Captains Regent

The Captains Regent (Italian: Capitani reggenti) are the two heads of state of the Republic of San Marino. They are elected every six months by the Grand and General Council, the country's legislative body. Normally the Regents are chosen from opposing parties and they serve a six-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October every year. This tradition dates back to 1243.[1]

The practice of dual heads of government (diarchy) is derived directly from the customs of the Roman Republic, equivalent to the consuls of ancient Rome.

History

The establishment of the regency took place during the first half of the 13th century, when they had the role of managing justice, a task similar to competence of magistrates. During that period they were called consuls, which derived from ancient Rome. The first two known consuls were elected on 12 December 1243 by the Grand and General Council with a six-month term which is still used today.

At the end of the 13th century, the name of the institution started to change, as one took the title of "captain" and the other one of "defender", then in 1317 they became Captain and Rector. One usually belonged to the upper class, to guarantee the possession of skills necessary to govern the Republic with competence, and one to the working class.

In 1972 a law was passed to abolish all the restrictions which prevented women from taking public positions. A woman, Maria Lea Pedini-Angelini, was elected Captain Regent for the first time on 1 April 1981.[2] On 1 April 2017, for the first time two women, Vanessa D'Ambrosio and Mimma Zavoli, concurrently occupied the posts of Captains Regent, until their term ended on 1 October 2017. To date, after electing its 15th and 16th female Captain Regent, San Marino is the country with most female heads of state in the World.

Election

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The throne of the Captains Regent

The Captains Regent are elected every six months by the Grand and General Council, and they usually belong to opposite parties to grant a minimal amount of balance and an equal supervision. The electoral procedure is disciplined by a 1945 law, which is mainly based on the 17th century statutes.[3]

The pair is elected if it achieves an absolute majority; there is a second ballot if no pair gets enough votes.

Eligibility

To be eligible for election the candidate should have the following requirements:

Power

The Regency is considered the supreme office of the Republic. The Captains Regent are the head of the state, a function which they carry out as a single body, with a reciprocal right of veto. They have the right to be addressed with the honorific title of Excellency.

The Captains Regent are impartial and their power is mainly symbolic, as their main duty is to represent the country and to guarantee the constitutional order. They supervise the Grand and General Council, the Congress of State, and the Council of the XII but without any right to vote or to decide. They dissolve the parliament when the legislature is over or when it is unable to form a stable government. The Captains Regent also have the power to promulgate and order the publication of the laws approved by the Grand and General Council.

Regency Syndicate

The Captains Regent cannot be prosecuted in any way during their mandate, at the end of which they are subject to the Regency Syndicate. This judgement, established by the Statues in 1499, is now fulfilled by the Guarantors’ Panel on the Constitutionality of Rules, following the revision of the Declaration on the Citizens’ Rights. The procedure provides that, within fifteen days after the conclusion of their mandate, every citizen registered in the electoral lists may submit claims against the Captains Regent "for what they have and have not done" during their mandate.

List of Captains Regent

See also

References

  1. ^ "Captains Regent - Repubblica di San Marino, portale ufficiale". Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  2. ^ "Women Captains Regent". Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  3. ^ "Election of the Captains Regent". Retrieved 31 January 2016.

External links

Alessandro Rossi (Captains Regent)

Alessandro Rossi (born 10 August 1967) was one of the two Captains Regent of San Marino for the six-month term from April 1 to October 1, 2007, together with Alessandro Mancini.

Rossi is a member of the United Left.

Antonello Bacciocchi

Antonello Bacciocchi (born 1957-died in 2007) is a Sammarinese politician. He was one of the captains-regent of San Marino until his term with Claudio Muccioli expired on April 1, 2006. As is traditional in San Marino, the term started on October 1, 2005; he had previously served as a captain-regent from April 1, 1999 to October 1, 1999. Bacciocchi is a member of the San Marinese Socialist Party.

Cesare Gasperoni

Cesare Antonio Gasperoni was one of the two Captains Regent of San Marino from October 1, 1990 to April 1, 1991 and from April 1, 2005 to October 1, 2005.Gasperoni is a member of the San Marinese Christian Democratic Party (PDCS).

Fabio Berardi

Fabio Berardi (born May 26, 1959 in Borgo Maggiore, San Marino) is a Sammarinese politician.

He served as a Captain Regent of San Marino from April 2001 until October 2001 and from October 2016 to April 2017. From October 2001 until December 2003, he served as Secretary of State for Planning, Environment and Agriculture. From January 2004 until July 2006 he served as the minister of foreign and political affairs of San Marino until he was succeeded on July 27 by Fiorenzo Stolfi. From July 2006, he was minister of public health until September 2008. Since December 2008, he has served as Secretary of State for Tourism, Sports, Economic Planning and Relations.Berardi was a member of the Sammarinese Socialist Party and its successor the Party of Socialists and Democrats until September 2008 when he and another member, Nadia Ottaviani, splintered off to form a new party, Arengo and Freedom, which he now leads.

Fausta Morganti

Fausta Simona Morganti (born 20 August 1944) was one of the two Captains Regent of San Marino.Morganti was elected for the six-months term from April 1, 2005 to October 1, 2005, with Cesare Gasperoni.

Morganti is a member of the Party of Democrats. Along with Clara Boscaglia and Marina Busignani Reffi, she was one of the first three women elected to the Grand and General Council, in 1974; ultimately Reffi did not take her seat, though Boscaglia did.

Gabriele Gatti

Gabriele Gatti (born 27 March 1953) is a Sammarinese politician who was a captain regent (head of government for San Marino) for the October, 2011 to April, 2012 political term. The post was shared with Matteo Fiorini.Gabriele Gatti, on 28 November 2011, denied all accusations of being the political reference, of the San Marino Connection, falling in Staffa Operation.On 18 September 2012, Gabriele Gatti was mentioned several times in the "Final Report of the Council Commission for the phenomenon of infiltration of organized crime with powers of investigation" prepared by the Sammarinese Anti-Mafia Commission.

Giovanni Lonfernini

Giovanni Lonfernini (born 2 October 1976) was captain regent of San Marino for the semester from October 2003 to March 2004. He is of the Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party, and his co-captain-regent was Valeria Ciavatta.

Lonfernini was the second captain regent of this name, the previous one having served in 1934, 1937, and 1941; see List of Captains Regent of San Marino.

List of Captains Regent of San Marino

The Captains Regent (Italian: Capitani reggenti) of San Marino are elected every six months by the Grand and General Council—the country's parliament. The duo serve as heads of state and government. Normally the Regents are chosen from opposing parties. They serve a six-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October every year, beginning in 1243.

The practice of dual heads of government (diarchy) is derived directly from the customs of the Roman Republic, equivalent to the consuls of ancient Rome.

List of Captains Regent of San Marino, 1700–1900

This is a list of Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti) of San Marino from 1700 to 1900.

List of state leaders in the 20th century (1901–1950)

State leaders in the 19th century – State leaders: 1951–2000 – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 20th century (1901–1950) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

List of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000)

State leaders: 1901–1950 – State leaders in the 21st century – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, including states with limited recognition (when recognised by at least one UN member state), but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

List of state leaders in the 21st century

State leaders: 1951–2000 – Current state leaders – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 21st century (2001–present) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, or the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, including states with limited recognition (when recognised by at least one UN member state), but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 21st century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Luigi Lonfernini

Luigi Lonfernini (born August 31, 1938) was Captain Regent of San Marino in 1971 and 2001. He is also a lawyer and banker. He served as a member of the Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party. He received a law degree from the University of Bologna.

Marino Riccardi

Marino Riccardi (born July 9, 1958) is a politician from the nation of San Marino. He is a member of the Party of Democrats. He has been a captain-regent three times, from October 1991 to April 1992, from April 2004 until October 2004, and from October 2016 to April 2017.

Matteo Fiorini

Matteo Fiorini (born 10 February 1978) is a Sammarinese politician who was a Captain Regent (head of government for San Marino) for the October 2011 to April 2012 political term. The post was shared with Gabriele Gatti. He also served with Enrico Carattoni as Captain Regent from October 2017 until April 2018.

Michele Muratori

Michele Muratori (born 13 December 1983) is a Sammarinese politician and one of the current Captains Regent, serving with Nicola Selva. He took office on 1 April 2019.

Nicola Selva

Nicola Selva (born 4 July 1962) is a Sammarinese politician and a retired sprinter. He is one of the current Captains Regent, serving with Michele Muratori. He took office on 1 April 2019.

Politics of San Marino

Politics of San Marino takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Captains Regent are the heads of state and heads of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

San Marino was originally led by the Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family. In the 13th century, power was given to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council and is still in use today.

Teodoro Lonfernini

Teodoro Lonfernini (born 12 May 1976) is a Sammarinese politician and former Captain Regent. He held the post from October 1, 2012 to April 1, 2013, with Denise Bronzetti. He was previously a member of the Grand and General Council.Lonfernini was the second captain regent of this name, the previous one having served in 1944-1945; see List of Captains Regent of San Marino.

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