Captaincy General of Santo Domingo

Santo Domingo, officially Captaincy General of Santo Domingo (Spanish: Capitanía General de Santo Domingo [kapitaˈni.a xeneˈɾal ðe ˈsanto ðoˈmĩnɣo]) or alternatively Kingdom of Santo Domingo (Spanish: Reino de Santo Domingo) was the first colony established in the New World under Spain. The island was named "La Española" (Hispaniola) by Christopher Columbus. In 1511, the courts of the colony were placed under the jurisdiction of the Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo. French buccaneers took over part of the west coast in 1625 and French settlers arrived soon thereafter. After decades of conflicts Spain finally ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France in the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, thus establishing the basis for the later national divisions between the Dominican Republic and Haiti.

The Captaincy General of Santo Domingo had an important role in the establishment of Spanish colonies in the New World. It was the headquarters for Spanish conquistadors on their way to the conquest of the Americas.

Captaincy General of Santo Domingo

Capitanía General de Santo Domingo
Colonial coat of arms of the Kings of Spain. of Santo Domingo
Colonial coat of arms of the Kings of Spain.
Spanish Caribbean around 1600. The Captaincy General of Santo Domingo in the center.
Spanish Caribbean around 1600. The Captaincy General of Santo Domingo in the center.
StatusColony of Spain
CapitalSanto Domingo
Common languagesSpanish
• 1493–1516
Ferdinand II
and Isabella I (first)
• 1788–1795
Charles IV (last)
• 1493–1500
Christopher Columbus
• 1788–1801
Joaquín García y Moreno
• Human settlement
Before 1493
• European settlement
• Treaty of Ryswick, ceded western portion to France
• Peace of Basel, ceded eastern portion to France
54,642 km2 (21,097 sq mi)
CurrencySanto Domingo real
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Columbian Viceroyalty
Era de Francia
First Republic (Dominican Republic)
Era de Francia
Second Republic (Dominican Republic)
Today part of Dominican Republic

1492–1539: arrival of the Europeans

Ciudad Colonial historical marker
Ciudad Colonial historical marker

Prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the native Taíno people populated the island which they called Quisqueya (mother of all lands) and Ayiti (land of high mountains), and which Columbus later named Hispaniola. At the time, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, and Higüey.[1] These were ruled respectively by caciques (chiefs) Guacanagarix, Guarionex, Caonabo, Bohechío, and Cayacoa.

In 1493, Columbus came back to the island on his second voyage and founded the first Spanish colony in the New World, the city of Isabella. In 1496, his brother Bartholomew Columbus established the settlement of Santo Domingo de Guzmán on the southern coast, which became the new capital. An estimated 400,000 Tainos living on the island were soon enslaved to work in gold mines. By 1508, their numbers had decreased to around 60,000 because of forced labor, hunger, disease, and mass killings. By 1535, only a few dozen were still alive.[2]

Dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, and officially from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the first European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela, after an earlier settlement in the north named after the Queen of Spain Isabella I.[3] In 1495 it was renamed "Santo Domingo", in honor of Saint Dominic. Santo Domingo came to be known as the "Gateway to the Caribbean" and the chief town in Hispaniola from then on.[4] Expeditions which led to Ponce de León's colonization of Puerto Rico, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's colonization of Cuba, Hernando Cortes' conquest of Mexico, and Vasco Núñez de Balboa's sighting of the Pacific Ocean were all launched from Santo Domingo.

In June 1502,[5] Santo Domingo was destroyed by a major hurricane, and the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site on the other side of the Ozama River.[6][7] The original layout of the city and a large portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Diego Colon arrived in 1509, assuming the powers of Viceroy and admiral. In 1512, Ferdinand established a Real Audiencia with Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Marcelo de Villalobos, and Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon appointed as judges of appeal. In 1514, Pedro Ibanez de Ibarra arrived with the Laws of Burgos. Rodrigo de Alburquerque was named repartidor de indios and soon named visitadores to enforce the laws.[7]:143–144,147

In 1586, Francis Drake captured the city and held it for ransom.[8] Drake's invasion signaled the decline of Spanish dominion over Hispaniola, which was accentuated in the early 17th century by policies that resulted in the depopulation of most of the island outside of the capital. An expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but was defeated. The English troops withdrew and took the less guarded colony of Jamaica, instead.[9] In 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick included the acknowledgement by Spain of France's dominion over the Western third of the island, now Haiti.

During this period, the colony's Spanish leadership changed several times. When Columbus departed on another exploration, Francisco de Bobadilla became governor. Settlers' allegations of mismanagement by Columbus helped create a tumultuous political situation. In 1502, Nicolás de Ovando replaced de Bobadilla as governor, with an ambitious plan to expand Spanish influence in the region. It was he who dealt most brutally with the Taíno people.

One rebel, however, successfully fought back. Enriquillo led a group who fled to the mountains and attacked the Spanish repeatedly for fourteen years. The Spanish ultimately offered him a peace treaty and gave Enriquillo and his followers their own city in 1534. The city lasted only a few years. Rebellious slaves burned it to the ground and killed all who stayed behind.

In 1501, the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand I and Isabella, first granted permission to the colonists of the Caribbean to import African slaves, which began arriving to the island in 1503. In 1510, the first sizable shipment, consisting of 250 Black Ladinos, arrived in Hispaniola from Spain. Eight years later African-born slaves arrived in the West Indies. Sugar cane was introduced to Hispaniola from the Canary Islands, and the first sugar mill in the New World was established in 1516.[10] The need for a labor force to meet the growing demands of sugar cane cultivation led to an exponential increase in the importation of slaves over the following two decades. The sugar mill owners soon formed a new colonial elite, and initially convinced the Spanish king to allow them to elect the members of the Real Audiencia from their ranks. Poorer colonists subsisted by hunting the herds of wild cattle that roamed throughout the island and selling their hides.

The enslaved population numbered between 20,000 and 30,000 in the mid-sixteenth century and included mine, plantation, cattle ranch, and domestic laborers. A small Spanish ruling class of about 1,200 monopolized political and economic power, and it used ordenanzas (laws) and violence to control the population of color.

The first major slave revolt in the Americas occurred in Santo Domingo during 1522, when enslaved Muslims of the Wolof nation led an uprising in the sugar plantation of admiral Don Diego Colon, son of Christopher Columbus. Many of these insurgents managed to escape to the mountains where they formed independent maroon communities. By the 1530s, maroon bands had become so numerous that in rural areas the Spaniards could only safely travel outside their plantations in large armed groups. By 1545, there were an estimated 7,000 maroons beyond Spanish control on Hispaniola. The Bahoruco Mountains were their main area of concentration, although Africans had escaped to other areas of the island as well. From their refuges, they descended to attack the Spanish.

One preeminent leader of slave revolts was Sebastián Lemba. By directing a strategy of mobile, hit-and-run warfare, Lemba succeeded in resisting and evading the colonial forces for all of 15 years. Burning and sacking their way from Higüey to Yaguana, Lemba's group of guerrilleros negros evaded the Spanish authorities until 1547, the year in which the troops captured and executed the rebel leader, hanging his severed head from a gateway as an example to others who would dare disobey their white masters. Slave insurrections continued through the mid-century. As accounts indicate, slave revolts in the colony of Santo Domingo anticipated Saint-Domingue's uprisings by some 267 years.[11]


By the 1540s, the Caribbean Sea had become overrun with French pirates. In 1541, Spain authorized the construction of Santo Domingo's fortified wall, and decided to restrict sea travel to enormous, well-armed convoys. In another move, which would destroy Hispaniola's sugar industry, Havana, more strategically located in relation to the Gulf Stream, was selected as the designated stopping point for the merchant flotas, which had a royal monopoly on commerce with the Americas. With the conquest of the Spanish Main, Hispaniola slowly declined. Many Spanish colonists left for the silver-mines of the American mainland, while new immigrants from Spain bypassed the island. Agriculture dwindled, new imports of slaves ceased, and white colonists, free blacks and slaves alike lived in poverty, weakening the racial hierarchy and aiding miscegenation, which resulted in a population of predominantly mixed Spaniard, African, and Taino descent. Except for the city of Santo Domingo, which managed to maintain some legal exports, Dominican ports were forced to rely on contraband trade, which, along with livestock, became the sole source of livelihood for the island dwellers.

In 1605, Spain, unhappy that Santo Domingo was facilitating trade between its other colonies and other European powers, attacked vast parts of the colony's northern and western regions, forcibly resettling their inhabitants closer to the city of Santo Domingo.[12] This action, known as the devastaciones de Osorio, proved disastrous; more than half of the resettled colonists died of starvation or disease.[13] The city of Santo Domingo was subjected to a smallpox epidemic, cacao blight, and hurricane in 1666; another storm two years later; a second epidemic in 1669; a third hurricane in September 1672; plus an earthquake in May 1673 that killed two dozen residents.[14] San José de Ocoa, the best-known maroon settlement in Santo Domingo, was subjugated by the Spanish in 1666.

In the 17th century, the French began occupying the unpopulated western third of Hispaniola. Intermittent clashes between French and Spanish colonists followed, even after the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick recognized the de facto occupations of France and Spain around the globe. Periodic confrontations also continued despite a 1731 agreement that partially defined a border between the two colonies along the Massacre and Pedernales rivers. In 1777, the Treaty of Aranjuez established a definitive border between what Spain called Santo Domingo and what the French named Saint-Domingue, thus ending 150 years of local conflicts and imperial ambitions to extend control over the island.[15]

The House of Bourbon replaced the House of Habsburg in Spain in 1700 and introduced economic reforms that gradually began to revive trade in Santo Domingo. The crown progressively relaxed the rigid controls and restrictions on commerce between Spain and the colonies and among the colonies. The last flotas sailed in 1737; the monopoly port system was abolished shortly thereafter. Many Spaniards and Hispaniola-born Creoles also then became pirates and privateers. By the middle of the century, the population was bolstered by emigration from the Canary Islands, resettling the northern part of the colony and planting tobacco in the Cibao Valley, and importation of slaves was renewed. Santo Domingo's exports soared and the island's agricultural productivity rose. This progress in the Spanish part was assisted too by the war that broke out in 1762 between Britain and her ally Portugal against France and Spain, for the Dominican Spaniards hastened to resort to a calling with which they were by this time well familiarised,[16] and their privateers soon waged injurious war upon the commerce of the British in the West Indian waters,[16] the prizes they took being carried to Santo Domingo, where cargoes were sold to the inhabitants, or to foreign merchants doing business there. The slave population of the Spanish part by this means was also much increased, as many prisoners were taken from the slavers in those waters.[16] The author of Idea del valor de la Isla Española emphasizes the name of Captain Lorenzo Daniel (Lorencín), and notes that “he was the scourge of the British, whom he deprived of more than 60 ships, those used for trade as well as war.”[Note 1]

The population of Santo Domingo grew from about 6,000 in 1737 to approximately 125,000 in 1790. Of this number, about 40,000 were white[Note 2] landowners, about 25,000 were black or mulatto freedmen, and some 60,000 were slaves. However, it remained poor and neglected, particularly in contrast with neighboring French Saint-Domingue, which became the wealthiest colony in the New World.[19] As restrictions on colonial trade were relaxed, the colonial elites of St. Domingue offered the principal market for Santo Domingo's exports of beef, hides, mahogany and tobacco. With the outbreak of the Haitian Revolution, the rich urban families linked to the colonial bureaucracy fled the island, while most of the rural hateros (cattle ranchers) remained, even though they lost their principal market. Spain saw in the unrest an opportunity to seize all, or part, of the western region of the island in an alliance of convenience with the rebellious slaves. The Spanish governor of Santo Domingo purchased the allegiance of important black leaders and their personal armies.[20] In July 1793, Spanish forces, including former slaves, crossed the border and pushed back the disheveled French forces before them.[20] Although the Spanish had had much their own way in northern Saint-Domingue,[20] such had not been the case in Europe, and on July 22, 1795, the French Republic and Spanish crown signed the Treaty of Basle. Frenchmen were to return to their side of the Pyrenees in Europe and Santo Domingo was to be ceded to France. This period called the Era de Francia, lasted until 1809 until being recaptured by Spain.



National pantheon.

Hispaniola Treaty of Aranjuez 1777

Contemporary map showing the border situation on Hispaniola following the Treaty of Aranjuez

See also


  1. ^ During the war of 1762, a packet boat, a brigantine, six sloops, two schooners, and a coastal vessel were brought into port and it was Dominican corsairs, Lorenzo Daniel, Juan Bautista San Marcos, Juan Cueto, and Domingo Alberto Serrano who brought them in.[17]
  2. ^ “Whites” included light mulattoes.[18]


  1. ^ Perez, Cosme E. (20 December 2011). Quisqueya: un pas̕ en el mundo: La Revelacin̤ Maya Del 2012. Palibrio. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4633-1368-5. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  2. ^ Hartlyn, Jonathan (1998). The Struggle for Democratic Politics in the Dominican Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-8078-4707-0.
  3. ^ Greenberger, Robert (1 January 2003). Juan Ponce de León: The Exploration of Florida and the Search for the Fountain of Youth. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8239-3627-4. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  4. ^ Bolton, Herbert E.; Marshall, Thomas Maitland (30 April 2005). The Colonization of North America 1492 to 1783. Kessinger Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7661-9438-0. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  5. ^ Clayton, Lawrence A. (25 January 2011). Bartolom de Las Casas and the Conquest of the Americas. John Wiley & Sons. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4051-9427-3. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  6. ^ Meining 1986:9
  7. ^ a b Floyd, Troy (1973). The Columbus Dynasty in the Caribbean, 1492-1526. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. pp. 55, 73.
  8. ^ "Dominican Republic – THE FIRST COLONY". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
  9. ^ Marley, David (1998). Wars of the Americas. ABC-CLIO. pp. 148–149. ISBN 9780874368376.
  10. ^ Sharpe, Peter (1998-10-26). "Sugar Cane: Past and Present". Archived from the original on 2008-05-18. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  11. ^ Haitian-Dominican Counterpoint: Nation, State, and Race on Hispaniola. p. 32.
  12. ^ Knight, Franklin W. (1990). The Caribbean: The Genesis of a Fragmented Nationalism (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 0-19-505440-7.
  13. ^ Harvey, Sean (2006). The Rough Guide to the Dominican Republic (3rd ed.). New York: Rough Guides. p. 352. ISBN 1-84353-497-5.
  14. ^ Marley, David (2005). Historic Cities of the Americas: An Illustrated Encyclopedia, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 94.
  15. ^ Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. p. 422.
  16. ^ a b c Hazard, Samuel (1873). Santo Domingo, Past And Present; With A Glance At Haytl. p. 100.
  17. ^ Bosch, Juan (2016). Social Composition of the Dominican Republic. Routledge. p. 101.
  18. ^ Ricourt, Milagros (2016). The Dominican Racial Imaginary: Surveying the Landscape of Race and Nation in Hispaniola. Rutgers University Press. p. 64.
  19. ^ "Dominican Republic—The First Colony". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  20. ^ a b c Scheina, Robert L. (2003). Latin America's Wars: Volume 1. Potomac Books.

Further reading

1519 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1519.

Battle of Palo Hincado

The Battle of Palo Hincado was the first major battle of the Spanish reconquest of Santo Domingo of the Spanish colonial Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, that was occupied by the French in the Spanish West Indies. The site is in the present-day Dominican Republic, on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean.

The battle was fought on November 7, 1808, at Palo Hincado savanna, near El Seibo in the colony of Santo Domingo. A force of 1,800 Spanish Dominican troops, led by General Juan Sánchez Ramírez, defeated a force of 500 troops of French Army of Napoleon, led by Governor General Marie-Louis Ferrand.

Battle of San Domingo

The Battle of San Domingo was a naval battle of the Napoleonic Wars fought on 6 February 1806 between squadrons of French and British ships of the line off the southern coast of the French-occupied Spanish colonial Captaincy General of Santo Domingo (San Domingo in contemporary British English) in the Caribbean.

All five of the French ships of the line commanded by Vice-Admiral Corentin-Urbain Leissègues had been captured or destroyed. The Royal Navy led by Vice-Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth lost no ships and suffered less than a hundred killed while the French lost approximately 1,500 men. Only a small number of the French squadron were able to escape.

The battle of San Domingo was the last fleet engagement of the war between French and British capital ships in open water.

Dominican War of Independence

The Dominican Independence War gave the Dominican Republic autonomy from Haiti on February 27, 1844. Before the war, the island of Hispaniola had been united under the Haitian government for a period of 22 years when the newly independent nation, previously known as the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, was unified with Haiti in 1822. The criollo class within the country overthrew the Spanish crown in 1821 before unifying with Haiti a year later.

In 1844, the members of La Trinitaria chose El Conde, the prominent “Gate of the Count” in the old city walls, as the rallying point for their insurrection against the Haitian government. On the morning of 24 February 1844, El Conde rang with the shots of the plotters, who had emerged from their secret meetings to openly challenge the Haitians. Their efforts were successful, and for the next ten years, Dominican military strongmen fought to preserve their country's independence from their Haitian neighbors.Under the command Faustin Soulouque Haitian soldiers tried to gain back control of lost territory, but this effort was to no avail as the Dominicans would go on to decisively win every battle henceforth. In March 1844, a 30,000-strong two-pronged attack by Haitians was successfully repelled by an under-equipped Dominican army under the command of the wealthy rancher Gen. Pedro Santana. Four years later, it took a Dominican flotilla harassing Haitian coastal villages, and land reinforcements in the south to force the determined Haitian emperor into a one-year truce. In the most thorough and intense encounter of all, Dominican irregulars armed with swords sent Haitian troops into flight on all three fronts in 1855.

Era de Francia

In the history of the Dominican Republic, the period of Era de Francia ("Era of France") occurred in 1795 when France acquired the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, annexed it into Saint-Domingue and briefly came to acquire the whole island of Hispaniola by the way of the Treaty of Basel, allowing Spain to cede the eastern colony as a consequence of the French Revolutionary Wars.

During this time, it was also referred to as the French Santo Domingo.

España Boba

In the history of the Dominican Republic, the period of España Boba (Middle Spanish: "Meek Spain") lasted from 1809 to 1821, during which the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo was under Spanish rule, but the Spanish government exercised minimal powers because its resources were attenuated by the Peninsular War and the various Spanish American wars of independence. The period ended when Dominican officials declared a short-lived independence on 30 November 1821. In February 1822, Haiti annexed former Santo Domingo, leading to an occupation that lasted until 1844.

Furcy Fondeur

Colonel Furcy Fondeur Lajeunesse (1814 – 22 November 1892) was a French-born Dominican Republic military man and politician.

Born in France, his family moved to the Spanish Captaincy General of Santo Domingo around 1820. His father was Louis Fondeur and his mother was Marguerite LaJeunesse, Comtesse De La Juvenile; he had 5 siblings. He married Jacinta Castro and had 5 children, he enwidowed and remarried to María Luisa Fernández Fernández (1837–1895) and had 10 children.On 14 September 1863, Fondeur signed the Act of the Independence of the Dominican Republic from Spain, and fought in the Dominican Restoration War as a colonel; he is considered a hero of the Battle of Santiago (1863). He was designated Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1867. Fondeur Lajeunesse was also president of the City Council of Santiago de los Caballeros.

Governorate of Cuba

Since the 16th century the island of Cuba had been under the control of the governor-captain general of Santo Domingo. The conquest of Cuba was organized in 1510 by the recently restored Viceroy of the Indies, Diego Colón, under the command of Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, who became Cuba's first governor until his death in 1524.

Velázquez founded the city of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de Baracoa in 1511 and convoked a general cabildo (a local government council) to govern Cuba, which was authorized by the king of Spain.

Hernán Cortés's Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was undertaken from Cuba. Cuba was incorporated in New Spain after the conquest of Mexico.

Juan Martínez de Ampiés

Juan Martínez de Ampiés (also spelled Ampués; Martínez sometimes given as Martín; died 1533) as an officer of the Spanish army was the first governor of Venezuela Province (1527-1529), the Venezuela Province being part of the Spanish Empire. He founded Santa Ana de Coro in July 1527. He left Venezuela after the Welsers asserted the colonial rights they had negotiated with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (and King of Spain), launching the German colonization of the Americas.

He was also governor of Santo Domingo (the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo).

By 1514, the Hispaniola treasury staff put in place by Ferdinand, included Gil González Dávila, who had replaced Cristóbal de Cuéllar as contador, Miguel de Pasamonte, who had been named treasurer general of the Indies in April 1508, and Juan de Ampíes as factor.

Juan Pablo Duarte

Juan Pablo Duarte (January 26, 1813 – July 15, 1876) was a Dominican writer, activist, poet, military leader and liberal politician who was one of the "founding fathers" of the Dominican Republic. As one of the most celebrated figures in Dominican history, Duarte is considered a folk hero and revolutionary visionary in the modern Dominican Republic, who along with Francisco del Rosario Sánchez and Matías Ramón Mella, organized and promoted the movement, a secret society known as La Trinitaria, that eventually led to the Dominican revolt and independence from Haitian rule in 1844 and the start of a decennial Dominican War of Independence.

Duarte helped inspire and finance the Dominican War of Independence, paying a heavy toll which would eventually ruin him financially. His liberal views made him a controversial figure among conservative and powerful Dominicans of the time, and he was exiled on numerous occasions after the founding of the new nation. His liberal views went against the conservative elites who sought for heavy-handed control of the nation, and wanted to maintain the traditional regionalisms of the past. Duarte had strong disagreements with the republic's first president, Pedro Santana, as Santana was a tyrannical figure. Ultimately, Duarte would spend many years away from the nation he helped shape and would die in exile, which made him a political martyr in the eyes of subsequent generations.

List of predecessors of sovereign states in North America

This is a list of all present sovereign states in North America and their predecessors. The division between North and South America is unclear, generally viewed as lying somewhere in the Isthmus of Panama, however, the Caribbean Islands, Central America including the whole of Panama is considered to be part of North America as its southernmost nation. The continent was colonized by the Europeans: Mainly by the Spaniards, the French, the English and the Dutch. United States of America gained its independence in American Revolutionary War; Most of nations in Central America gained independence in the early 19th century; Canada and many other island countries in the Caribbean Sea (most of them were British colonies) gained their independence in 20th century. Today, North America consists of twenty-two sovereign states with common government system being some form of presidential republic.

Manuel de Jesús Troncoso de la Concha

Manuel de Jesús María Ulpiano Troncoso de la Concha (April 3, 1878 – May 30, 1955) was an intellectual and President of the Dominican Republic from 1940 until 1942, as a puppet of dictator Rafael Trujillo. Prior to ascending to the Presidency, he was Vice-President from 1938 to 1940. His term began upon the death of President Jacinto Peynado. He also served in 1911 during the reign of the Council of Secretaries.

Marcio Veloz Maggiolo

Marcio Veloz Maggiolo (born 13 August 1936 in Ciudad Trujillo, today Santo Domingo) is a Dominican writer, archaeologist and anthropologist. A prolific author of both academic and literary themes, his works have been translated into German, English, Italian and French.

His maternal great-great-grandfather, Juan Bautista Maggiolo, was a Genovese naval captain who co-founded the Navy of the Dominican Republic with the also Genovese-born Juan Bautista Cambiaso and the Dominican Juan Alejandro Acosta.

Order of battle at the Battle of San Domingo

The Battle of San Domingo was the last fleet engagement of the Napoleonic Wars, contested off the Southern coast of the Spanish colonial Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, then under French occupation, on 6 February 1806. A British squadron of seven ships of the line under Vice-Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth surprised and destroyed a French squadron of five ships of the line led by Contre-Admiral Corentin Urbain Leissègues as the French sailed westwards along the San Domingo coast. Using his superior numbers and speed, Duckworth struck at the head of the French line with his leading ships while the slower eastern division of his squadron intercepted and captured the French stragglers. The only French ships to escape were two frigates and a corvette – three ships of the line were captured and two destroyed, including Leissègues' flagship, the 120-gun Impérial. French casualties were estimated as more than 1,500 men killed and wounded and the British suffered nearly 350 casualties in the engagement, which lasted for just over two hours.Leissègues' squadron had escaped from Brest on 13 December 1805, taking advantage of a lapse in the British blockade. Sailing with another squadron under Contre-Admiral Jean-Baptiste Willaumez, Leissègues separated from Willaumez after two days and passed north of the Azores, where his ships were damaged and scattered by winter storms. Sailing for Santo Domingo to reconstitute his squadron and make urgent repairs, Leissègues arrived on 20 January 1806. Duckworth had been tasked with watching the remnants of the French and Spanish fleets in Cádiz following the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805, but in November had gone hunting to the south in search of a French raiding squadron and on his route back to his station had encountered a frigate that reported the escape of Leissègues and Willaumez. Sailing in pursuit, Duckworth encountered Willaumez on 25 December but refused battle and instead sailed for the West Indies to replenish his supplies before making the journey back to European waters. News reached him of the French arrival while anchored at Basseterre on 1 February and he immediately sailed to investigate, joined by part of the West Indies squadron under Rear-Admiral Alexander Cochrane.

Pedro Santana

Pedro Santana y Familias, 1st Marquis of Las Carreras (June 29, 1801 – June 14, 1864), better known as Pedro Santana, was a Dominican military commander and royalist politician who served as the president of the junta that had established the First Dominican Republic, a precursor to the position of the President of the Dominican Republic, and as the first President of the republic in the modern line of succession. A traditional royalist who was fond of the Spanish crown and the Spanish Empire, he ruled as a governor-general, but effectively as an authoritarian dictator.

Born into a noble and affluent Spanish cattle ranching family in Hincha (today Hinche in Haiti), Santana was a lifelong supporter of the Dominican revolt against the Haitian hegemony and a noted general during the Dominican War of Independence (1844–1856). Unlike many of his political opponents who wanted to ultimately establish an independent Dominican state, Santana sought to reintegrate Hispanola into the Spanish Empire. He oversaw the reestablishment of the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo as well as exile and imprisonment of a number of noted separatist and nationalist dissidents who had previously been his comrades during the war of independence. Under mounting pressure from the opposition which had been organizing a coup d'etat, he was forced to resign from his position. He died during the Dominican Restoration War, after which the country regained its independence.

People of the Dominican Republic

Dominicans (Spanish: Dominicanos) are people who are ethnically associated with the Dominican Republic. Dominican was historically the name for the inhabitants of the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, the site of the first European settlement in the Western Hemisphere. The culture held in common by most Dominicans is referred to as mainstream Dominican culture, a mixture of different influences and customs having origins predominately in a European cultural basis, largely derived from the traditions of Spain, especially from Andalusia and the Canary Islands. The country has also been highly influenced by African culture, and Native Taino being a significant minority. The Dominican Republic has also received immigration from other parts of Spain such as Catalonia as well as from other European countries such as France and Portugal.

The majority of Dominicans reside in the Dominican Republic, while there is also a large Dominican diaspora, mainly in the United States and Spain. The population of the Dominican Republic in 2016 was estimated at 10.2 million by the National Bureau of Statistics of the Dominican Republic.

Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo

The Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo was the first court of the Spanish crown in America. It was created by Ferdinand V of Castile in his decree of 1511, but due to disagreements between the governor of Hispaniola, Diego Colon and the Crown, it was not implemented until it was reestablished by Charles V in his decree of September 14, 1526. This audiencia would become part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain upon the creation of the latter two decades later. Nevertheless, the audiencia president was at the same time governor and captain general of the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, which granted him broad administrative powers and autonomy over the Spanish possessions of the Caribbean and most of its mainland coasts. This combined with the judicial oversight that the audiencia judges had over the region meant that the Santo Domingo Audiencia was the principal political entity of this region during the colonial period.

Santo Domingo (disambiguation)

Santo Domingo is the capital of the Dominican Republic.

Santo Domingo may also refer to:

Santo Domingo, a historic name for the island of Hispaniola

Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, the former Spanish colony on the island

Santo Domingo, the common English name for the Dominican Republic until the 20th century

Siege of Santo Domingo of 1808

The Siege of Santo Domingo of 1808, was the second and final major battle of the Spanish reconquest of Santo Domingo and was fought between November 7, 1808 and July 11, 1809 at Santo Domingo, Captaincy General of Santo Domingo. A force of Dominican and Puerto-Rican of 1850 troops led by Gen. Juan Sánchez Ramírez, with a naval blockaded by British Commander Hugh Lyle Carmichael, besieged and captured the city of Santo Domingo after an 8 months garrisoning of 2000 troops of the French Army led by General Dubarquier.

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