Caracas

Caracas (Spanish pronunciation: [kaˈɾakas]), officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela, and centre of the Greater Caracas Area. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range (Cordillera de la Costa). Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m (2,490 and 3,740 ft) above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range. The valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2,200-metre-high (7,200 ft) mountain range, Cerro El Ávila; to the south there are more hills and mountains. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an estimated population of 4,923,201.

Strictly speaking, the centre of the city is still "Catedral", located near Bolívar Square,[4] even though it is assumed that it is Plaza Venezuela, located in the Los Caobos neighbourhood.[5][6][7] Chacaíto area, Luis Brión Square and El Rosal neighborhood are also considered the geographic center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas,[8][9] commonly called "Greater Caracas".[5]

Businesses in the city include service companies, banks, and malls. Caracas has a largely service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area.[10] The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) are headquartered in Caracas. PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela. Caracas is also Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters, museums, and shopping centers. Some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas.[11]

Caracas has been considered one of the most important cultural, tourist, industrial and economic centers of Latin America. The Museum of Contemporary Art of Caracas is one of the most important in South America. The Museum of Fine Arts and the National Art Gallery of Caracas are also noteworthy.[12] The National Art Gallery is projected to be the largest museum in Latin America, according to its architect Carlos Gómez De Llarena.[13] Caracas is home to two of the tallest skyscrapers in South America: the Parque Central Towers. It has a nominal GDP of 91,988 million dollars, a nominal GDP per capita of 18,992 and a PPP GDP per capita of 32,710 dollars. Being the seventh city in GDP and the seventh metropolitan area in population of Latin America.[14]

Caracas has the highest per capita murder rate in the world, with 111.19 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants.[15]

Caracas
Santiago de León de Caracas
Caracas Venezuela
Flag of Caracas

Flag
Coat of arms of Caracas

Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
La Sultana del Ávila (The Avila's Sultana)
La Sucursal del Cielo (Heaven's Branch on Earth)
La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera (The City of Eternal Spring)
Motto(s): 
Muy Noble y Leal Ciudad
Caracas is located in Venezuela
Caracas
Caracas
Location in Venezuela and South America
Caracas is located in South America
Caracas
Caracas
Caracas (South America)
Coordinates: 10°28′50″N 66°54′13″W / 10.48056°N 66.90361°WCoordinates: 10°28′50″N 66°54′13″W / 10.48056°N 66.90361°W
CountryVenezuela
StateCapital District
Founded25 July 1567
Founded byDiego de Losada
Government
 • TypeMayor-council
 • BodyGovernment of the Capital District
 • Chief of GovernmentCarolina Cestari
Area
 • Capital City433 km2 (167 sq mi)
 • Metro
4,715.1 km2 (1,820.5 sq mi)
Elevation
900 m (3,000 ft)
Highest elevation
1,400 m (4,600 ft)
Lowest elevation
870 m (2,850 ft)
Population
(2017)[1]
 • Capital City1,945,901
 • Density4,212.9/km2 (10,911/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,967,626
 • Metro density1,123.4/km2 (2,910/sq mi)
DemonymsCaraquenian (Spanish: caraqueño (m), caraqueña (f))
Time zoneUTC-04:00 (VET)
Postal codes[2]
1000–1090, 1209
Area code212
ISO 3166 codeVE-A
HDI (2017)0.746[3]high
Websitehttp://www.caracas.gob.ve
The area and population figures are the sum of the figures of the five municipalities (listed above) that make up the Distrito Metropolitano.

History

Diego de Losada - Antonio Herrera Toro Concejo Municipal de Caracas
Conqueror Diego de Losada, founder of Santiago de León de Caracas (painted early 20th century )

At the time of the founding of the city in 1567,[16] the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, attempted to establish a plantation in the valley in 1562 after founding a series of coastal towns. Fajardo's settlement did not last long. It was destroyed by natives of the region led by Terepaima and Guaicaipuro. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives. On 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas. The foundation − 1567 – "I take possession of this land in the name of God and the King" These were the words of Don Diego de Losada in founding the city of Caracas on 25 July 1567. In 1577, Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empire's Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel (1576–1583).

During the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was frequently raided by pirates. With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was relatively immune to such attacks. However, in 1595, around 200 English privateers including George Sommers and Amyas Preston crossed the mountains through a little-used pass while the town's defenders were guarding the more often-used one. Encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation.[17][18]

As the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, the city expanded. In 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela.

José María España and Manuel Gual led an attempted revolution aimed at independence, but the rebellion was put down on 13 July 1797. Caracas was ultimately the site of the signing of a Declaration of independence on 17 August 1811. In 1812, an earthquake destroyed Caracas. The independentist war continued until 24 June 1821, when Bolívar defeated royalists in the Battle of Carabobo.[19]

Caracas grew in economic importance during Venezuela's oil boom in the early 20th century. During the 1950s, Caracas began an intensive modernization program which continued throughout the 1960s and early 1970s. The Universidad Central de Venezuela, designed by modernist architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and declared World Heritage by UNESCO, was built. New working- and middle-class residential districts sprouted in the valley, extending the urban area toward the east and southeast. Joining El Silencio, also designed by Villanueva, were several workers' housing districts, 23 de Enero and Simon Rodriguez. Middle-class developments include Bello Monte, Los Palos Grandes, Chuao, and El Cafetal. The dramatic change in the economic structure of the country, which went from being primarily agricultural to dependent on oil production, stimulated the fast development of Caracas, and made it a magnet for people in rural communities who migrated to the capital city in an unplanned fashion searching for greater economic opportunity. This migration created the rancho (slum) belt of the valley of Caracas.

Symbols

The flag of Caracas consists of a burgundy red field with the version of the Coat of Arms of the City (effective since the 1980s). The red field symbolises the blood spilt by Caraquenian people in favour of independence and the highest ideals of the Venezuelan Nation. Later, in the year 1994, presumably as a result of the change of municipal authorities, it was decided to increase the size of the Caracas coat of arms and move it to the centre of the field. This version of the flag is still in use today.

The coat of arms of the City of Caracas was adopted by the Libertador Municipality to identify itself. Later, the Metropolitan Mayor Office assumed the lion, the scallop and Saint James' Cross for the same purpose.

The anthem of the city is the Marcha a Caracas, written by the composer Tiero Pezzuti de Matteis with the lyrics by José Enrique Sarabia. The lyrics are said to be inspired by the heroism of the Caraquenian people, and the memory of the City of Red Roofs. Incidentally, the National Anthem of Venezuela, Gloria al Bravo Pueblo, includes the lines "...y si el despotismo levanta la voz, seguid el ejemplo que Caracas dio" ("...and if despotism raises its voice, follow the example that Caracas gave"), reflecting the fact that, in addition to generously providing many heroic fighters to the War of Independence, the junta established in Caracas (19 April 1810) served as inspiration for other regions to do the same—as did its declaration of independence a year later.

Local government

Under the constitution of Venezuela, municipal governments have two branches: the executive (governed by a mayor) and the legislative (managed by a municipal council).

Metropolitan District of Caracas

On 8 March 2000, the year after a new constitution was introduced in Venezuela, it was decreed in Gaceta Official N° 36,906 that the Metropolitan District of Caracas would be created, and that some of the powers of Libertador, Chacao, Baruta, Sucre, and El Hatillo municipalities would be delegated to the Alcaldía Mayor, physically located in the large Libertador municipality, in the center of the city.[20] The Metropolitan District of Caracas was suppressed on 20 December 2017 by the Constituent National Assembly of Venezuela.[21]

Economy

Businesses that are located here include service companies, banks, and malls, among others. It has a largely service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area.[10] The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) are headquartered here. The PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela,[22] and negotiates all the international agreements for the distribution and export of petroleum.[23] When the company existed, the airline Viasa had its headquarters in the Torre Viasa.[24][25]

Several international companies and embassies are located in El Rosal and Las Mercedes, in the north of the Baruta municipality and the south of the Chacao municipality.Small and medium-size industry contributes to the Caracas economy. The city provides communication and transportation infrastructure between the metropolitan area and the rest of the country. Important industries in Caracas include chemicals, textiles, leather, food, iron and wood products. There are also rubber and cement factories.[26] Its GDP(Nominal) is US$70 billion and the GDP(PPP) per Capita is.USD 24,000.[27]

Edificio BVC
Caracas Stock Exchange building in El Rosal district

Cost of living

A 2009 United Nations survey reported that the cost of living in Caracas was 89% of that of the survey's baseline city, New York.[28] However, this statistic is based upon a fixed currency-exchange-rate of 2003 and might not be completely realistic, due to the elevated inflation rates of the last several years.[29] However, Caracas is now one of the cheapest cities for tourists, according to The Economist Intelligence Unit.[30]

Tourism

In 2013, the World Economic forum evaluated countries in terms of how successful they were in advertising campaigns to attract foreign visitors. Out of the 140 countries evaluated, Venezuela came last. Myriad factors contribute to the lack of tourism in Caracas. A major factor that has contributed to the lack of foreign visitors has been poor transport for tourists. Venezuela has limited railway systems and airlines. High crime rates and the negative attitude of the Venezuelan population towards tourism also contributed to the poor evaluation.

In an attempt to attract more foreign visitors, the Venezuelan Ministry of Tourism invested in multiple hotel infrastructures. The largest hotel investment has been in the Hotel Alba Caracas. The cost for the general maintenance of the north and south towers of the hotel is approximately 231.5 million Venezuelan bolivars.

Although the Venezuelan Ministry of Tourism has taken the initiative to recognize the importance of the tourism industry, the Venezuelan government has not placed the tourism industry as an economic priority. In 2013, the budget for the Ministry of Tourism was only 173.8 million bolivars, while the Ministry of the Youth received approximately 724.6 million bolivars.

The tourism industry in Venezuela contributes approximately 3.8 percent of the country GDP. Venezuela's current goal is to reach a GDP of 7.6 percent. The World Economic Forum predicts Venezuela's GDP to rise to 4.2 percent by 2022.[31]

Geography

Caracas is contained entirely within a valley of the Venezuelan central range, and separated from the Caribbean coast by a roughly 15 kilometres (9 miles) expanse of El Ávila National Park. The valley is relatively small and quite irregular, the altitude with respect to sea level varies from between 870 and 1,043 meters (2,854 and 3,422 ft), with 900 meters (3,000 feet) in the historic zone. This, along with the rapid population growth, has profoundly influenced the urban development of the city. The most elevated point of the Capital District, wherein the city is located, is the Pico El Ávila, which rises to 2,159 meters (7,083 feet). The main body of water in Caracas is the Guaire River, which flows across the city and empties into the Tuy River, which is also fed by the El Valle and San Pedro rivers, in addition to numerous streams which descend from El Ávila. The La Mariposa and Camatagua reservoirs provide water to the city. The city is occasionally subject to earthquakes – notably in 1641 and 1967.

Pueblo de Galipán

Galipán, town atop El Ávila

Cañón del río Guaire 2013 000

View of the Rio Guaire canyon, main body of water that passes through Caracas

TelefericodeCaracas

View of the Avila gondola lift starting from Caracas to Hotel Humboldt station

Climate

Este de Caracas
View of the east side of Caracas

Under the Köppen climate classification, Caracas has a tropical savanna climate (Aw). Caracas is also intertropical, with precipitation that varies between 900 and 1,300 millimeters (35 and 51 inches) (annual), in the city proper, and up to 2,000 millimeters (79 inches) in some parts of the Mountain range. While Caracas is within the tropics, due to its altitude temperatures are generally not nearly as high as other tropical locations at sea level. The annual average temperature is approximately 23.8 °C (75 °F), with the average of the coldest month (January) 22.8 °C (73 °F) and the average of the warmest month (July) 25.0 °C (77 °F), which gives a small annual thermal amplitude of 2.2 °C (4.0 °F). In the months of December and January abundant fog may appear, in addition to a sudden nightly drop in temperature, until reaching 8 °C (46 °F).[32] This peculiar weather is known by the natives of Caracas as the Pacheco. In addition, nightly temperatures at any time of the year are much (14 to 20 °C) lower than daytime highs and usually do not remain above 24 °C (75 °F), resulting in very pleasant evening temperatures. Hail storms appear in Caracas, although only on rare occasions. Electrical storms are much more frequent, especially between June and October, due to the city being in a closed valley and the orographic action of Cerro El Ávila. Caracas record extremes have been reported in other city's stations to reach a minimum of 6 °C (43 °F) and a maximum of 35.5 °C (95.9 °F)[33]

Demographics

According to the population census of 2011 the Caracas proper (Distrito Capital) is over 1.9 million inhabitants,[39] while that of the Metropolitan District of Caracas is estimated at 2.9 million as of 2011. The majority of the population is mixed-race, typically with varying degrees of European, African, Indigenous and occasional Asian ancestry. There is a noteworthy Afro-Venezuelan community formed by residents whose ancestors settled in Caracas after being liberated from slavery as a reward for aiding Bolívar in the Venezuelan War of Independence. Additionally, the city has a large number of both European Venezuelans & Asian Venezuelans who descend from the massive influx of various immigrants Venezuela received from all across Eurasia during the 20th century. The descendants of Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians, Chinese, Colombians, Germans, Syrians and Lebanese stand out.[39][40]

CaracasAvila
Panoramic view of the Caracas valley from Parque Nacional El Ávila

Crime

Petare Slums in Caracas
The slums on the east and west hills of Caracas are the poorest neighborhoods in the city, and where crime tends to be concentrated.

Venezuela and its capital, Caracas, are reported to both have among the highest per capita murder rates in the world. Caracas is the city with the highest homicide rate in the world outside of a warzone, with a 2016 rate of around 120 murders per 100,000 people.[41][42][43][44][45][46] Most murders and other violent crimes go unsolved, with estimates of the number of unresolved crimes as high as 98%.[47][48][49] The U.S. Department of State and British Foreign and Commonwealth Office have issued travel warnings for Venezuela (especially Caracas) due to high rates of crime.[50][51]

Landmarks

Federal Capitol

The Federal Capitol occupies an entire city block, and, with its golden domes and neoclassical pediments, can seem even bigger. The building was commissioned by Antonio Guzmán Blanco in the 1870s, and is most famous for its Salón Elíptico, an oval hall with a mural-covered dome and walls lined with portraits of the country's great and good. The nearby Palacio Municipal de Caracas dating from 1696 was renovated in the Neoclassical style in 1906 and now serves as the city hall and the Caracas Museum.[52]

East Park

The Caracas East Park (Parque del Este, now officially Parque Generalísimo Francisco de Miranda) was designed by Brazilian architect Roberto Burle Marx. It is a green paradise in the middle of the city, and it contains a small zoo. A replica of the ship led by Francisco de Miranda, the Leander, is in the southern part of the park. Before there used to exist a replica of the Santa Maria ship, used by Christopher Colombus in his voyages to America.

Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex

The Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex (Complejo Cultural Teresa Carreño), or more commonly the Teresa Carreño Theatre (Teatro Teresa Carreño), is by far the most important theater of Caracas and Venezuela. The theater presents symphonic and popular concerts, operas, ballet, and dramatic works. It is the second largest theater in South America, after the Teatro Colón of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Nuestra Señora de Caracas
Colonial painting of Our Lady of Caracas, Patroness of the city, and below the city (circa 1766).

Simón Bolívar's Birthplace Home

Skyscrapers may loom overhead, but there is more than a hint of original colonial flavor in this neatly proportioned reconstruction of the house where Simón Bolívar was born on 24 July 1783. The museum's exhibits include period weapons, banners and uniforms.

Much of the original colonial interior has been replaced by monumental paintings of battle scenes, but more personal relics can be seen in the nearby Bolivarian museum. The pride of the place goes to the coffin in which Bolívar's remains were brought from Colombia; his ashes now rest in the National Pantheon.

National Pantheon

Venezuela's most venerated building is five blocks north of Plaza Bolívar, on the northern edge of the old town. Formerly a church, the building was given its new purpose as the final resting place for eminent Venezuelans by Antonio Guzmán Blanco in 1874.

Parque Central Complex

At a short distance east of Plaza Bolívar is Parque Central, a concrete complex of five high-rise residential slabs of somewhat apocalyptic-appearing architecture, crowned by two 56-storey octagonal towers, one of them is under repair due to the fire which burnt the building on 17 October 2004.

Parque Central is Caracas' art and culture hub, with museums, cinemas and the Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex. The West Tower balcony, on the 52nd floor, gives a 360° bird's-eye view of Caracas.

Public squares

  • Plaza Bolívar is the focus of the old town with the monument to El Libertador, Simón Bolívar, at its heart. Modern high-rise buildings have overpowered much of the colonial flavor of Caracas' founding neighbourhood.
  • Plaza Venezuela is the geographic center of Caracas. It is a large urban plaza at the entrance of the Central University of Venezuela. Kinetic artists have displayed their works there, including Carlos Cruz-Diez, Alejandro Otero and Jesus Soto. East of the Plaza is the Plaza Venezuela Fountain, a large computerized display of water, music and colored light refurbished in 2009 to include the latest available technology.[53]
  • Plaza Caracas was constructed in 1983. It is in the Simón Bolívar Center.
  • Plaza San Jacinto dates to 1603 and used to be the site of the city market
  • Plaza Los Palos Grandes is a modern construction located at the municipality of Chacao. It has a display of water and a beautiful coffee shop. this plaza is the center of free yoga lessons for all the people that want to enjoy the city outdoors. It also has its own library.

El Hatillo

El Hatillo is a neighborhood which was previously a colonial town, that is located in the south-east of Caracas in the municipal area of the same name. This small area, which is one of Venezuela's few well-preserved typical colonial areas, gives an idea of what Caracas was like in centuries past.

Cerro El Ávila

Cerro El Ávila (Mountain El Ávila) (Indigenous name: Waraira Repano), is a mountain in the mid-North of Venezuela. It rises next to Caracas and separates the city from the Caribbean Sea. It is considered the lungs of Caracas due to the amount of vegetation on the mountain.

Las Mercedes

This zone contains restaurants with varied gastronomical specialties, along with pubs, bars, pools and art galleries.

Altamira neighborhood

Altamira is a neighborhood in the Chacao municipality of Caracas. It has its own Metro Station, many hotels, malls and restaurants, and is an important business and cultural centre. The Francisco de Miranda avenue (a major avenue in Caracas) and the Distibuidor Altamira (a congested highway exit) are both in Altamira.

Joseph Thomas 1839 000
Caracas, as painted by Joseph Thomas in 1839

Religious buildings

Caracas, Venezuela
Caracas cityscape in the early 1900s.

The Iglesia de San Francisco is of historical value. Bolívar's funeral was held here twelve years after his death. Here he was proclaimed Libertador in 1813 by the people of Caracas. The church has gilded baroque altarpieces, and retains much of its original colonial interior, despite being given a treatment in the 19th century under the auspices of Antonio Guzmán Blanco, which was intended to be modernizing. It contains some 17th-century masterpieces of art, carvings, sculptures and oil paintings. The Central University of Venezuela, established during the reign of Philip V, was lodged for centuries in the church cloisters next door, which today are the seat of the Language Academy, and the Academies of History, Physics, and Mathematics.

Caracas Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Caracas. Basilica of St. Teresa is designated a National Historic Landmark.

The Mosque of Sheikh Ibrahim Al-Ibrahim is the second largest mosque in Latin America. For many years it was the biggest.[54]

The Union Israelita de Caracas is the biggest Synagogue for the Jewish Ashkenazi community in Caracas. Its mission is to host the religious services and preserve the memory of the Jewish heritage in Venezuela. Similarly, Los Caobos the biggest Synagogue for the Jewish Sephardic community in Caracas.

Colleges, universities and international schools

Alejandro Otero Mateo Manaure UCV 1954
Central University of Venezuela
Laberinto Cromovegetal - Universidad Simón Bolívar
Laberinto Cromovegetal, at the Simón Bolívar University
Universidad Metropolitana 2008 000
Aerial view of Universidad Metropolitana

Central University of Venezuela

The Central University of Venezuela (Universidad Central de Venezuela in Spanish) is a public University. Founded in 1721, it is the oldest university in Venezuela and one of the first in Latin America. The university campus was designed by architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and it was declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 2000.[55]

Simón Bolívar University

The Simón Bolívar University (Universidad Simón Bolívar, in Spanish, or USB) is a public institution in Caracas that focuses on science and technology. Its motto is "La Universidad de la Excelencia" ("University of Excellence").

Other universities

International schools

Sports

Universitario-caracas
UCV Baseball Stadium

The city hosted the official 2013 Americas Basketball Championship.

There are professional association football, baseball and several other sports.

Professional teams include Caracas Fútbol Club, Deportivo Petare, Atlético Venezuela, Centro Italo Venezolano, Estrella Roja and Deportivo La Guaira. Deportivo Petare has reached the semi-finals of international tournaments, such as the Copa Libertadores, while the Caracas Fútbol Club has reached the quarterfinals.

Baseball teams Tiburones de La Guaira and Leones del Caracas play in the Estadio Universitario de la UCV, of the Central University of Venezuela, with a capacity of 26,000 spectators.

Another baseball team started in Caracas: the Navegantes del Magallanes. It was moved to Valencia, Carabobo in the 1970s.

Association football stadiums include:

Caracas is the seat of the National Institute of Sports and of the Venezuelan Olympic Committee.

Caracas hosted the 1983 Pan American Games.

Teams

Culture

Pastor de Nubes o Formes de Lutin
Cloud Shepherd, by Hans Arp, UCV

Caracas is Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters, museums, and shopping centers. The city is home to many immigrants from Spain, Italy, Portugal, the Middle East, Germany, China, and Latin American countries.[56][57][58][59]

Transportation

Nivel de los andenes (estación Plaza Venezuela, Caracas Metro)
Inside Plaza Venezuela station of the Caracas Metro
Iafetren
Railway Caracas – Cúa
  • The Caracas Metro has been in operation since 27 March 1983. With 4 lines, 47 stations and about 10 more to be constructed. It covers a great part of the city and also has an integrated ticket system that combines the route of the Metro with those offered by the Metrobús, a bus service of the Caracas Metro. In 2010, the first segment of a new ariel cable car system opened, Metrocable[60] which feeds into the larger metro system.
  • Buses are the main means of mass transportation. There are two bus systems: the traditional system and the Metrobús. The traditional system runs a variety of bus types, operated by several companies on normal streets and avenues:
    • Autobus; large buses
    • Camioneta; medium size buses
    • microbus or camionetica; vans or minivans
  • IFE; train services to and from Tuy Valley cities of Charallave and Cúa
  • Simón Bolívar International Airport, the biggest and most important in the country is located outside the city, roughly 32 kilometres (20 mi) from the downtown area.
  • Caracas Aerial Tramway
  • The Los Teques Metro is a suburban mass-transit system completed in 2006 that connects Caracas with the suburban city of Los Teques.
  • In March 2009 four of the five Caracas districts launched Plan Vía Libre to reduce traffic (the pro-Chavez Jorge Rodríguez' Libertador District is currently not cooperating as the other districts are in the hands of the opposition[61]). On each weekday, cars with certain number plates are banned from entering key parts of the city centre; the numbers rotate so that any particular car is banned one day a week.[62]
  • Generalisimo Francisco de Miranda airbase used by military aviation and govern aeroplane

International relations

Twin towns and Sister Cities

Caracas is twinned with:

Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities

Caracas is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities[67] from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Population projection for federal entities" (PDF). Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  2. ^ "Postal Codes in Caracas". Páginas Amarillas Cantv. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  3. ^ Sub-national HDI. "Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org.
  4. ^ Martín Frechilla, Juan José (2004). Diálogos reconstruidos para una historia de la Caracas moderna. Caracas, Venezuela: CDCH UCV.
  5. ^ a b "Caracas, Presente y Futuro: Ideas para Transformar una Ciudad". Alcaldía de Caracas. 1995.
  6. ^ "Plaza Venezuela (Caracas) - Ciberturista". Ciberturista (in Spanish). 20 January 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  7. ^ Rodríguez, Verónica; Valero, Carla. "Una rayuela que se borra y se vuelve a dibujar cada día. Semblanza de lugar sobre la transformación urbanística y cultural de Sabana Grande" (PDF). Tesis de grado. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  8. ^ Velásquez, Carmen (2004). "Espacio público y movilidad urbana. Sistemas Integrados de Transporte Masivo (SITM)" (PDF). Universitat de Barcelona.
  9. ^ ""¡Bienvenidos al oeste!", así recibieron vecinos a marcha que salió de Chacaito - Efecto Cocuyo". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). 22 April 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  10. ^ a b "Caracas". Caracas.eluniversal.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  11. ^ "The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  12. ^ Valentina Quintero. 1998. Venezuela. Corporación Venezolana de Turismo. Caracas. 118p.
  13. ^ http://lisablackmore.net/?p=1004
  14. ^ "Caracas The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  15. ^ "The Most Dangerous Cities in the World".
  16. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Carácas" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  17. ^ John Lombardi, Venezuela, Oxford, England, 1982, p 72.
  18. ^ "George Somers, Amyas Preston and the Burning of Caracas". The Bermudian. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  19. ^ Maurice Wiesenthal, The History and Geography of a Valley, 1981.
  20. ^ Goldfrank, Benjamin (2011). Deepening Local Democracy in Latin America: Participation, Decentralization, and the Left. Penn State Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-271-07451-1.
  21. ^ "ANC aprobó supresión y liquidación del Área Metropolitana de Caracas" (in Spanish). El Nacional. 20 December 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Sitio Web PDVSA". Pdvsa.com. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  23. ^ "Petróleos de Venezuela S.A." PDVSA. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  24. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 30 March 1985. 130." Retrieved on 17 June 2009.
  25. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 26 March 1988. 125.
  26. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
  27. ^ "The Online Journal of McKinsey & Company". McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  28. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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External links

  • Caracas travel guide from Wikivoyage
1983 Pan American Games

The 1983 Pan American Games were held in Caracas, Venezuela from August 14 to August 29, 1983. The games were the first major international competition to include relatively accurate steroid testing. After 15 athletes, mostly weightlifters, tested positive, many others — including 12 American track and field athletes — came down with injuries, got sick, or found other reasons to withdraw from competition and avoid the test.

Capital District (Venezuela)

The Capital District (Spanish: Distrito Capital) is a federal district of Venezuela. It has an area of 433 km2 and there is only one administrative division (municipio), Libertador, which contains about half of Caracas, the Venezuelan capital city, which is also the seat of the three branches of the federal government of Venezuela. The population in 2004 was 2,073,768. The District borders on the states of Vargas and Miranda.

Captaincy General of Venezuela

The Captaincy General of Venezuela (Spanish: Capitanía General de Venezuela) also known as the Kingdom of Venezuela (Spanish: Reino de Venezuela) was an administrative district of colonial Spain, created on September 8, 1777, through the Royal Decree of Graces of 1777, to provide more autonomy for the provinces of Venezuela, previously under the jurisdiction of the Audiencia of Santo Domingo (and thus the Viceroyalty of New Spain) and then the Viceroyalty of New Granada. It established a unified government in political (governorship), military (captaincy general), fiscal (intendancy) and judicial (audiencia) affairs. Its creation was part of the Bourbon Reforms and laid the groundwork for the future nation of Venezuela, in particular by orienting the province of Maracaibo towards the province of Caracas.

Caracas Cathedral

The Caracas Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Metropolitan archdiocese of Caracas, located on the Plaza Bolívar in Caracas, Venezuela. Its chapel of the Holy Trinity is the burial site of the parents and wife of Simón Bolívar. The Nuestra Senora de Venezuela y Santa Ana is a square (cuadra) situated between the cathedral and the central plaza, which is walled on three sides, but open to the east where it faces the cathedral.

Caracas F.C.

Caracas Fútbol Club is a Venezuelan football team based in Caracas. The club has won eleven First Division titles making it the most successful in Venezuelan football history.They are nicknamed Los Rojos del Ávila, or the "Reds from Ávila". This refers to their red jerseys as well as Cerro El Ávila, a mountain near Caracas.

Central University of Venezuela

The Central University of Venezuela (or Universidad Central de Venezuela, UCV, in Spanish) is a premier public university of Venezuela located in Caracas. It is widely held to be the highest ranking institution in the country, and it also ranks 18th in Latin America. Founded in 1721, it is the oldest university in Venezuela and one of the oldest in the Western Hemisphere .

The main university campus, Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas, was designed by architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and it is considered a masterpiece of urban planning and was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000.

Deportivo La Guaira F.C.

The Deportivo La Guaira, previously Real Esppor, is a professional football club promoted to Venezuelan league in 2009, based in La Guaira but playing its home games in Caracas.

El Universal (Caracas)

El Universal is a major Venezuelan newspaper, headquartered in Caracas with an average daily circulation of about 150,000. The online version carries news, politics, sports, economy and more. El Universal is part of the Latin American Newspaper Association (Spanish, Periódicos Asociados Latinoamericanos), an organization of leading newspapers in Latin America. Its main rival is El Nacional.

Estadio Olímpico (Caracas)

The Estadio Olímpico de la UCV is a football stadium in Caracas, Venezuela, which is the home ground of Caracas FC. It has a capacity of 23,940.

Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas

The Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas (modern spelling variant Gipuzkoan, known also as the Guipuzcoana Company, Spanish: Real Compañia Guipuzcoana de Caracas; Basque: Caracasko Gipuzkoar Errege Konpainia) was a Spanish Basque trading company in the 18th century, operating from 1728 to 1785, which had a monopoly on Venezuelan trade. It was renamed in 1785 the Royal Philippine Company (Spanish: Real Compañia de Filipinas).

Leones del Caracas

The Leones del Caracas (English: Caracas Lions) are a Venezuelan baseball team that currently plays in the Venezuelan Professional Baseball League. In the 2015-16 season, they became the club with the highest average home attendance in the league, with an average of 10,845. The next season, the average attendance was 6,539.

Liga Profesional de Baloncesto

The Liga Profesional de Baloncesto (LPB) is the Venezuelan first division national professional basketball league. The league is considered one of the best in South America. Marinos are the best team historically, as the club has captured a record 11 titles.

The winners and runners-up of each LPB season qualify for the FIBA Americas League regular season.

List of tallest buildings in South America

This list of the tallest buildings in South America ranks skyscrapers in order by height. South America has historically seen a relatively modest demand for skyscrapers. Most of the continent's high-rises are in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and Venezuela, and the tallest buildings are located in Santiago, São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro, Valencia and Bogotá, all of which are the biggest financial centers of these countries.

Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela are the countries with the most skyscrapers. São Paulo is the South American city with most skyscrapers, and the 4th in the world in high-rise buildings.

The majority of the continent's tallest buildings are residential. Office buildings have not historically been built taller than residential buildings in the region, though this scenario may well change in the next decades, as South America has been experiencing substantial economic growth.

List of tallest buildings in Venezuela

This is a list of the tallest buildings in Venezuela.

Miss Venezuela

Miss Venezuela is a national beauty pageant in Venezuela. The pageant is traditionally held in September, preceded by two or three months of preliminary events, including the awarding of corporate prizes. The final competition telecast generally lasts about four hours and is broadcast live across Latin America by Venevisión and produced by the networks parent company Cisneros Group, with edited versions to the United States and Mexico on the Univision and Telemundo networks. From 2013 to 2015, the national contest was split into two separate pageants: Miss Venezuela (to select representatives to Miss Universe, Miss Earth and Miss International) and Miss Venezuela Mundo (to select representative to Miss World).

Venezuela has the most beauty pageant titles in the Big Four international beauty pageants with 23, combining Miss Universe, Miss World, Miss International and Miss Earth, considered the most important pageants in the world. Under the direction of Osmel Sousa, Venezuela has accumulated more Big Four international pageant titles than any other country, including seven Miss Universe winners, six Miss World winners, eighth Miss International winners and two Miss Earth winners. Sousa allegedly resigned amid accusations surrounding sexual exploitation of Miss Venezuela contestants.In recent years, allegations arose that Miss Venezuelan participants have commonly been involved in prostitution and sex acts with wealthy individuals as well as government officials in order to receive sponsorship, cosmetic surgeries and other support. As the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela worsened, Venezuelan women have relied on the pageant to find a way out of the poverty-stricken country. Due to corruption and prostitution scandals surrounding participants, 2018 Miss Venezuela events were postponed.Since 2018, the national director of Miss Venezuela is Gabriela Isler.

RCTV

Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV) was a Venezuelan free-to-air television network headquartered in the Caracas neighborhood of Quinta Crespo. It was sometimes referred to as the Canal de Bárcenas. Owned by Empresas 1BC, Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV) was inaugurated on 15 November 1953 by William H. Phelps, Jr.. Its radio counterpart was Radio Caracas Radio.On 27 May 2007, RCTV made headlines when the Chavist Government of Venezuela decided not to renew their broadcast concession for what it said was the station's role in the 2002 coup which briefly overthrew Venezuela's socialist government. The Supreme Court of Justice (Tribunal Supremo de Justicia or TSJ) upheld the decision by the National Commission of Telecommunications (CONATEL) not to renew RCTV's broadcast license. RCTV continued to broadcast via pay television RCTV Internacional. In January 2010, RCTV was sanctioned with temporary closure for failing to respect Venezuelan media law. It rejected the Venezuelan media regulator's finding that it was a domestic media provider.

In 2010, the Council on Foreign Relations described RCTV as "the most important independent television station in Venezuela".

Simón Bolívar International Airport (Venezuela)

Simón Bolívar International Airport or Maiquetía "Simón Bolívar" International Airport (IATA: CCS, ICAO: SVMI, Spanish: Aeropuerto Internacional de Maiquetia "Simón Bolívar") is an international airport located in Maiquetía, Vargas, Venezuela about 21 kilometres (13 mi) from downtown Caracas, the capital of the country. Simply called Maiquetía by the local population, it is the main international air passenger gateway to Venezuela. It handles flights to destinations in the Americas, the Caribbean and some in Europe.

Venezuelan Primera División

The Primera División (pronounced [pɾiˈmeɾa ðiβiˈsjon]; English: First Division), or Liga Venezolana (locally [ˈliɣa βenesoˈlana]; English: Venezuelan League) is the top-flight professional football league of Venezuela. It was created in 1921 and turned professional in 1957. It's organized by the Federación Venezolana de Fútbol.

Venezuelan Professional Baseball League

The Venezuelan Professional Baseball League or Liga Venezolana de Béisbol Profesional in Spanish (LVBP) is the highest level baseball league in Venezuela.

Caracas Divisions
Northwest
Center
Southwest
Centereastern
South
Eastern
Southeastern

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