Caprotinia

The Caprotinia, or feasts of Juno Caprotina, were ancient Roman festivals which were celebrated on July 7, in favour of the female slaves. During this solemnity they ran about, beating themselves with their fists and with rods. None but women assisted in the sacrifices offered at this feast.[1][2]

Plutarch's Life of Numa and Life of Camillus offer two possible origins for this feast, or the famous Nonae Caprotinae or Poplifugium. Firstly—and, in Plutarch's opinion, most likely—it commemorates the mysterious disappearance of Romulus during a violent thunderstorm that interrupted an assembly in the Palus Caprae ("Goats' Marsh"). Secondly, it commemorates a Roman victory by Camillus over the Latins; according to a minor tradition, a Roman serving maid or slave dressed as a noblewomen and surrendered herself to the Latins as hostage; that night, she climbed a wild fig-tree (caprificus, literally "goat-fig") and gave the Romans a torchlight signal to attack.[3]

References

  1. ^ Sextus Pompeius Festus (1826). M. Verrii Flacci quae extant et Sexti Pompeii Festi De verborum significatione libri xx ex editione Andreae Dacerii: ??? notis et interpretatione in usum Delphini, variis lectionibus, notis variorum, recensu editionum et codicum et indicibus locupletissimis accurate recensiti ... curante et imprimente A. J. Valpy. pp. 371–.
  2. ^ Titus Maccius Plautus (1896). Plavti Comoediae. Weidmann. pp. 46–.
  3. ^ Plutarch, The Parallel Lives, Life of Camillus, 33; Loeb edition, 1914 (accessed 10 March 2017)
Ficus Ruminalis

The Ficus Ruminalis was a wild fig tree that had religious and mythological significance in ancient Rome. It stood near the small cave known as the Lupercal at the foot of the Palatine Hill and was the spot where according to tradition the floating makeshift cradle of Romulus and Remus landed on the banks of the Tiber. There they were nurtured by the she-wolf and discovered by Faustulus. The tree was sacred to Rumina, one of the birth and childhood deities, who protected breastfeeding in humans and animals. St. Augustine mentions a Jupiter Ruminus.

Quintilis

In the ancient Roman calendar, Quintilis or Quinctilis was the month following Junius (June) and preceding Sextilis (August). Quintilis is Latin for "fifth": it was the fifth month (quintilis mensis) in the earliest calendar attributed to Romulus, which began with Martius ("Mars' month," March) and had 10 months. After the calendar reform that produced a 12-month year, Quintilis became the seventh month, but retained its name. In 45 BC, Julius Caesar instituted a new calendar (the Julian calendar) that corrected astronomical discrepancies in the old. After his death in 44 BC, the month of Quintilis, his birth month, was renamed Julius in his honor, hence July.Quintilis was under the guardianship (tutela) of the Romans' supreme deity Jupiter, with sacrifices made particularly to Neptune and Apollo. Agricultural festivals directed at the harvest gradually lost their importance, and the month became dominated in urban Imperial Rome by the Ludi Apollinares, games (ludi) in honor of Apollo. Ten days of games were celebrated in honor of Julius Caesar at the end of the month.

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