The Carbon Emission Reduction Target (CERT) in the United Kingdom (formerly the Energy Efficiency Commitment) is a target imposed on the gas and electricity transporters and suppliers under Section 33BC of the Gas Act 1986 and Section 41A of the Electricity Act 1989, as modified by the Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Act 2006
The original Energy Efficiency Commitment 1 (2002–2005) program required that all electricity and gas suppliers with 15,000 or more domestic customers must achieve a combined energy saving of 62 TWh by 2005 by assisting their customers to take energy-efficiency measures in their homes: suppliers had to achieve at least half of their energy savings in households on income-related benefits and tax credits.
In the second phase of the Energy Efficiency Commitment (2005–2008) scheme, energy saving targets were raised to 130 TWh suppliers, and here suppliers with at least 50,000 domestic customers (including affiliated licenses) were eligible for an obligation.
The third phase of CERT (previously known as Energy Efficiency Commitment 3) originally ran from 2008 to 2011 and increased the previous targets to 154 MtC. A consultation document was published alongside the 2007 Energy White Paper, and responses were invited by 15 August 2007. The new scheme is regulated by Electricity and Gas (Carbon Emissions Reduction) Order 2008 (S.I. 2008/188). In 2009 the UK Government increased the emission reduction target by a further 20% to 185 MtC. In 2010 the Government increased the target to 293 MtC, to be achieved over an extended period running until the end of 2012 (see The Electricity and Gas (Carbon Emissions Reduction) (Amendment) Order 2010: S.I.2010/1958).
From 2013 CERT will be superseded by the Energy Company Obligation (ECO)
The BBL Pipeline (Balgzand Bacton Line, BBL) is a natural gas interconnector between the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.British Energy Efficiency Federation
The British Energy Efficiency Federation (or BEEF) was founded in 1996 by the United Kingdom Government to provide a forum for consultation between existing industry associations in the energy sector.Carbon governance in England
The reduction of carbon emissions, along with other greenhouse gases (GHGs), has become a vitally important task of international, national and local actors. If we understand governance as the creation of “conditions for ordered rule and collective action” then, given the fact that the reduction of carbon emissions will require concerted collective action, it follows that the governance of carbon will be of paramount concern. We have seen numerous international conferences over the past 20 years tasked with finding a way of facilitating this, and while international agreements have been infamously difficult to reach, action at the national level has been much more effective. In the UK, the Climate Change Act 2008 committed the government to meeting significant carbon reduction targets. In England, these carbon emissions are governed using numerous different instruments, which involve a variety of actors. While it has been argued by authors like Rhodes that there has been a “hollowing out” of the nation state, and that governments have lost their capabilities to govern to a variety of non-state actors and the European Union, the case of carbon governance in England actually runs counter to this. The government body responsible for the task, the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), is the “main external dynamic” behind governing actions in this area, and “rather than hollowing out (there has actually been a strengthening of) central co-ordination”. The department may rely on other bodies to deliver its desired outcomes, but it is still ultimately responsible for the imposition of the rules and regulations that “steer (carbon) governmental action at the national level”. It is therefore evident that carbon governance in England is hierarchical in nature, in that “legislative decisions and executive decisions” are the main dynamic behind carbon governance action. This does not deny the existence of a network of bodies around DECC who are part of the process, but they are supplementary actors who are steered by central decisions. This article focuses on carbon governance in England as the other countries of the UK (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) all have devolved assemblies who are responsible for the governance of carbon emissions in their respective countries.Cert
Cert or CERT may refer to:
Certificate (disambiguation), several meanings
Certiorari, a Latin legal term for a court order requiring judicial review of a case
Certiorari before judgment, a specific form of a writ of certiorari
Cert pool, shorthand term for the pool of applicants for a writ of certiorari from the United States Supreme Court
Carbon Emission Reduction Target, a United Kingdom government initiative
Correctional Emergency Response Team, a team of correction officers
Council of Energy Resource Tribes, a consortium of tribes to establish tribal control over natural resources
Council of Education, Recruitment and Training Irish hospitality training authority 1963–2003
Computer emergency response team, an expert group that handles computer security incidents
CERT Coordination Center, the worldwide center for coordinating information about Internet security at Carnegie Mellon University, the first and most well-known CERT
CERT C Coding Standard, developed by the CERT Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University
United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT)
CERT Group of Companies, a private education provider in the Middle East
Community emergency response team, teams of volunteer emergency responders across the United States
Constant extension rate tensile testing, a standard method of testing of materials, also known as slow strain rate testingCoal Authority
The Coal Authority is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government.Electricity North West
Electricity North West is a British electricity distribution network operator, responsible for the administration and maintenance of the network, that distributes electricity to the North West of England excluding Merseyside and parts of Cheshire.Energy Company Obligation
The Energy Company Obligation (ECO) is a British Government program. It is designed to offset emissions created by energy company power stations. The first obligation period ran from January 2013 to 31 March 2015. The second obligation period, known as ECO2, is from 1 April 2015 to 31 March 2017.
The Government obligates the larger energy suppliers to help lower-income households improve their energy efficiency.Eco is the replacement of two previous schemes, the Carbon Emission Reduction Target (CERT) and the Community Energy Saving Programme (CESP). It has been announced that the program will be replaced in 2017 by a less extensive version.The program focused on heating, in particular improving insulation.Energy Institute
The Energy Institute (EI) is a UK chartered professional membership body.Energy Retail Association
The Energy Retail Association (ERA) was a trade association which promoted the interests of electricity and gas retailers in the domestic market in Great Britain, formed in 2003. In April 2012 it merged with the Association of Electricity Producers and the UK Business Council for Sustainable Energy to become Energy UK.Energy conservation in the United Kingdom
Various energy conservation measures are taken in the United Kingdom.
Much of the emphasis in energy debates tends to focus on the supply side of the issue, and ignore the demand. A number of commentators are concerned that this is being largely overlooked, partly due to the strength of the energy industry lobby. Energy conservation also has great potential, and may be able to significantly cut the size of the supposed energy gap, if early and concerted action is taken.Franco-British Nuclear Forum
The first meeting of the Franco–British Nuclear Forum was held in Paris in November 2007, chaired by the Minister for Energy and the French Industry Minister. The working groups are focusing on specific areas for collaboration. A follow-up meeting on the issue in London was planned for March 2008, but did not take place.Hardy Oil and Gas
Hardy Oil and Gas plc is a leading British-based oil and gas exploration and production business. It is headquartered in Aberdeen and is a former constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.New Electricity Trading Arrangements
New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) is the system of market trading arrangements under which electricity is traded in the United Kingdom's wholesale electricity market as of 27 March 2001. The arrangements provided that parties could trade off their imbalances close to real time.Regal Petroleum
Regal Petroleum plc is a petroleum company based in London with assets in Romania, Ukraine, Greece, and Egypt. It was founded by Frank Timiş in November 1996, and is listed on the London Alternative Investment Market.Samantha Heath
Samantha Heath (5 June 1960 – 29 March 2019) was the Chief Executive of London Sustainability Exchange from 2005-2018; a ground-breaking voluntary organisation, supporting the delivery of London as the most sustainable world city. She was a member and former co-chair of the London Sustainable Development Commission and was a member of the London Climate Change Partnership. She also sat on the Stratford City Environmental Review panel. Her experience included ten years in London politics, eight years in academia and research and ten years in civil engineering.
Prior to joining LSx, Heath was Sustainability Manager for Future London, the capital’s regeneration centre of excellence. From May 2000 until 2004, she was a London-wide London Assembly Member, where her roles included Deputy Chair of the London Assembly and Chair of the Assembly’s Environment Committee. In 2003, she was the Mayor’s representative on the Energy Taskforce - part of the London Sustainable Development Commission, and responsible for setting a carbon emission reduction target for London. In 2004, she became chair of the DTI / GLA London Renewables group. As lead member for the Mayor on London Waste Action, the precursor to the London Waste & Recycling Board, she facilitated funding for London’s waste awareness campaign.
She wrote for various publications and spoke at numerous conferences and seminars on: community empowerment, lifestyle change, social marketing, air quality, energy, waste and other issues. For ten years, she was a National Executive Member of SERA - Labour's Environment Campaign.Heath trained as a Civil Engineer at Heriot Watt and worked for many years in the construction industry. She was a lecturer in design and construction management at the University of Greenwich until May 2000. For eight years from May 1994 until she stood down in May 2002, Heath was a Wandsworth Labour PartyCouncillor, representing the Latchmere Ward in Battersea. She served on the Education, Housing and Environment committees 1994-2002, and was the lead member for the Labour Party on housing in London Borough of Wandsworth up until the May 2000 election for the GLA.
She was third on the Labour party list in the 2000 London Assembly election and won a seat due to this. She led on environmental and energy issues in the Assembly, becoming the first chair of the Environment Committee, which she chaired for the whole four-year term. In the 2004 election the Labour Party failed to poll enough votes to give her a seat.Score Group plc
Score Group plc is an international engineering business based in Peterhead, Scotland.Sunbury Research Centre
The Sunbury Research Centre -- also known as ICBT Sunbury -- is a main research institute of BP in north-east Surrey.UK Power Networks
UK Power Networks is a distribution network operator for electricity covering South East England, the East of England and London. It manages three licensed distribution networks (Eastern Power Networks PLC, South Eastern Power Networks PLC and London Power Networks PLC) which together cover an area of 30000 square kilometres and approximately eight million customers.
In 2014 UK Power Networks was awarded £25 million from the electricity regulator Ofgem's Low Carbon Networks Fund for the Low Carbon London project. In 2011 it was awarded £6.7 million by Ofgem for another project, Flexible Plug and Play, which is researching new ways, technical and commercial, to connect renewable energy to the distribution network in Cambridgeshire.
As well as the three distribution arms UK Power Networks also operates UK Power Networks Services Holdings Limited, which develops and maintains electrical networks for clients including London Underground, Heathrow and Stansted airports, Docklands Light Railway and Canary Wharf.Western Power Distribution
Western Power Distribution is the trading identity of four electricity distribution companies - WPD South West (operating in South West England), WPD South Wales (operating in South Wales) and WPD Midlands (operating in East Midlands and West Midlands). All of the companies act as the distribution network operator for their respective regions, and are registered in Bristol, England. Western Power Distribution serves approximately 7.7 million customers over its combined distribution areas.
Western Power Distribution is a subsidiary of the American utility corporation PPL.
It should not be confused with WPD, a wind farm company in north-western Europe, or Western Power Corporation, an electricity distributor in Australia.