chemical compound with the linear formula OCS. Normally written as COS as a chemical formula that does not imply its structure, it is a colourless flammable gas with an unpleasant odor. It is a linear molecule consisting of a carbonyl group double bonded to a sulfur atom. Carbonyl sulfide can be considered to be intermediate between carbon dioxide and carbon disulfide, both of which are valence isoelectronic with it.
Carbonyl sulfide decomposes in the presence of humidity and bases to carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide.This compound is found to catalyze the formation of peptides from amino acids. This finding is an extension of the Miller–Urey experiment and it is suggested that carbonyl sulfide played a significant role in the origin of life.Cellophane
Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose. Its low permeability to air, oils, greases, bacteria, and water makes it useful for food packaging. Cellophane is highly permeable to water vapour, but may be coated with nitrocellulose lacquer to prevent this.
As well as food packaging, cellophane is used in transparent pressure-sensitive tape, tubing and many other similar applications.
Unlike many other similar materials, cellophane is biodegradable. However its manufacture employs toxic chemicals.
"Cellophane" is a generic term in some countries, while in other countries it is a registered trademark.Chugaev elimination
The Chugaev elimination is a chemical reaction that involves the elimination of water from alcohols to produce alkenes. The intermediate is a xanthate. It is named for its discoverer, the Russian chemist Lev Aleksandrovich Chugaev (1873-1922), who first reported the reaction sequence in 1899.
In the first step, a xanthate salt is formed out of the alkoxide and carbon disulfide (CS2). With the addition of iodomethane, the alkoxide is transformed into a methyl xanthate.
At about 200 °C, the alkene is formed by an intramolecular elimination. In a 6-membered cyclic transition state the hydrogen atom is removed from the carbon atom β to the xanthate oxygen in a syn-elimination. The side product decomposes to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and methanethiol.
The Chugaev elimination is similar in mechanism to other thermal elimination reactions such as the Cope elimination and ester pyrolysis. Xanthates typically undergo elimination from 120 to 200 °C, while esters typically require 400 to 500 °C and amine oxides routinely react between 80 and 160 °C.Courtaulds Red Scar Works Preston
Red Scar Works was built in 1939 by Courtaulds and produced rayon. It was located in Ribbleton Preston off Longridge Road. The closure of the works was announced in November 1979 and the issue raised in the UK Parliament House of Commons by the constituency MP. At the time of closure approximately 2600 people were employed there but there were approximately 4000 at its peak. It was the largest rayon producing site in Britain. Two main products were manufactured with one being tyre cord by a process known as CSPT - Continuous Spinning Process Tenasco. Two main denier of this product were manufactured. The other product was a general textile called Bright. A range of deniers of this were produced in a range of colours. The trade name for the coloured product was Duracol. At the time of closure , one reason given by management for the closure was the rising popularity of steel belt radial tires thus reducing demand for tyre cord.
The factory was connected by rail as a branch of what was the Preston and Longridge Railway. The plant had its own power production facility. The main raw materials brought in by rail were coal, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, carbon disulfide and wood pulp.Germanium iodide
Germanium iodide is a chemical compound of germanium and iodine. Two such compounds exist: germanium(II) iodide GeI2 and germanium(IV) iodide GeI4.Germanium(II) iodide is a yellow crystalline solid which decomposes on melting. Its specific density is 5.37 and it can be sublimed at 240 °C in a vacuum.
Germanium(IV) iodide is an orange-red crystalline solid with melting point 144 °C and boiling point 440 °C (with decomposition). Its specific density is 4.32. It is soluble in non-polar solvents like carbon disulfide, chloroform or benzene.Metam sodium
Metam sodium is an organosulfur compound (formally a dithiocarbamate), which is used as a soil fumigant, pesticide, herbicide, and fungicide. It is one of the most widely used pesticides in the United States, with approximately 60 million pounds used in 2001. Metam sodium is the sodium salt of methyl dithiocarbamate.
Metam sodium can be prepared from methylamine, carbon disulfide, and sodium hydroxide; or from methyl isothiocyanate and sodium thiolate.Upon exposure to the environment, metam sodium decomposes to form methyl isothiocyanate.Metam sodium is a documented cause of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome.
In 1991 a tank car with 19,000 gallons of Metam sodium spilled into Sacramento River above Lake Shasta. This killed all fish in a 41-mile stretch of the river. 20 years later the rainbow trout population has recovered.Panclastite
Panclastites are a class of Sprengel explosives similar to oxyliquits. They were first suggested in 1881 by Eugène Turpin, a French chemist. They are a mixture of liquid dinitrogen tetroxide serving as oxidizer with a suitable fuel, e.g. carbon disulfide, in the 3:2 volume ratio.  Other fuel being used is nitrobenzene. Possible alternative fuels are e.g. nitrotoluene, gasoline, nitromethane, or halocarbons.
Panclastites are shock-sensitive and difficult to handle, requiring their mixing immediately before use; also the dinitrogen tetroxide is highly corrosive and explodes in contact with some chemicals. Despite their brisance and detonation velocity being comparable with TNT, panclastites have virtually no use today.
During World War I, due to shortages of other explosives, French used some panclastite-class mixtures, which they called anilites, in small aircraft bombs. The mixing of the chemicals was triggered by airflow spinning a propeller on the nose of the bomb after it was dropped, mixing the previously separated chemicals inside. The resulting mixture was so sensitive the bombs did not need a fuze to explode on impact.
In the 1880s, Germans were testing torpedoes with panclastite warhead. Carbon disulfide and nitrogen tetroxide were stored in separate glass compartments, which were broken when the torpedo was launched and the chemicals mixed, and later were detonated by a contact fuse.Phosphorus pentasulfide
Phosphorus pentasulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula P2S5 or dimer P4S10. This yellow solid is the one of two phosphorus sulfides of commercial value. Samples often appear greenish-gray due to impurities. It is soluble in carbon disulfide but reacts with many other solvents such as alcohols, DMSO, and DMF.Rayon
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from natural sources such as wood and agricultural products that are regenerated as cellulose fiber. The many types and grades of rayon can imitate the feel and texture of natural fibers such as silk, wool, cotton, and linen. The types that resemble silk are often called artificial silk.
Rayon is manufactured from natural cellulose, and hence is not considered to be synthetic. Technically, the term synthetic fiber is reserved for fully synthetic fibers. In manufacturing terms, rayon is classified as "a fiber formed by regenerating natural materials into a usable form". Specific types of rayon include viscose, modal and lyocell, each of which differs in the manufacturing process and the properties of the finished product.
Rayon is made from purified cellulose, harvested primarily from wood pulp, which is chemically converted into a soluble compound. It is then dissolved and forced through a spinneret to produce filaments which are chemically solidified, resulting in fibers of nearly pure cellulose. Unless the chemicals are handled carefully, workers can be seriously harmed by the carbon disulfide used to manufacture most rayon. To safeguard the workers from the hazards of the chemicals, new technologies are now applied by the leading manufacturers of viscose to efficiently capture the emissions and recover and recycle the carbon disulfide. These technologies have significantly reduced the risks and have addressed the safety concern related to exposure workers to chemicals.Selenium hexasulfide
Selenium hexasulfide is a chemical compound with formula Se2S6. Its molecular structure consists of a ring of two selenium and six sulfur atoms, analogous to the S8 allotrope of sulfur (cyclooctasulfur) and other selenium sulfides with formula SenS8−n.There are several isomers depending on the relative placement of the selenium atoms in the ring: 1,2 (with the two Se atoms adjacent), 1,3, 1,4, and 1,5 (with the Se atoms opposite). It is an oxidizing agent.
The 1,2 isomer can be prepared by reaction of chlorosulfanes and dichlorodiselane with potassium iodide in carbon disulfide. The reaction produces also cyclooctaselenium Se8 and all other eight-member cyclic selenium sulfides, except SeS7, and several six- and seven-membered rings.Thiocarbohydrazide
Thiocarbohydrazide is a toxic compound made by the reaction of carbon disulfide with hydrazine (hydrazinolysis). It is used in the silver proteinate specific staining of carbohydrates in electron microscopy.Viscose
Viscose is a term often used to represent the viscose fiber that is made from natural sources such as wood and agricultural products that are regenerated as cellulose fiber. The molecular structure of natural cellulose is preserved in the process. The many types and grades of viscose fibers can imitate the feel and texture of natural fibers such as silk, wool, cotton, and linen. The types that resemble silk are often called artificial silk. The fibre is used to make textiles for clothing and other purposes.Rayon is manufactured from naturally occurring Cellulose hence, it is not considered to be synthetic. Technically, the term synthetic fiber is reserved for fully synthetic fibers made from synthetic polymers. In manufacturing terms, rayon is classified as "a fiber formed by regenerating natural materials into a usable form". Specific types of rayon include viscose, modal and lyocell, each of which differs in the manufacturing process and the properties of the finished product.
Viscose can mean:
A viscous solution of cellulose
A synonym of rayon
A specific term for viscose rayon—rayon made using the viscose (cellulose xanthate) processThe viscose fiber is made from dissolving wood pulp and regenerating it in the form of fibers. Pulp made from wood or bamboo is the most common raw material for making viscose. Viscose process dissolves cellulose pulp with aqueous sodium hydroxide in the presence of carbon disulfide. This viscous solution bears the name viscose. The cellulose solution is used to spin the viscose or the rayon fiber. Viscose rayon fiber is a soft fiber commonly used in dresses, linings, shirts, shorts, coats, jackets, and other outerwear. It is also used in industrial yarns, tyre cord, upholstery and carpets, to make disposable wipes, cleaning cloths and in the casting of cellophane.
|Oxides and related|