Cape Flattery

Cape Flattery is the northwesternmost point of the contiguous United States. It is in Clallam County, Washington on the Olympic Peninsula, where the Strait of Juan de Fuca joins the Pacific Ocean. It is also part of the Makah Reservation,[1] and is the northern boundary of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. Cape Flattery can be reached from a short hike, most of which is boardwalked.[2] The westernmost point in the contiguous United States is at Cape Alava, south of Cape Flattery in Olympic National Park. However, the westernmost tip of Cape Flattery is almost exactly as far west as Cape Alava, the difference being approximately 5 seconds of longitude, about 360 feet (110 m), at high tide and somewhat more at low tide.[3]

The Cape Flattery Lighthouse is on Tatoosh Island, just off the cape. Makah Bay and Neah Bay are on either side of the cape. Neah Bay, Washington is the closest town to the cape.

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The view to the north from Cape Flattery, with Vancouver Island in the distance
Picea sitchensis Cape Flattery
Tatoosh Island and Cape Flattery Light from Cape Flattery, with Sitka Spruce in foreground.

History

James Cook

Cape Flattery is the oldest permanently named feature in Washington state, being described and named by James Cook on March 22, 1778. Cook wrote: "... there appeared to be a small opening which flattered us with the hopes of finding an harbour ... On this account I called the point of land to the north of it Cape Flattery."[4][5]

Japanese castaways in 1834

In 1834, the first Japanese known to have set foot on what is now Washington state arrived in a dismasted, rudderless ship that ran aground near Cape Flattery. The three survivors of the broken ship were held as slaves by the local Makah people before being taken to Fort Vancouver by William H. McNeill under orders from John McLoughlin.[6]

Fuca Pillar

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Fuca Pillar at Cape Flattery, the northwest extremity of the Olympic Peninsula

Fuca Pillar is a tall, almost rectangular, rock on the west side of Cape Flattery. It is named after Juan de Fuca, a Greek sailor who explored for Spain. Fuca has a doubtful claim to being the first European explorer to see the Fuca Pillar and to explore the Strait of Juan de Fuca, also named for him. The first generally accepted mention of the pillar was by John Meares in 1788.[4]

Literary references

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The view to the south from Cape Flattery

The novel When Wolf Comes by John Pappas is set in Cape Flattery in 1801. Parts of the novel Freaky Green Eyes by Joyce Carol Oates are set here in present day.

Ma and Pa Kettle movies were set in Cape Flattery.

The children's novel Ghost Canoe by Will Hobbs is set on Tatoosh Island and Neah Bay in 1874.

D.G. Driver's novel Echo of the Cliffs, the third in the trilogy of the Juniper Sawfeather series of novels, has parts of the novel that take place at Cape Flattery and Fuca Pillar.

Notes

  1. ^ "Cape Flattery Trail". Makah Tribe. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
  2. ^ Logan, Jeff (2010). "Cape Flattery trail". North Olympic Peninsula Insider. Archived from the original on 9 November 2000. Retrieved 11 September 2010. Cape Flattery Trail, with photographs.
  3. ^ NOAA Chart 18460, Strait of Juan de Fuca Entrance, 1/100,000, 2006
  4. ^ a b Majors, Harry M. (1975). Exploring Washington. Van Winkle Publishing Co. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-918664-00-6.
  5. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 126.

Coordinates: 48°23′11″N 124°43′34″W / 48.386274°N 124.726213°W

Cape Flattery-class torpedo trials craft

The Cape Flattery class is a class of four torpedo trials craft in the United States Navy. All active craft are currently assigned to the Naval Undersea Warfare Center in Keyport, Washington.

Cape Flattery (Ma and Pa Kettle)

Cape Flattery is the fictional town in the rural-comedy film series, Ma and Pa Kettle (1949–1957). The town makes reference to the Cape Flattery as the most remote, rural, and northernmost point in the West Coast.

In the series the town is mentioned as an incorporated city and county seat of "Clallan County", a variant for Clallam County.

Cape Flattery (Queensland)

Cape Flattery is a cape in northern Queensland approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Cooktown, Queensland. The headland was named by James Cook on 10 August 1770 as he charted the eastern Australian coast.

Cape Flattery (disambiguation)

Cape Flattery may refer to:

Cape Flattery (Washington)

Cape Flattery (Queensland), between North Direction Island, South Direction Island and Three Islands

Cape Flattery Light

The Cape Flattery Light is a historic lighthouse structure located at the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca near Neah Bay, Clallam County, in the U.S. state of Washington. The deactivated lighthouse sits on Tatoosh Island, which is named after Chief Tatooche of the Makah Tribe. It is the northwesternmost lighthouse on the West Coast of the contiguous United States. Although closed to the public, it can be viewed from Cape Flattery via a short 30-minute walk.

Charles Duncan (captain)

Charles Duncan was a British ship captain engaged in fur trading and exploration in the late 1770s. Duncan sketched a map of the entrance to the Juan de Fuca Strait with notes on the local tribes of Cape Claaset (now Cape Flattery, Washington), and a drawing of Pinnacle Rock (now Fuca’s Pillar, Washington). He believed a Northwest Passage existed but failed to locate one. His beliefs were based on communications with indigenous people.

Copalis National Wildlife Refuge

Copalis National Wildlife Refuge is the southernmost of the three refuges (along with Flattery Rocks and Quillayute Needles) which make up the Washington Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Complex, a group of 870 islands, rocks, and reefs extending for more than 100 miles along Washington's coast from Cape Flattery to Copalis Beach. These islands are protected from human disturbance, yet are close to abundant ocean food sources.They are a vital sanctuary where 14 species of seabirds nest and raise their young. During migration the total populations of seabirds, waterfowl, and shorebirds may exceed a million birds. Sea lions, harbor seals, sea otters, and whales may also be seen around the islands.The refuge is within the boundary of Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and Olympic National Park and is also incorporated into the Washington Islands Wilderness. The three agencies cooperate on research programs and other issues that may have impacts on the resources.

Flattery Rocks National Wildlife Refuge

Flattery Rocks National Wildlife Refuge is the northernmost of the three refuges (along with Quillayute Needles and Copalis) which make up the Washington Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Complex, a group of 870 islands, rocks, and reefs extending for more than 100 miles along Washington's coast from Cape Flattery to Copalis Beach. These islands are protected from human disturbance, yet are close to abundant ocean food sources. They are closed to the public, with wildlife observation only from boats and the mainland, and a 200-yard buffer zone surrounding each island.They are a vital sanctuary where 14 species of seabirds nest and raise their young. During migration the total populations of seabirds, waterfowl, and shorebirds may exceed a million birds. Sea lions, harbor seals, sea otters, and whales may also be seen around the islands.The refuge is within the boundary of Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and Olympic National Park, and is also incorporated into the Washington Islands Wilderness. The three agencies cooperate on research programs and other issues that may have impacts on the resources.

Makah Reservation

Makah Reservation is an Indian reservation of the Makah Native Americans located on the northwestern tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Clallam County, Washington, United States. The northern boundary of the reservation is the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The western boundary is the Pacific Ocean. It has a land area of 121.451 square kilometres (46.892 sq mi) and a 2000 census resident population of 1,356 persons. Its largest community is Neah Bay.

The Makah in the early twelfth century inhabited Cape Flattery, Washington. According to the Lewis and Clark expedition, they then numbered some 2,000. The Makah are the southernmost of the Wakashan linguistic group, and the only member of this family living within the current boundaries of the United States. Other bands are First Nations peoples on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

Makah culture was fundamentally that of the Pacific Northwest Coast area. In 1855 they ceded all their lands to the United States except a small area on Cape Flattery that was set aside as a reservation. Today most of the 1,600 Makah in the United States live on the Makah Reservation; their main tribal income is from forestry.

Non-tribal members visiting the reservation are required to purchase a pass upon entering the reservation. Guests on official business are given a free pass.

Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary

The Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary is one of 14 marine sanctuaries administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. It is located along the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. The sanctuary was declared in 1994 and encompasses 3,189 square miles (8,260 km2) of the Pacific Ocean from Cape Flattery in the north, to the mouth of the Copalis River, a distance of about 162.5 miles (261.5 km). Extending 25 to 40 miles (40 to 64 km) from the shore, it includes most of the continental shelf, as well as parts of three important submarine canyons, the Nitinat Canyon, the Quinault Canyon and the Juan de Fuca Canyon. For 64 miles (103 km) along the coast, the sanctuary shares stewardship with the Olympic National Park. The sanctuary overlays the Flattery Rocks, Quillayute Needles, and Copalis Rock National Wildlife Refuges.

Olympic Peninsula

The Olympic Peninsula is the large arm of land in western Washington that lies across Puget Sound from Seattle, and contains Olympic National Park. It is bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, the north by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the east by Hood Canal. Cape Alava, the westernmost point in the contiguous United States, and Cape Flattery, the northwesternmost point, are on the peninsula. Comprising about 3600 square miles, the Olympic Peninsula contained many of the last unexplored places in the Contiguous United States. It remained largely unmapped until Arthur Dodwell and Theodore Rixon mapped most of its topography and timber resources between 1898 and 1900.

Ports North

Ports North, the trading name of the Far North Queensland Ports Corporation Limited, is a Queensland Government statutory corporation that is responsible for the Cairns Marlin Marina and the Cairns Cityport project and the ports in Cairns, Cape Flattery, Karumba, Mourilyan, Skardon River, Quintell Beach, Thursday Island, Burketown and Cooktown, in Queensland, Australia.

The corporation's two shareholders are the Treasurer, Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships, and Minister for Sport, the Hon. Curtis Pitt; and the Minister for Main Roads, Road Safety and Ports, and Minister for Energy, Biofuels and Water Supply, the Hon. Mark Bailey.

Formerly known as the Cairns Port Authority, the corporation was responsible for the operation of the Cairns International Airport until the sale of the airport in December 2008 to a private consortium. The former authority was responsible for the Cairns Seaport and in 2009 became responsible for the regional ports of Mourilyan, Cooktown, Cape Flattery, Quintell Beach, Thursday Island, Skardon River, Karumba and Burketown.

Quileute language

Quileute , also known as Quillayute , was the last Chimakuan language, spoken until the end of the 20th century by Quileute and Makah elders on the western coast of the Olympic peninsula south of Cape Flattery at La Push and the lower Hoh River in Washington State, United States. The name Quileute comes from kʷoʔlí·yot’ [kʷoʔléːjotʼ], the name of a village at La Push.

Quileute is famous for its lack of nasal sounds, such as [m], [n], or nasal vowels, an areal feature of Puget Sound.

Quileute is polysynthetic and words can be quite long.

Quillayute Needles National Wildlife Refuge

Quillayute Needles National Wildlife Refuge is the central refuge of the three (along with Flattery Rocks and Copalis) which make up the Washington Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Complex, a group of 870 islands, rocks, and reefs extending for more than 100 miles along Washington's coast from Cape Flattery to Copalis Beach. These islands are protected from human disturbance, yet are close to abundant ocean food sources.They are a vital sanctuary where 14 species of seabirds nest and raise their young. During migration the total populations of seabirds, waterfowl, and shorebirds may exceed a million birds. Sea lions, harbor seals, sea otters, and whales may also be seen around the islands.The refuge is within the boundary of Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and Olympic National Park, and except for Destruction Island is also incorporated into the Washington Islands Wilderness. The three agencies cooperate on research programs and other issues that may have impacts on the resources.

Rural school districts in Washington

Rural school districts in Washington are administrative districts that provide educational services in rural areas of Washington state.

These are arbitrarily defined as school districts with enrollments of less than 1,000 students and no more than three schools. These rural districts typically serve a small town with a population of up to a few thousand. Some of these districts share educational facilities with neighboring districts.

SS Cape Flattery (AK-5070)

SS Cape Flattery (AK-5070) was laid down on 10 February 1972, as SS Delta Norte a Maritime Administration type (C8-S-81d) hull under Maritime Administration contract (MA 259) at Avondale Industries Corp., New Orleans, LA. She was launched, 19 May 1973 and delivered to the Maritime Administration, 12 September 1973, for operation by Delta Line. She was reacquired by the Maritime Administration for assignment to the ready reserve fleet (RRF), 14 May 1987 and berthed at Beaumont, TX as part of the Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Fleet. When activated Cape Flattery is assigned to Military Sealift Command (MSC) as one of the Military Sealift Command's four LASH Ready Reserve Force Ships. Cape Flattery can be activated in 10 days

Tatoosh Island, Washington

Tatoosh Island is a small island and small group of islands about 0.5 miles (0.8 km) offshore (northwest) of Cape Flattery, which is on the northwestern tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington. Tatoosh is the largest of a small group of islands also often referred to as simply "Tatoosh Island", which are almost as far west as Cape Alava, about 15 miles (24 km) to the south and the westernmost point in the contiguous 48 states. The islands are part of the Makah Reservation and a part of Clallam County. The total land area of the island group is 159,807 square metres (1,720,150 square feet).

Historically, Tatoosh Island was inhabited seasonally by Makah fishing camps and employees of the United States Coast Guard, Weather Bureau, and Navy. Currently there is no resident population on the islands. Access to the island requires written permission of the Makah tribe. The island's name comes from a Makah chief known as Tatoosh (also Tatooche or Tetacus).

Tatoosh Island has been home to Cape Flattery Light, which overlooks the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, since December 28, 1857.The whole island was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.

Three Islands National Park

Three Islands and Three Islands Reef are part of the Three Islands Group National Park in Far North Queensland, Australia, in the Coral Sea, 1,581 km (982 mi) northwest of Brisbane, about 44 km (27 mi) north-northeast of Cooktown.

The Three Islands Group National Park comprises Three Islands, Two Islands and Rocky Islets, a group of eight islands. They are all located within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Three Islands consists of islands (a), (b) and (c) and are about 15 km north-east of Cape Bedford and 44 km north-north-east of Cooktown.

Two Islands is about 10 km east-south-east of Cape Flattery (the closest settlement) and about 54 km north-east of Cooktown and consists of islands (a) and (b).

The most northern sub-group, Rocky Islets, has three islands (a), (b) and (c) and is about 17 km north-east of Cape Flattery and 72 km north-east of Cooktown.The islands are important and protected seabird nesting sites. Access to the Rocky Islets is prohibited, and camping is only permitted on Two Islands (a) — between 1 April and 31 August. A maximum of 10 people for up to 14 days is permitted.

Two Islands National Park

Two Islands and Two Islands Reef are part of the Three Islands Group National Park in Far North Queensland, Australia, in the Coral Sea, 1,590 km (990 mi) northwest of Brisbane, about 50 km (31 mi) north-northeast of Cooktown, 10 km (6.2 mi) southeast of Cape Flattery, and 10 km (6.2 mi) north of Three Islands and Three Islands Reef.

The islands are located within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, and are important and protected seabird nesting sites.

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