The caravel (Portuguese: caravela, IPA: [kɐɾɐˈvɛlɐ]) was a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean. The lateen sails gave it speed and the capacity for sailing windward (beating). Caravels were used by the Portuguese and Castilians (Spain) for the oceanic exploration voyages during the 15th and 16th centuries in the Age of Discovery.
Its English name derives from the Portuguese caravela, which in turn may derive from the Arabic qārib, used to refer to an ancient boat type known as carabus in Latin or καραβος in Greek, perhaps indicating some continuity of its carvel build through the ages.
Until the 15th century, Europeans were limited to coastal navigation. They used the barge or the balinger (barinel), which were ancient cargo vessels of the Mediterranean Sea with a capacity of around 50 to 200 tons. These boats were fragile, with only one mast with a fixed square sail that could not overcome the navigational difficulties of southward oceanic exploration, as the strong winds, shoals and strong ocean currents easily overwhelmed their abilities.
The caravel has origins in earlier Portuguese fishing boats built in the 13th century based on the medieval Islamic qarib, used in Islamic Spain. The caravel was developed in about 1451, based on existing fishing boats under the sponsorship of Henry the Navigator of Portugal, and soon became the preferred vessel for Portuguese explorers like Diogo Cão, Bartolomeu Dias or Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real, and by Christopher Columbus. They were agile and easier to navigate than the barca and barinel, with a tonnage of 50 to 160 tons and 1 to 3 masts, with lateen triangular sails allowing beating. Being smaller and having a shallow keel, the caravel could sail upriver in shallow coastal waters. With the lateen sails attached, it was highly maneuverable and could sail much nearer the shore, while with the square Atlantic-type sails attached, it was very fast. Its economy, speed, agility, and power made it esteemed as the best sailing vessel of its time. The limited capacity for cargo and crew were their main drawbacks, but did not hinder its success.
The exploration done with caravels made the spice trade of the Portuguese and the Spanish possible. However, for the trade itself, the caravel was later replaced by the larger carrack (nau), which was more profitable for trading. The caravel was one of the pinnacle ships in Iberian ship development from 1400–1600.
Due to its lighter weight and thus greater speed, the caravel was a boon to sailors. Early caravels generally carried two or three masts with lateen sails, while later types had four masts. Early caravels such as the caravela tilhada of the 15th century had an average length of between 12 and 18 m (39 and 59 ft), an average capacity of 50 to 60 tons, a high length-to-beam ratio of around 3.5 to 1, and narrow ellipsoidal frame (unlike the circular frame of the nau), making them very fast and maneuverable but with somewhat low capacity. It was in such ships that Christopher Columbus set out on his expedition in 1492; Santa María was a nau of about 100 tons which served as the flagship and the Pinta and Niña were smaller caravels of around 15–20 m with a beam of 6 m and displacing around 60–75 tons.
Towards the end of the 15th century, the Portuguese developed a larger version of the caravel, bearing a forecastle and sterncastle - though not as high as those carracks, which would have made it unweatherly - but most distinguishable for it's square-rigged foremast, and three other masts bearing lateen rig. In this form it was referred to in Portuguese as a "round caravel" (caravela redonda) as in Iberian tradition, a bulging square sail is said to be round.
It was employed in coast-guard fleets near the Strait of Gibraltar and as an armed escort for merchantships between Portugal and Brazil and in the Cape Route. Some consider this a forerunner of the fighting galleon and remained in use until the 17th century.
The baurua was a traditional sailing proa of the Gilbert Islands. They are considered to have been the most sophisticated of the Austronesian sailing vessels. A 100-foot baurua was built in 1939.Deadly Rooms of Death
Deadly Rooms of Death (DROD) is a computer puzzle game. It was created by Erik Hermansen in 1996 and has been regularly extended since then. The original version of the game published by Webfoot Technologies is no longer available. In 2000 the author reacquired the rights to DROD from Webfoot and released the source code; he continues the support and development as "Caravel DROD".Gableboat
A gableboat (gavelbåt or gavlabåt in Norwegian) is a traditional Norwegian boat mainly used for fishing with a seine. It is usually built by clinker method pine on oak framework. They are robust boats that can carry big loads, but are still swift sailers.
The gableboat got its name by the gable in the aft, making the rear bottom flatter than round-ended vessels, enabling them to both have a bigger load, and to create less friction when sailing or rowing.Galleon
Galleons were large, multi-decked sailing ships first used by the Spanish as armed cargo carriers and later adopted by other European states from the 16th to 18th centuries during the age of sail and were the principal fleet units drafted for use as warships until the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the mid-1600s. Galleons generally carried three or more masts with a lateen fore-and-aft rig on the rear masts, were carvel built with a prominent squared off raised stern, and used square-rigged sail plans on their fore-mast and main-masts.
Such ships were the mainstay of maritime commerce into the early 19th century, and were often drafted into use as auxiliary naval war vessels—indeed, were the mainstay of contending fleets through most of the 150 years of the Age of Exploration—before the Anglo-Dutch wars brought purpose-built ship-rigged warships that thereafter dominated war at sea during the remainder of the age of sail.Hulk (medieval ship type)
A hulk (or "holk") was a type of medieval sea craft, a technological predecessor of the carrack and caravel. The hulk appears to have remained a relatively minor type of sailing ship apparently peculiar to the low countries of Europe where it was probably used primarily as a river or canal boat, with limited potential for coastal cruising. The only evidence of hulks that we have are from legal documents and iconography.Kalia (watercraft)
Kalia is the Tongan adaptation of a drua or double-hulled Polynesian sailing watercraft.Lugger
A lugger is a class of boat, widely used as traditional fishing boats, particularly off the coasts of France, England and Scotland. It is a small sailing vessel with lug sails set on two or more masts and perhaps lug topsails.Medieval ships
The ships of Medieval Europe were powered by sail or oar, or both. There was a large variety, mostly based on much older conservative designs. Although wider and more frequent communications within Europe meant exposure to a variety of improvements, experimental failures were costly and rarely attempted. Ships in the north were influenced by Viking vessels, while those in the south by classical or Roman vessels. However, there was technological change. The different traditions used different construction methods; clinker in the north, carvel in the south. By the end of the period, carvel construction would come to dominate the building of large ships. The period would also see a shift from the steering oar or side rudder to the stern rudder and the development from single to multi-masted ships.Mina®
Mina® is an album by Italian singer Mina, distributed back to back with album Baby Gate.
Some of the songs of this album were recorded in different languages by Mina during the 1970s. In
1975, she recorded "Due o forse tre", "Nuur" and "Distanze" in Spanish ("Dos o acaso tres", "Nuur", " Dostancias"), as well "Tutto passerà vedrai" ("Todo pasara veras"). The same first three songs were covered in French one year later (as "Deux peut-être trois", "Lumière", "Ensemble"), as well "Caravel" ("La chiromancienne") and "Solo lui" ("Rien que vous"). All the tracks were published on albums for French and Spanish-speaking countries only and were re-issued on cd by EMI in 2011 (in the unofficial album compilations Je suis Mina and Yo soy Mina).Niña
La Niña (Spanish for The Little Girl) was one of the three Spanish ships used in the first voyage to the West Indies in 1492. As was tradition for Spanish ships of the day, she bore a female saint's name, Santa Clara. However, she was commonly referred to by her nickname, La Niña, which was probably a pun on the name of her owner, Juan Niño of Moguer. She was a standard caravel-type vessel.
The other ships of the Spanish expedition were the caravel-type Pinta and the carrack-type Santa María. Niña was by far Columbus' favorite. She was originally lateen sail rigged caravela latina, but she was re-rigged as caravela redonda at Las Palmas, in the Canary Islands, with square sails for better ocean performance. There is no authentic documentation on the specifics of Niña's design, although Michele de Cuneo, who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage, mentioned that Niña was "about 60 toneladas" (60 tons), which may indicate a medium-sized caravel of around 50 feet (15 m) in length on deck. Often said to have had three masts, there is some evidence she may have had four masts.Niña, like Pinta and Santa María, was a smaller trade ship built to sail the Mediterranean sea, not the open ocean. It was greatly surpassed in size by ships like Peter von Danzig of the Hanseatic League, built in 1462, 51 m (167 ft) in length, and the English carrack Grace Dieu, built during the period 1420–1439, weighing between 1,400 and 2,750 tons, and 66.4 m (218 ft) long, in both weight and length.Pahi
Pahi were the traditional double-hulled sailing watercraft of Tahiti. They were large, two masted, and rigged with crab claw sails.Portuguese inventions
The Portuguese inventions are the inventions created by people born in Portugal (continent or overseas) or whose nationality is Portuguese. These inventions were created mainly during the age of Portuguese Discoveries, but as well, during modernity.
Relying on trade secret explains, in part, the difficulty often experienced by researchers in documenting Portuguese inventions, as many are not described in patent documents, or other technical documents. On the other hand, there are cases, like some types of swords, where the inventions themselves or the underlying documents were lost, having been destroyed, for example, during the French invasions. There are as well documentation and objects of Portuguese origin in private collections or museums outside of Portugal.Postage stamps and postal history of Portugal
The early issues from 1853 had the monarch's head, white and featureless, embossed on a coloured background. The most valuable stamps from this period are Gibbons catalogue nos 8 and 9 from the 1853 issue: the 100 reis lilacs.
The first pictorial issue in 1894 commemorated the 500th anniversary of Henry the Navigator's birth. Vasco da Gama's voyage to India in 1497-1498 was the subject of an 1898 issue. The Vasco da Gama designs were also used in the African colonies and were inscribed Africa instead of Portugal. This was the only general issue for colonies.
The 1910 definitives were overprinted Republica after the revolution and the first republican issue was the familiar Ceres type of 1912.
Aeroplanes were first depicted in 1923 following the Gago Coutinho–Sacadura Cabral flight from Portugal to Brazil in 1922. In 1924, the first literary issue commemorated the birth of epic poet Luís de Camões in 1524.
The common Caravel type first appeared in 1943, the Medieval Knight in 1953 and Portugal's first railway stamp in 1956.
Volumes increased from the 1960s.SV Independiente Caravel
SV Independiente Caravel is an Aruban football club based in Angochi. As of the 2016-2017 season they will be playing in the Aruban Division di Honor. Caravel has twice finished in third place in the Aruban Division di Honor.
The traditional colors of the club are yellow and blue.Ship replica
A ship replica is a reconstruction of a no longer existing ship. Replicas can range from authentically reconstructed, fully seaworthy ships, to ships of modern construction that give an impression of a historic vessel. Some replicas may not even be seaworthy, but built for other educational or entertainment purposes.
Reasons to build a replica include historic research into shipbuilding, national pride, exposition at a museum or entertainment (e.g., for a TV series), and/or education programs for the unemployed. For example, see the project to build a replica of the Continental brig Andrew Doria. Apart from building a genuine replica of the ship, sometimes the construction materials, tools and methods can also copied from the ships' original era, as is the case with the replica of Batavia in Lelystad and the ship of the line replica Delft in Rotterdam (Delfshaven).Square-rigged caravel
The square-rigged caravel, (Portuguese: caravela redonda) was a sailing ship created by the Portuguese in the second half of the fifteenth century. A much larger version of the caravel, its use was most notorious beginning in the end of that century. The square-rigged caravel held a notable role in the Portuguese expansion during the age of discovery, especially in the first half of the sixteenth century, for its exceptional maneuverability and combat capabilities. This ship was also sometimes adopted by other European powers. The hull was galleon-shaped, and some experts consider this vessel a forerunner of the fighting galleon, by the name of caravela de armada.Tipairua
Tipairua were large traditional sailing canoes of Tahiti that were of stately bearing and significance. They were often used for deep sea voyages, had low heads, high upturned sterns, and could be either paddled or sailed.Vaka katea
Vaka katea are the traditional sailing double canoe watercraft of the Cook Islands.ʻalia
ʻalia is the Samoan adaptation of a drua or double-hulled Polynesian sailing watercraft.
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