Capua

Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, in the region of Campania, southern Italy, situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.

Capua
Comune di Capua
Capua (ponte)
Coat of arms of Capua

Coat of arms
Location of Capua
Capua is located in Italy
Capua
Capua
Location of Capua in Italy
Capua is located in Campania
Capua
Capua
Capua (Campania)
Coordinates: 41°06′20″N 14°12′50″E / 41.10556°N 14.21389°E
CountryItaly
RegionCampania
ProvinceCaserta (CE)
FrazioniSant'Angelo in Formis
Government
 • MayorEduardo Centore
Area
 • Total48.6 km2 (18.8 sq mi)
Elevation
25 m (82 ft)
Population
(2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total18,484
 • Density380/km2 (990/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Capuani
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
81043
Dialing code0823
Patron saintSt. Agatha
Saint day5 February
WebsiteOfficial website

History

Ancient era

The name of Capua comes from the Etruscan Capeva.[3] The meaning is 'City of Marshes'. Its foundation is attributed by Cato the Elder to the Etruscans, and the date given as about 260 years before it was "taken" by Rome. If this is true it refers not to its capture in the Second Punic War (211 BC) but to its submission to Rome in 338 BC, placing the date of foundation at about 600 BC, while Etruscan power was at its highest. In the area several settlements of the Villanovian civilization were present in prehistoric times, and these were probably enlarged by the Oscans and subsequently by the Etruscans.

Etruscan supremacy in Campania came to an end with the Samnite invasion in the latter half of the 5th century BC.

About 424 BC it was captured by the Samnites and in 343 BC besought Roman help against its conquerors. Capua entered into alliance with Rome for protection against the Samnite mountain tribes, along with its dependent communities Casilinum, Calatia, Atella, so that the greater part of Campania now fell under Roman supremacy. The citizens of Capua received the civitas sine suffragio (citizenship without the vote).

In the second Samnite War with Rome, Capua proved an untrustworthy Roman ally, so that after the defeat of the Samnites, the Ager Falernus on the right bank of the Volturnus was confiscated. In 318 BC the powers of the native officials (meddices) were limited by the appointment of officials with the title praefecti Capuam Cumas (taking their name from the most important towns of Campania); these were at first mere deputies of the praetor urbanus, but after 123 BC were elected Roman magistrates, four in number; they governed the whole of Campania until the time of Augustus, when they were abolished. It was the capital of Campania Felix.

In 312 BC, Capua was connected with Rome by the construction of the Via Appia, the most important of the military highways of Italy. The gate by which it left the Servian walls of Rome bore the name Porta Capena; perhaps the only case in which a gate in this line of fortifications bears the name of the place to which it led. At what time the Via Latina was stretched to Casilinum is doubtful (it is quite possible that it was done when Capua fell under Roman supremacy, i.e. before the construction of the Via Appia); it afforded a route only 10 km (6.2 mi) longer, and the difficulties with its construction were much less; it also avoided the troublesome journey through the Pontine Marshes.

The importance of Capua increased steadily during the 3rd century BC, and at the beginning of the Second Punic War it was considered to be only slightly behind Rome and Carthage themselves, and was able to furnish 30,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry. Until after the defeat of Cannae it remained faithful to Rome, but, after a vain demand that one of the consuls should always be selected from it or perhaps in order to secure regional supremacy in the event of a Carthaginian victory, it defected to Hannibal, who made it his winter quarters: he and his army were voluntarily received by Capua. Livy and others have suggested that the luxurious conditions were Hannibal's "Cannae" because his troops became soft and demoralized by luxurious living. Historians from Bosworth Smith onwards have been skeptical of this, observing that his troops gave as good an account of themselves in battle after that winter as before. After a long siege, it was taken by the Romans in 211 BC and severely punished (Second Battle of Capua); its magistrates and communal organization were abolished, the inhabitants who weren't killed lost their civic rights, and its territory was declared ager publicus (Roman state domain). Parts of it were sold in 205 BC and 199 BC, another part was divided among the citizens of the new colonies of Volturnum and Liternum, established near the coast in 194 BC, but the greater portion of it was reserved to be let by the state.

Considerable difficulties occurred in preventing illegal encroachments by private persons, and it became necessary to buy a number of them out in 162 BC. It was, after that period, let, not to large but to small proprietors. Frequent attempts were made by the democratic leaders to divide the land among new settlers. Brutus in 83 BC actually succeeded in establishing a colony, but it was soon dissolved; and Cicero's speeches De Lege Agrania were directed against a similar attempt by Servilius Rullus in 63 BC.

In the meantime the necessary organization of the inhabitants of this thickly populated district was in a measure supplied by grouping them round important shrines, especially that of Diana Tifatina, in connection with which a pagus Dianae existed, as we learn from many inscriptions; a pagus Herculaneus is also known.

The town of Capua belonged to none of these organizations, and was entirely dependent on the praefecti. It enjoyed great prosperity, however, due to their growing of spelt, a grain that was put into groats, wine, roses, spices, unguents etc., and also owing to its manufacture, especially of bronze objects, of which both the elder Cato and the elder Pliny speak in the highest terms.

Its luxury remained proverbial; and Campania is especially spoken of as the home of gladiatorial combats. From the gladiatorial schools of Campania came Spartacus and his followers in 73 BC. Julius Caesar as consul in 59 BC succeeded in carrying out the establishment of a Roman colony under the name Julia Felix in connection with his agrarian law, and 20,000 Roman citizens were settled in this territory.

The number of colonists was increased by Mark Antony, Augustus (who constructed an aqueduct from the Mons Tifata and gave the town of Capua estates in the district of Knossos in Crete valued at 12 million sesterces) and Nero.

In the war of 69 it took the side of Vitellius. Under the later empire it is not often mentioned; but in the 4th century it was the seat of the consularis Campaniae and its chief town, though Ausonius puts it behind Mediolanum (Milan) and Aquileia in his ordo nobilium urbium.

Middle Ages

Under Constantine, we hear of the foundation of a Christian church in Capua. In 456, it was taken and destroyed by the Vandals under Gaiseric, but must have been soon rebuilt.

During the Gothic War, Capua suffered greatly. When the Lombards invaded Italy in the second half of the 6th century, Capua was ravaged; later, it was included in the Duchy of Benevento, and ruled by an official styled gastald.

In 839, the prince of Benevento, Sicard, was assassinated by Radelchis I of Benevento, who took over the throne. Sicard's brother Siconulf was proclaimed independent prince in Salerno and the gastald of Capua declared himself independent.

In 840, ancient Capua was burned to the ground by a band of Saracen mercenaries called by Radelchis I of Benevento[4] with only the church of Santa Maria Maggiore (founded about 497) remaining. A new city was built in 856, but at some distance from the former site, where another town later appeared under the name of Santa Maria Capua Vetere ("Capua the Old").

Prince Atenulf I conquered Benevento in 900 and united the principalities until 981, when Pandulf Ironhead separated them in his will for his children. Capua eclipsed Benevento thereafter and became the chief rival of Salerno. Under Pandulf IV, the principality brought in the aid of the Normans and, for a while had the loyalty of Rainulf Drengot, until the latter abandoned him to aid the deposed Sergius IV of Naples take back his city, annexed by Pandulf in 1027.

Upon Pandulf's death, Capua fell to his weaker sons and, in 1058, the city itself fell in a siege to Rainulf's nephew Richard I, who took the title Prince of Aversa. For seven years (1091–1098), Richard II was exiled from his city, but with the aid of his relatives, he retook the city after a siege in 1098. His dynasty lived on as princes of Capua until the last claimant of their line died in 1156 and the principality was definitively united to the kingdom of Sicily. Hereafter, Capua is no longer the capital of a larger principality, but a minor city in an important kingdom.

In the early 1500s, it was reported to Pope Alexander VI that his son, Cesare Borgia, had captured the city and promptly killed all 6,000 citizens, which included women and children, while commanding French troops during the sieges of Naples and Capua.[5]

Modern Age

On 3 January 1799, during the French Revolutionary Wars, this community was successfully attacked by a French-controlled 1798–1799 Roman Republic Army led by Governor MacDonald.

The Battle of Volturnus (1860), at the conclusion of Garibaldi's Expedition of the Thousand, partially took place in and around Capua. Prior to the battle, the Neapolitan army – defeated in earlier engagements – was rebuilt in Capua under marshal Giosuè Ritucci. After fighting elsewhere in which the Neapolitans were ultimately defeated, the last of them – c. 3,000 troops Colonel Perrone – were holed up in Capua. The city was attacked by the Garibaldines and one Piedmontese regular Bersaglieri battalion, and captured. In the referendum several months later, its inhabitants voted overwhelmingly to join the new Kingdom of Italy.

Archaeological sites

Remains

No pre-Roman remains have been found within the town of Capua itself, but important cemeteries have been discovered on all sides of it, the earliest of which go back to the 7th or 5th century.

The tombs are of various forms, partly chambers with frescoes on the walls, partly cubical blocks of peperino, hollowed out, with grooved lids. The objects found within them consist mainly of vases of bronze (many of them without feet, and with incised designs of Etruscan style) and of clay, some of Greek, some of local manufacture, and of paintings. On the east of the town, in the Patturelli property, a temple has been discovered with Oscan votive inscriptions originally thought to be Oscan, now recognized as Etruscan, some of them inscribed upon terracotta tablets, the most famous of which is the Tabula Capuana, conserved in Berlin, still, after more than a century of searching, the second-longest Etruscan text. Other brief inscriptions are on cippi. A group of 150 tuff statuettes represent a matron holding one or more children in her lap: three bore Latin inscriptions of the early Imperial period.

The site of the town being in a perfectly flat plain, without natural defences, it was possible to lay it out regularly. Its length from east to west is accurately determined by the fact that the Via Appia, which runs from north-west to south-east from Casilinum to Calatia, turns due east very soon after passing the so-called Arch of Hadrian (a triumphal arch of brickwork, once faced with marble, with three openings, erected in honour of some emperor unknown), and continues to run in this direction for 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) (6,000 ancient Oscan feet).

The west gate was the Porta Romana; remains of the east gate (the name of which we do not know) have been found. This fact shows that the main street of the town was perfectly oriented, and that before the Via Appia was constructed, i.e. in all probability in pre-Roman times. The width of the town from north to south cannot be so accurately determined as the line of the north and south walls is not known, though it can be approximately fixed by the absence of tombs. Beloch fixes it at 4,000 Oscan feet = 1,100 metres (3,600 ft), nor is it absolutely certain (though it is in the highest degree probable, for Cicero praises its regular arrangement and fine streets) that the plan of the town was rectangular.

Within the town are remains of public baths on the north of the Via Appia and of a theatre opposite, on the south. The former consisted of a large cryptoporticus round three sides of a court, the south side being open to the road; it now lies under the prisons. Beloch (see below) attributes this to the Oscan period; but the construction as shown in Labruzzi's drawing (v. 17) 1 is partly of brick-work and opus reticulatum, which may, of course, belong to a restoration. The stage of the theatre had its back to the road; Labruzzi (v. 18) gives an interesting view of the cavea. It appears from inscriptions that it was erected after the time of Augustus.

Other inscriptions, however, prove the existence of a theatre as early as 94 BC. The Roman colony was divided into regions and possessed a capitolium, with a temple of Jupiter, within the town, and the marketplace, for unguents especially, was called Seplasia; we also hear of an aedes alba, probably the original senate house, which stood in an open space known as albana. But the sites of all these are uncertain. A Mithraeum may also be seen, by appointment.[6]

Amphitheatre

Outside the town, in Santa Maria Capua Vetere, there is the amphitheatre, built in the time of Augustus, restored by Hadrian and dedicated by Antoninus Pius, as the inscription over the main entrance recorded. The exterior was formed by 80 Doric arcades of four stories each, but only two arches now remain. The keystones were adorned with heads of divinities.

The interior is better preserved; beneath the arena are subterranean passages like those in the amphitheatre at Puteoli. It is one of the largest in existence; the longer diameter is 170 metres (560 ft), the shorter 140 metres (460 ft), and the arena measures 75 by 45 metres (246 by 148 ft), the corresponding dimensions in the Colosseum at Rome being 188, 155, 85, 53 metres (615, 510, 279 and 174 ft).

Dimensions of the largest amphitheatres of the Roman Empire
Colosseum (Rome, Italy) 188 × 156 m
Capua (Italy) 167 × 137 m
Italica (Spain): 157 × 134 m
Tours 156 × 134 m
Carthage (Tunisia) 156 × 128 m
Autun 154 × 130 m
Nîmes 133 × 101 m

To the east are considerable remains of baths — a large octagonal building, an apse against which the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie is built, and several heaps of debris. On the Via Appia, to the south-east of the east gate of the town, arc two large and well-preserved tombs of the Roman period, known as le Carceri vecchie and la Conocchia.

To the east of the amphitheatre an ancient road, the Via Dianae, leads north to the Pagus Dianae, on the west slopes of the Mons Tifata, a community which sprang up around the famous and ancient temple of Diana, and probably received an independent organization after the abolition of that of Capua in 211 BC. The place often served as a base for attacks on the latter, and Sulla, after his defeat of Gaius Norbanus, gave the whole of the mountain to the temple.

Within the territory of the pagus were several other temples with their magistri. After the restoration of the community of Capua, we find magistri of the temple of Diana still existing, but they were probably officials of Capua itself.

The site is occupied by the Benedictine church of San Michele Arcangelo in Sant'Angelo in Formis. It dates from 944, and was reconstructed by the abbot Desiderius (afterwards Pope Victor III) of Monte Cassino. It has interesting paintings, dating from the end of the 11th century to the middle of the 12th, in which five different styles may be distinguished. They form a complete representation of all the chief episodes of the New Testament. Deposits of votive objects (favissae), removed from the ancient temple from time to time as new ones came in and occupied all the available space, have been found, and considerable remains of buildings belonging to the Vicus Dianae (among them a triumphal arch and some baths, also a hail with frescoes, representing the goddess herself ready for the chase) still exist.

The ancient road from Capua went on beyond the Vicus Dianae to the Volturnus (remains of the bridge still exist) and then turned east along the river valley to Caiatia and Telesia. Other roads ran to Puteoli and Cumae (the so-called Via Campana) and to Neapolis, and as we have seen the Via Appia passed through Capua, which was thus the most important road centre of Campania.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ The Etruscans - Michael Grant - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  4. ^ Pieurre Riche, The Carolingians: A Family who forged Europe, transl. Michael Idomir Allen, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993), 181.
  5. ^ The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571: The Fifteenth Century(Page 538)
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 2007-11-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

Sources

Amphitheatre of Capua

The Amphitheatre of Capua was a Roman amphitheatre in the city of Capua (modern Santa Maria Capua Vetere), second only to the Colosseum in size and probably the model for it. It may have been the first amphitheatre to be built by the Romans. and was the location of the first and most famous gladiator school.

The amphitheatre was the location of the outbreak of the revolt of Spartacus in 73 BC, which threatened the city of Rome for two years in the period immediately preceding the First Triumvirate.

Today its remains are found in the comune of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, on Piazza I Ottobre. Much of the stone from the amphitheatre was reused by the Capuans in the Norman period in order to build the Castello delle Pietre. Some of the ornamental busts which were originally used as keystones for the arches of the amphitheatre are found today in the facade of the Palazzo del comune of Capua. Since December 2014, the museum, amphitheatre and mithraeum have been under the control of the state museum of Campania.

Arch of Hadrian (Capua)

The Arch of Hadrian (also called the "Arches of Capua" or the "Lucky Arch") is an ancient Roman triumphal arch located in Santa Maria Capua Vetere (ancient Capua, now in the Province of Caserta, southern Italy). It was originally a triple arch, but today only three pylons and one of the lateral arches survive. It spanned the Appian Way and constituted an ideal entrance to the city, perhaps corresponding to the line of the pomerium.

Archipini

The Archipini are a tribe of tortrix moths. Since many genera of these are not yet assigned to tribes, the genus list presented here is provisional.

Battle of Capua

The First Battle of Capua was fought in 212 BC between Hannibal and two Roman consular armies. The Roman force was led by two consuls, Quintus Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius Pulcher. The Roman force was defeated, but managed to escape. Hannibal temporarily managed to raise the siege of Capua. A tactical Carthaginian victory, but ultimately it did not help the Capuans.

Capys

In Roman and Greek mythology, Capys (; Ancient Greek: Κάπυς) was a name attributed to three individuals:

Capys, king of Dardania.

Capys, the Trojan who warned not to bring the Trojan horse into the city.

Capys, mythological king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas. Said to have reigned from 963 to 935 BC.According to Roman sources, in the Etruscan language the word capys meant "hawk" or "falcon" (or possibly "eagle" or "vulture").

Casilinum

Casilinum was an ancient city of Campania, Italy, situated some 3 miles north-west of the ancient Capua. The position of Casilinum at the junction of the Via Appia and Via Latina, at their crossing of the river Volturnus by a still-existing three-arched bridge, gave the town considerable strategic importance during the Roman Republic.

Casilinum was located where the modern city of Capua now stands, while the ancient Capua was located on the site of the modern Santa Maria Capua Vetere.

While the original pre-Roman town, doubtless dependent on neighboring Capua, stood entirely on the left (south) bank surrounded on three sides by the river, the Roman city extended to the right bank also. Remains of this later town have been found at some 25 feet below the modern ground-level, the river-bed having since risen considerably.

During the Second Punic War, Casilinum was first occupied by Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus in 217 BCE. The town was taken by Hannibal after a gallant defence by troops from Praeneste and Perusia in the winter of 216-215 BCE, but recaptured by Roman forces the following year, thereafter serving the Romans as a base of operations against rebellious Capua.

Casilinum eventually lost its independence and became a praefectura. Caesar founded a colony at the town in 59 BCE, which was subsequently renewed by Mark Antony in 44 BCE. The veterans settled within the town took the side of Octavian after Caesar's death.

Casilinum appears to have been united with Capua sometime before the reign of Vespasian—the name of the town does not appear in the list of independent communities given by Pliny, who rather (Hist. Nat. iii.70) speaks of the morientis Casilini reliquiae. Only its position at the junction of major roads appears to have redeemed it from insignificance.

Eduardo di Capua

Eduardo Di Capua (March 12, 1865 – October 3, 1917) was a Neapolitan composer, singer and songwriter.

Giuseppe Di Capua

Giuseppe "Peppiniello" Di Capua (born 15 March 1958) is an Italian competition rower and Olympic champion.Di Capua was born in Salerno. He received a gold medal in coxed pairs as cox, with Giuseppe Abbagnale and Carmine Abbagnale, at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, and again at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. The crew won silver medals at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona behind another pair of brothers, Greg and Jonny Searle. In 2013 he won a silver medal at the World Rowing Championships in Chungju, Korea, coxing the Italian LTA mixed coxed four, and in 2014 a bronze in the same event at the World Championships in Amsterdam.

Janet Leigh

Janet Leigh (born Jeanette Helen Morrison; July 6, 1927 – October 3, 2004) was an American actress, singer, dancer, and author. Raised in Stockton, California, by working-class parents, Leigh was discovered at age eighteen by actress Norma Shearer, who helped her secure a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Leigh had her first formal foray into acting appearing in radio programs before making her film debut in The Romance of Rosy Ridge (1947).

Early in her career, she appeared in several popular films for MGM which spanned a wide variety of genres, including Act of Violence (1948), Little Women (1949), Angels in the Outfield (1951), Scaramouche (1952), The Naked Spur (1953), and Living It Up (1954). Leigh played mostly dramatic roles during the latter half of the 1950s, in such films as Safari (1956) and Orson Welles's film noir Touch of Evil (1958), but achieved her most lasting recognition as the doomed Marion Crane in Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960), which earned her a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress and an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress.

Her highly publicized marriage to actor Tony Curtis ended in divorce in 1962, and after starring in The Manchurian Candidate that same year, Leigh scaled back her career. Intermittently, she continued to appear in films, including Bye Bye Birdie (1963), Harper (1966), Night of the Lepus (1972), and Boardwalk (1979). In late 1975, she made her Broadway debut in a production of Murder Among Friends. She would also go on to appear in two horror films with her daughter, Jamie Lee Curtis: The Fog (1980) and Halloween H20: 20 Years Later (1998).

In addition to her work as an actress, Leigh also wrote four books between 1984 and 2002, two of which were novels. She died in October 2004 at age 77, following a year-long battle with vasculitis, an inflammation of the blood vessels.

List of Princes of Capua

This is a list of the rulers of the Principality of Capua.

Matthew Tarrant

Matthew Tarrant (born 11 July 1990) is a British rower. He won a gold medal in the eight at the 2014 World Championships.

Norman conquest of southern Italy

The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors. In 1130 these territories in southern Italy united as the Kingdom of Sicily, which included the island of Sicily, the southern third of the Italian Peninsula (except Benevento, which was briefly held twice), the archipelago of Malta and parts of North Africa.

Itinerant Norman forces arrived in the Mezzogiorno as mercenaries in the service of Lombard and Byzantine factions, communicating news swiftly back home about opportunities in the Mediterranean. These groups gathered in several places, establishing fiefdoms and states of their own, uniting and elevating their status to de facto independence within fifty years of their arrival.

Unlike the Norman conquest of England (1066), which took a few years after one decisive battle, the conquest of southern Italy was the product of decades and a number of battles, few decisive. Many territories were conquered independently, and only later were unified into a single state. Compared to the conquest of England, it was unplanned and disorganised, but equally complete.

Principality of Capua

The Principality of Capua (Latin: Principatus Capuae or Capue, Italian: Principato di Capua) was a Lombard state centred on Capua in Southern Italy, usually de facto independent, but under the varying suzerainty of Western and Eastern Roman Empires. It was originally a gastaldate, then a county, within the principality of Salerno.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Capua

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Capua (Latin: Archidioecesis Capuana) is an archdiocese (originally a suffragan bishopric) of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy, but its archbishop no longer holds metropolitan rank and has no ecclesiastical province. Its see is in Capua, in Campania near Naples. Since 1979, it is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Napoli in Naples, i.e. no longer has its own ecclesiastical province nor metropolitan status. In 2013 in the Archdiocese of Capua there was one priest for every 2,345 Catholics.

Santa Maria Capua Vetere

Santa Maria Capua Vetere (Neapolitan: Santa Maria 'e Capua) is a town and comune in the province of Caserta, part of the region of Campania (southern Italy).

Though it is not connected with the Civitas Capuana, the town is a medieval place and its proximity to the Roman amphitheatre led the inhabitants to change its name in Santa Maria Capua Vetere, where Capua Vetere means Old Capua.

Siege of Capua (211 BC)

The Siege of Capua was fought in 211 BC, when the Romans besieged Capua. It is described by Polybius at 9.4-7, and by Livy at 26.4-6.

Capua had defected to Hannibal after the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC. Hannibal had made Capua his winter quarter in 215 BC and had conducted his campaigns against Nola and Casilinum from there. The Romans had attempted to march on Capua several times since its defection but were thwarted by the return of Hannibal's army rushing to its defence; the latest attempt had cost them some 16,000 men at the Battle of Herdonia in 212 BC. By 211 BC, Hannibal was busy in the south of Italia and the Romans were ready to try again, banking on taking it before Hannibal's army could return to Capua.

Hannibal feared that if he approached Capua, the Romans would simply withdraw, as they had done on other occasions, only to return to lay siege again once he had left. He thus tried to break the siege by marching on Rome itself, hoping that that threat would force the Roman army to break off the siege and march back to Rome to defend it. Once the Roman army was in the open, he would then turn to engage it in a pitched battle and defeat them once again, freeing Capua from the threat. However, Hannibal found the defences of Rome too formidable for an assault and as he had only planned this movement as a feint, he lacked both the supplies and equipment for a siege. The Roman besiegers of Capua, knowing this, ignored his march on Rome and refused to break off their siege. His feint having failed, Hannibal was forced to retreat south and Capua unrelieved fell to the Romans shortly afterwards.

Tabula Capuana

The Tabula Capuana (Tegola di Capua, Tablet from Capua), is an ancient terracotta slab, 60 by 50 centimeters, with a long inscribed text, apparently a ritual calendar, of which about 390 words are legible. It is now in Berlin. It is the second most extensive surviving Etruscan text.

Horizontal scribed lines divide the text into ten sections. The writing is most similar to that used in Campania in the mid 5th century BC, though surely the text being transcribed is much older. It is an archaic ten-month year beginning in March (Etruscan Velxitna).

Attempts at deciphering the text (Mauro Cristofani, 1995) are most generally based on the supposition that it prescribes certain rites on certain days of the year at certain places for certain deities. The text itself was edited by Francesco Roncalli, in Scrivere etrusco 1985.The tablet was uncovered in 1898 in the burial ground of Santa Maria Capua Vetere.The first longest is the linen book (Liber Linteus) used in ancient Egypt for mummy wrappings, now at Zagreb.

The third longest Etruscan inscription now is the cast bronze inscription found at Cortona in 1992, the Tabula Cortonensis.)

Tortricidae

The Tortricidae are a family of moths, commonly known as tortrix moths or leafroller moths, in the order Lepidoptera. This large family has over 10,350 species described, and is the sole member of the superfamily Tortricoidea, although the genus Heliocosma is sometimes placed within this superfamily. Many of these are economically important pests. Olethreutidae is a junior synonym. The typical resting posture is with the wings folded back, producing a rather rounded profile.

Notable tortricids include the codling moth and the spruce budworm, which are among the most well-studied of all insects because of their economic impact.

’O sole mio

"’O sole mio" (Neapolitan pronunciation: [o ˈsoːlə ˈmiːə]) is a globally known Neapolitan song written in 1898. Its lyrics were written by Giovanni Capurro and the music was composed by Eduardo di Capua and Alfredo Mazzucchi (1878–1972). There are other versions of "’O sole mio" but it is usually sung in the original Neapolitan language. ’O sole mio is the Neapolitan equivalent of standard Italian Il mio sole and translates literally as "my sunshine".

Landmarks of Campania

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