The Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (Cabo de Hornos Biosphere Reserve) is located in the extreme south of Chile and comprises marine areas, islands, fjords, channels, forests and moorland. It covers an area of approximately 49,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi). All biosphere reserves include core zones (no significant infrastructure development), buffer zones (light development) and transition zones (more traditional development under a sustainable rubric). In the case of Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, the core zone is constituted of Alberto de Agostini National Park and Cabo de Hornos National Park, which are strictly protected under Chilean law and under the biosphere reserve status cannot have infrastructure for lodging.
The Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve is administered by a Governing Board that is presided by the regional governor and includes relevant public services and local organizations. The reserve's scientific advisory board is coordinated by the Omora Ethnobotanical Park - University of Magallanes. In addition to hosting the world's southernmost forested ecosystems and culture (the Yahgans), the Cape Horn Archipelago also protects 5% of the world's bryophyte diversity (mosses and liverworts). While considered one of the world's last remaining wilderness areas, Cape Horn currently is confronting serious threats related to tourism, development of real estate projects, invasive exotic species and salmon farming.
|Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve|
|Cabo de Hornos Biosphere Reserve|
|Area||49,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi)|
The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America, though human intervention has expanded its range to many parts of Europe and South America. Because of range expansion, the American mink is classed as a least-concern species by the IUCN. Since the extinction of the sea mink, the American mink is the only extant member of the genus Neovison. The American mink is a carnivore that feeds on rodents, fish, crustaceans, frogs, and birds. In its introduced range in Europe it has been classified as an invasive species linked to declines in European mink, Pyrenean desman, and water vole populations. It is the animal most frequently farmed for its fur, exceeding the silver fox, sable, marten, and skunk in economic importance.Antártica Chilena Province
Antártica Chilena Province (Spanish: Provincia de la Antártica Chilena) is the southernmost and one of four provinces in Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region (XII). The capital is Puerto Williams. The province comprises the extreme southern part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (south of the Cordillera Darwin), the islands south and west of Isla Grande ( Diego Ramirez Islands ), and Chile's claims in Antarctica. The province is administratively divided into two communes (comunas): Cabo de Hornos, located at the southern tip of South America, and Antártica, a wedge-shaped claim of Antarctica, which is not internationally recognized. Its total area of 1,265,853.7 km2 (488,749 sq mi) makes it almost twice as large as all other provinces of Chile combined.Bahía Wulaia
Bahia Wulaia is a bay on the western shore of Isla Navarino along the Murray Channel in extreme southern Chile. The island and adjacent strait are part of the commune of Cabo de Hornos in the Antártica Chilena Province, which is part of the Magallanes and Antartica Chilena Region.
An archaeological site at Bahia Wulaia has been associated with the Megalithic seasonal settlements there of the Yaghan peoples about 10,000 years ago. Known as the Wulaia Bay Dome Middens, the site revealed that the people created fish traps in the small inlets of the bay. The stonework for those traps has survived, according to C. Michael Hogan, and was used by Yahgan into the 19th century.In November 1859 a settlement known as Wulaia was the site of a Yahgan massacre of all but one of the crew and captain of Allen Gardiner, a schooner used by the South American Missionary Society. There had been a misunderstanding and cultural conflict between the parties.Beagle Channel
Beagle Channel (Spanish: Canal Beagle) is a strait in Tierra del Fuego Archipelago on the extreme southern tip of South America between Chile and Argentina. The channel separates the larger main island of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego from various smaller islands including the islands of Picton, Lennox and Nueva; Navarino; Hoste; Londonderry; and Stewart. The channel's eastern area forms part of the border between Chile and Argentina and the western area is entirely within Chile.
The Beagle Channel, the Straits of Magellan to the north, and the open-ocean Drake Passage to the south are the three navigable passages around South America between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. However, most commercial shipping uses the open-ocean Drake Passage.
The Beagle Channel is about 240 kilometres (130 nmi; 150 mi) long and is about 5 kilometres (3 nmi; 3 mi) wide at its narrowest point. It extends from Nueva Island in the east to Darwin Sound and Cook Bay of the Pacific Ocean in the west. Some 50 kilometres (27 nmi; 31 mi) from its western end it divides into two branches, north and south of Gordon Island. The southwest branch between Hoste Island and Gordon Island enters Cook Bay. The northwest branch between Gordon Island and Isla Grande enters Darwin Sound connecting to the Pacific Ocean by the O'Brien Channel and the Ballenero Channel. The biggest settlement on the channel is Ushuaia in Argentina followed by Puerto Williams in Chile. These are two of the southernmost settlements of the world.Beaver
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) (native to North America) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) (Eurasia). Beavers are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver population was once more than 60 million, but as of 1988 was 6–12 million. This population decline is the result of extensive hunting for fur, for glands used as medicine and perfume, and because the beavers' harvesting of trees and flooding of waterways may interfere with other land uses.Cabo de Hornos, Chile
Cabo de Hornos, Chile is a Chilean commune located in the south of Tierra del Fuego archipelago, in Antártica Province, Magallanes Region. The municipality of Cabo de Hornos, located in the town of Puerto Williams, also administers the Antártica commune. It is named for Cabo de Hornos, or "Cape Horn", the southern tip of South America..Cabo de Hornos National Park
Cabo de Hornos National Park is a protected area in southern Chile that was designated a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2005, along with Alberto de Agostini National Park. The world’s southernmost national park, it is located 12 hours by boat from Puerto Williams in the Cape Horn Archipelago, which belongs to the Commune of Cabo de Hornos in the Antártica Chilena Province of Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region.
The park was created in 1945 and includes the Wollaston Archipelago and the Hermite Islands. It covers 63,093 hectares (155,906 acres) and is run by the Corporacion Nacional Forestal (CONAF), the Chilean body that governs all national parks in Chile.Cape Horn
Cape Horn (Spanish: Cabo de Hornos, pronounced [ˈkaβo ðe ˈoɾnos]) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island. Although not the most southerly point of South America (which are the Diego Ramírez Islands), Cape Horn marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage and marks where the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans meet.
Cape Horn was discovered and first rounded by the Dutchman Willem Schouten, who named it Kaap Hoorn after the city of Hoorn in the Netherlands. For decades, Cape Horn was a major milestone on the clipper route, by which sailing ships carried trade around the world. The waters around Cape Horn are particularly hazardous, owing to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs; these dangers have made it notorious as a sailors' graveyard.
The need for boats and ships to round Cape Horn was greatly reduced by the opening of the Panama Canal in August 1914. However, sailing around the Cape Horn is still widely regarded as one of the major challenges in yachting. Thus a few recreational sailors continue to sail this route, sometimes as part of a circumnavigation of the globe. Almost all of these choose routes through the channels to the north of the Cape. (Many take a detour through the islands and anchor to wait for fair weather to visit Horn Island, or sail around it to replicate a rounding of this historic point.) Several prominent ocean yacht races, notably the Volvo Ocean Race, the VELUX 5 Oceans, and the Vendée Globe, sail around the world via the Horn. Speed records for round-the-world sailing are recognized for following this route.Cape Horn (disambiguation)
Cape Horn (also Hoorn) is the southernmost headland of Hornos Island at the Drake Passage, sometimes erroneously known as the southernmost point of America.
Cape Horn may also refer to:
Cabo de Hornos, Chile, a Chilean commune
Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located in the extreme south of Chile
Cabo de Hornos National Park, also located in the extreme south of Chile
Cabo de Hornos, an oceanographic research ship operated by the Chilean Navy
Cape Horn, the southern most headland of South America
Cape Horn, Alpine County, California
Cape Horn, Mendocino County, California
Cape Horn, Placer County, CaliforniaChristopher B. Anderson
Dr. Christopher B. Anderson (born 31 December 1976 in North Carolina) is an American ecologist working in southern Patagonia's Tierra del Fuego Archipelago, shared between Chile and Argentina. Anderson obtained his B.S. in Biology with Honors from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1999 and his Ph.D. in Ecology from the Odum School of Ecology - University of Georgia in 2006. His research in southern Patagonia has involved social entrepreneurial efforts, as well, such as the creation of the Omora Sub-Antarctic Research Alliance (USA), a non-profit dedicated to promoting research, education and conservation in Tierra del Fuego and southern Patagonia. Anderson and his colleagues also have developed long-term socio-ecological research platforms that attempt to link long-term academic endeavors with society to demonstrate the inextricable union between conservation and social well being. In 2005, this initiative was able to successfully apply to UNESCO to obtain the designation of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve.
Anderson was the founding coordinator of Chile's Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research Network, and from 2009-2011 was the Administrative Director of the Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program, a binational effort between the University of North Texas and the Universiad de Magallanes. Currently, he is a Visiting Scientist at the Forestry Resources Lab at the Austral Center for Scientific Research in Ushuaia, Argentina, where his research focuses broadly on watershed ecosystem ecology and the role of invasive species in Tierra del Fuego, particularly the eradication of North American beavers. Honors for his research and teaching include a Fulbright Fellowship from the U.S. State Department, a National Security Education Program Grant from the U.S. Department of Defense, various National Science Foundation grants, a Tinker Foundation Award, and a UGA Excellence in Undergraduate Mentoring Award.Index of Chile-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Republic of Chile.Magallanes Region
The Magallanes Region (locally [maɣaˈʝanes]), officially the Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica Region (Spanish: Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena), is one of Chile's 16 first order administrative divisions. It is the southernmost, largest, and second least populated region of Chile. It comprises four provinces: Última Esperanza, Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego, and Antártica Chilena.
Magallanes's geographical features include Torres del Paine, Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego island, and the Strait of Magellan. It also includes the Antarctic territory claimed by Chile. Despite its large area, much of the land in the region is rugged or closed off for sheep farming, and is unsuitable for settlement. 80% of the population lives in the capital Punta Arenas, a major market city and one of the main hubs for Antarctic exploration.
The main economic activities are sheep farming, oil extraction, and tourism. It is also the region with the lowest poverty level in Chile (5.8%); households in Magallanes have the highest income of any region in Chile.Since 2017, the region has had its own time zone. It uses the summer time for the whole year (UTC−3).Murray Channel
The Murray Channel is a channel of Chile located in the Commune of Cabo de Hornos, in the Antártica Chilena Province of the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region. It separates Hoste Island from Navarino Island and is bounded by the Beagle Channel to the north. The salinity of the Murray Channel is approximately 31.8 parts per thousand.North American beaver
The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is one of two extant beaver species. It is native to North America and introduced to Patagonia in South America and some European countries (e.g. Finland). In the United States and Canada, the species is often referred to simply as "beaver", though this causes some confusion because another distantly related rodent, Aplodontia rufa, is often called the "mountain beaver". Other vernacular names, including American beaver and Canadian beaver, distinguish this species from the other extant beaver species, Castor fiber, which is native to Eurasia. The North American beaver is an official animal symbol of Canada and is the official state mammal of Oregon.Omora Ethnobotanical Park
Omora Ethnobotanical Park is a protected area of Chile located 4 km (2 mi) west of Puerto Williams on Navarino Island in the extreme southern Magellan and Chilean Antarctica Region. The Omora Park is a research, education and conservation center for the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. The park itself includes a representative variety subantarctic flora open to the public for formal and information education. Within its boundaries, one can find deciduous forests (Nothofagus antarctica and Nothofagus pumilio) and evergreen broadleaf forests (Nothofagus betuloides), as well as bogs and high-Andean ecosystems and diverse mosses, lichens and liverworts (termed the "Miniature Forests of Cape Horn" by Omora Park scientists).
Since its creation in 2000, the Omora Park and its partners and colleagues have gone on to lead a transdisciplinary biocultural conservation initiative that led to the creation of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. A consortium of institutions now support this program including the Omora Foundation, the Millennium Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB-Chile)and the University of Magallanes in Chile, and the University of North Texas and the Center for Environmental Philosophy in the United States. In 2008, the Omora Park received the "Science and Practice of Ecology and Society Award", given by the Foundation for Scientific Synthesis.
Founding director Dr Ricardo Rozzi inaugurated the practice of "field environmental philosophy" at the Omora Park. This way of learning is a contemporary iteration of the peripatetic school, and its appeal is that it invites participants to experientially deconstruct universal and mathematical assumptions about nature, through the rediscovery of the singular qualities of each living being, and of the inapprehensible diversity of beings. It enables students, teachers, scientists, citizens, and policy makers to recover awareness about the integral value of the lives of singular living beings beyond their mathematical representation or scientific names. The understanding gained through this educational process leads not only to a conceptual awareness of biological and cultural diversity, but also to an emotional feeling and sense of involvement. This has proven to be an experience critical for motivating politicians and decisions makers to appreciate and act positively to conserve species and their habitats.One example of the way the Omora Park attempts to use field environmental philosophy to link theory and practice can be found in the Tourism with a Hand Lens initiative.
In spite of the achievements, the Omora Park has not been without some controversy with the local community. In 2009, the leaders of the four citizen organizations, including the Cape Horn Tourism Association, the Neighborhood Association, the Puerto Williams Fisherman's Union and the Yahgan Community of Mejillones Bay, signed an open letter to the Regional Council (Radio Polar, 10 August 2009) to contest the further expansion of the park and to question its role with the local community. On the other hand, most members and institutions support the initiative of Omora Park .Puerto Williams
Puerto Williams (Spanish for "Port Williams") is a Chilean village, port and naval base located on Navarino Island facing the Beagle Channel. It is the capital of the Chilean Antarctic Province, one of four provinces located in the Magellan and Chilean Antarctica Region, and administers the communes of Chilean Antarctic Territory and Cabo de Hornos. It has a population of 2,874, including both naval personnel and civilians. Puerto Williams claims the title of world's southernmost city.The settlement was founded in 1953, and was first named Puerto Luisa. The town was later named for John Williams Wilson, a British man who founded Fuerte Bulnes, the first settlement in the Strait of Magellan since 1587. It has served primarily as a naval base for Chile. The Chilean Navy runs the Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport and hospital, as well as nearby meteorological stations. Since the late 20th century, the number of navy personnel have decreased in Puerto Williams and the civilian population has increased. In that period, tourism and support of scientific research have contributed to an increase in economic activity.
The port attracts tourists going to Cape Horn or Antarctica; its tourism industry developed around the concept of "the world's most southern city". Based on some definitions of what a city is, Puerto Williams could in fact be the southernmost city in the world. However, others dispute this because of the town's small size and population in favour of Ushuaia or Punta Arenas. Chilean and Argentinian media, a bilateral agreement between Chile and Argentina, and the Puerto Williams administration identify it as the southernmost city in the world.Puerto Williams is the port of entry and major hub for scientific activity linked to Antarctica and the islands south of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. The University of Magallanes has a university centre in Puerto Williams. Weather stations and lighthouses at Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez Islands are supplied from Puerto Williams. The town has been a base for Chile to assert sovereignty around Cape Horn and support its Antarctic bases.
Puerto Williams also serves as provision and service centre for fishermen. The Navy is based here in part to enforce national fishing rights in the exclusive economic zone around the southern part of Tierra del Fuego, where lucrative lithodes santolla fishing is an important industry.Ricardo Rozzi
Ricardo Rozzi (born October 6, 1960, in Santiago) is a Chilean ecologist and philosopher who is professor at the University of North Texas (UNT) and the Universidad de Magallanes (UMAG). His research combines both disciplines through the study of the interrelations between the ways of knowing and inhabiting the natural world, proposing a dynamic continuous reciprocal feedback between both domains. His work at UNT forms a central part of the nation's best program in environmental philosophy (www.phil.unt.edu).Tourism with a Hand Lens
"Ecotourism with a Hand Lens" is a term coined by Dr. Ricardo Rozzi and his colleagues to refer to a new speciality tourism being promoted in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. Given the discovery of the archipelago's outstanding diversity of mosses, lichens and liverworts (5% of the world's total), Rozzi has called upon tourism operators to place this narrative into their offering for the region and take advantage of this biodiversity hotspot for non-vascular flora.In turn, Rozzi and the Omora Ethnobotanical Park have metaphorically called these small plant communities the "Miniature Forests of Cape Horn" to help the broader society understand the ecological role played by these tiny, but diverse, abundant and important organisms. In the Magellanic Subantarctic ecoregion, the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve and the Chilean Antarctic Peninsula, the number of foreign
tourists has doubled in the last decade, with nature tourism being the principal attraction for visitors to the region. With the aim of preventing negative impacts of tourism activity on the biological and cultural diversity, and to contribute to sustainable tourism the Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program at the Omora Ethnobotanical Park, in collaboration with local actors, has developed the field environmental philosophy methodological approach.Field environmental philosophy methodology integrates ecological sciences and environmental ethics through a four-step cycle consisting of: (i) interdisciplinary ecological and philosophical research; (ii) composition of metaphors and communication of simple narratives; (iii) design of field activities guided with an ecological and an ethical orientation; and (iv) implementation of in situ conservation areas. Under the perspective of field environmental philosophy we have defined ecotourism as “an invitation to have a tour or trip to share and appreciate the oikos of the diverse human and nonhuman inhabitants, their habits and habitats.” This methodological approach is implemented with the activity of “ecotourism with a hand-lens” at Omora Park. "Ecotourism with a hand-lens” aims to demonstrate that when adequately planned and administered, ecotourism can contribute to biocultural conservation hand in hand with environmental, economic, and social sustainability."Tourism with a hand lens" has been likened to a nature-venerating ritual by the ethnographer Bron Taylor in his book Dark Green Religion.