The Carbonária was originally an anti-clerical, revolutionary, conspiratorial society, originally established in Portugal in 1822 and soon disbanded. It was allied with the Italian Carbonari. A new organization of the same name and claiming to be its continuation was founded in 1896 by Artur Augusto Duarte da Luz de Almeida. This organization agitated against the monarchy and was involved in various anti-monarchist conspiracies. Its operational units, structured into a hierarchy of barracas, choças and vendas, received military training.
On 1 February, 1908 King Carlos I of Portugal and his eldest son and heir Luis Filipe were assassinated by Alfredo Luís da Costa and Manuel Buíça in a conspiracy involving the Carbonária.
By 1910 the Carbonária had some 40,000 members and was instrumental in the Republican 5 October 1910 revolution.
- ^ a b Chapter 22 Portugal under the Nineteenth-Century Constitutional Monarchy, Stanley G. Payne, A History of Spain and Portugal, Vol. 2
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