Cap de Creus (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈkab də ˈkɾɛws]) is a peninsula and a headland located at the far northeast of Catalonia, some 25 kilometres (16 mi) south from the French border. The cape lies in the municipal area of Cadaqués, and the nearest large town is Figueres, capital of the Alt Empordà and birthplace of Salvador Dalí. Cap de Creus is the easternmost point of Catalonia and therefore of mainland Spain and the Iberian Peninsula.
The peninsula has an area of 190 square kilometres (73 sq mi) of an extraordinary landscape value; a windbeaten very rocky dry region, with almost no trees, in contrast with a seaside rich in minuscule creeks of deep blue sea to anchor. Mountains are the eastern foothills of the Pyrenees, the natural border between France and Spain. The region is frequently swept by awful north wind "tramontana" (beyond mountains) which has caused many naval disasters. Cadaqués is the most well known village, home of artists and writers, with sophisticated atmosphere, near Port Lligat where Dalí built his home in a paradise small bay. (Dalí depicted the peninsula in his paintings The Persistence of Memory and The Great Masturbator.) El Port de la Selva, with a little fishing harbour, is less exploited, with good gastronomic resources and pleasant terraces.
Sant Pere de Rodes stands out at 500 metres (1,600 ft) of altitude, with views of the Cap and the Pyrenees. It is an 11th-century monastery whose first structures date from about 750 AD.
One legend tells that the Cap de Creus was hewn by Hercules.
Alexandre Deulofeu Torres (20 September 1903, in L'Armentera – 27 December 1978, in Figueres) was a politician and philosopher of history. He wrote about what he called the Mathematics of History, a cyclical theory on the evolution of civilizations.Cadaqués
Cadaqués (Catalan pronunciation: [kəðəˈkes]) is a town in the Alt Empordà comarca, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It is on a bay in the middle of the Cap de Creus peninsula, near Cap de Creus cape, on the Costa Brava of the Mediterranean. It is two-and-a-quarter-hour drive from Barcelona, and thus it is accessible not only to tourists but also to people who want a second home for weekends and summers. In 2002, Cadaqués had an official population of 2,612, but up to ten times as many people can live in the town during the peak of the summer tourism season.
Cadaqués has a special place in art history. Commanding charcoals, by local artist Eliseu Meifrèn, of the 19th century Cadaqués beleaguered by a winter tramontane, can be seen at the Cadaqués museum. Fren was the first modern artist to live in Cadaqués and gave the town many of his works and a marble top table on which he sketched many of its turn-of-the-century fishermen.
Salvador Dalí often visited Cadaqués in his childhood, and later kept a home in Port Lligat, a small village on a bay next to the town. A summer holiday here in 1916, spent with the family of Ramon Pichot is seen as especially important to Dalí's artistic career. Other notable artists, including Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Richard Hamilton, Albert Ràfols-Casamada, Antoni Pitxot, Henri-François Rey, Melina Mercouri and Maurice Boitel also spent time here. Cadaqués is mentioned in the story "Tramontana" by Gabriel García Márquez.
The interesting submarine life of this sleepy fishing village was studied for several years by phycologist Françoise Ardré, long before Cadaqués was discovered and transformed into a tourism destination. On Mondays there is a travelling market in Cadaqués, located near the parking lot. This market has a wide variety of products.Cap Norfeu
Cap Norfeu is a cape at the south-east end of the Cap de Creus peninsula located on the Costa Brava in Catalonia, Spain, between Roses and Cadaqués. It is located between the bays badia de Jóncols to the north and badia de Montjoi to the south, at the end of a little peninsula.Costa Brava
The Costa Brava (Catalan: [ˈkɔstə ˈβɾaβə], Spanish: [ˈkosta ˈβɾaβa]; "Wild Coast" or "Rough Coast") is a coastal region of Catalonia in northeastern Spain, consisting of the comarques (counties) of Alt Empordà, Baix Empordà and Selva in the province of Girona. Costa Brava stretches from the town of Blanes, 60 km (37 mi) northeast of Barcelona, to the French border.
In the 1950s, the Costa Brava was identified by the Spanish government and local entrepreneurs as being suitable for substantial development as a holiday destination, mainly for package holiday tourists from Northern Europe and especially, the United Kingdom and France. The combination of a very good summer climate, nature, excellent beaches and a favourable foreign exchange rate before the creation of the single European currency, which made Costa Brava an attractive tourist destination, was exploited by the construction of large numbers of hotels and apartments in such seaside resorts as Blanes, Tossa de Mar and Lloret de Mar. Tourism rapidly took over from fishing as the principal business of the area.El Port de la Selva
El Port de la Selva is a municipality in the comarca of the Alt Empordà in Catalonia, Spain, on the Costa Brava. It is situated on the northern coast of the Cap de Creus and is an important fishing port and tourist centre. The romanesque abbey of Sant Pere de Rodes is particularly notable.Extreme points of Catalonia
This is a list of the extreme points of Catalonia, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location, as well as the highest point in the region.GR 11 (Spain)
The GR 11, also known as the ruta Transpirenaica in Spain, is part of the extensive GR footpath network of paths, tracks and trails. It runs through the Spanish Pyrenees, passing only briefly into France near Candanchu.
From West to East, the trail starts at Cape Higuer (Basque Country), crosses Navarre and Aragon and finishes at Cap de Creus (Catalonia.) Its exact distance is difficult to measure, roughly 840 km and a total elevation change of 39,000 m. The route is separated into 45 sections. At the end of each section there is normally a useful stopping point (camping spot, town, hostel or refuge) but in general, supplies have to be carried for 3–4 days. Because most rivers flow perpendicular to the trail, the GR 11 passes over many valleys affording beautiful vistas but also many ascents and descents - some days as much as 1600 m ascent (with equivalent descent).
The trail can be walked in either direction - the deciding factors being the steepness of the terrain and the Sun. In the eastern (Catalan Pyrenees) and central part of the route (Aragonese Pyrenees), days are hotter and the profile more steep, which can prove physically challenging, especially for individuals who are less physically fit. The heat is much better tackled when the body has acclimated and physical conditioning has improved toward the end of the trip. Although walking East might provide a more comfortable start, it implies facing the Sun during the morning.
Fit walkers normally manage to complete it in about 44 days, although some people have been known to complete it in 24 days or less.
The GR 10 is a similar route but on the French side of the border while the Haute Randonnée Pyrénéenne (HRP) follows a generally higher route through the Pyrenees, frequently crossing the French-Spanish border.Gulf of Roses
The Gulf of Roses (Catalan: Golf de Roses [ˈɡolv ðə ˈrɔzəs]) is the most northeastern bay on the Catalan coast of Spain.
The bay is 16 kilometres (10 mi) wide and is formed by the valley of the Fluvià river but also contains the estuaries of the Manol and the Muga rivers. These rivers drain the southern flanks of the eastern end of the Pyrenees and Alberes. The area is often affected by the severe Tramuntana wind.
The bay contains the resorts of Roses, Castelló d'Empúries/Empuriabrava, Sant Pere Pescador, Empúries and L'Escala.
The bay was originally settled by the Greeks, who created a trading post at Empúries which became a Roman town before being abandoned after Viking and Muslim pirate raids along the coast. The area was the domain of the Count of Empúries.
The area was malarial swamp for much of the Middle Ages. Irrigation schemes led to much of the former marshland becoming farmland. Tourism caused further encroachment, in particular the 1960s resort of Empúriabrava, which includes canals and moorings for detached villas. An important wintering spot for traveling birds, the marsh has now been designated the Parc Natural dels Aiguamolls de l'Empordà. To the north overlooking the Bay lies the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus.
The bay was also home to the Catalan restaurant El Bulli.List of Costa Brava films
Below is an incomplete list of fictional feature films, short films or miniseries that have been filmed in locations of the Costa Brava.List of Pyrenean three-thousanders
This list contains all of the Pyrenean three-thousanders, namely the 129 mountain summits of 3,000 metres (9,843 ft) or more above sea level in the Pyrenees, a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain. The Pyrenees separate the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extend for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea (Cap de Creus). The highest mountain in the Pyrenees is Aneto in Spain at 3,404 metres (11,168 ft).
The summits meeting the 3,000-metre criterion were defined by a UIAA-sponsored joint Franco-Spanish team led by Juan Buyse. The UIAA list, published in 1990, also contains 83 secondary summits in addition to the 129 principal ones listed here, and divides the range into 11 zones. According to the latest surveys, three of the peaks in the original list are actually below 3000m but are still included below.
The selection criteria used here are quite broad – many of the peaks included are secondary summits of major mountains. Using prominence as a criterion, only one summit is an ultra-prominent peak, Aneto, a further three have a prominence of 1000m (Pico Posets, Pica d'Estats, Vignemale), and five more have a prominence of over 600m. Only 17 in total have a prominence of more than 300m, commonly used as a criterion for determining an independent mountain, and are indicated in bold in the table below. 28 more have a prominence of over 100m and can be considered significant summits.
All the peaks in this list are in Spain (59 peaks) or France (26 peaks), or delimit the border between the two countries (45). The two highest major mountains and their subsidiary summits (Aneto and Posets - Zone 7 and 9) are entirely in Spain, together with the Besiberri peaks (zone 10) while Pic Long and surrounding mountains (zone 5) are entirely in France. Most of the other mountains lie on or close to the border. The small country of Andorra is located in the eastern portion of the Pyrenees and is surrounded by Spain and France; its highest mountain – Coma Pedrosa at 2,942 metres (9,652 ft) – falls below the 3,000-metre threshold. The mountains are listed by height within each of the 11 zones.List of extreme points of Spain
This is a list of the extreme points of Spain — the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location.List of shipwrecks in February 1939
The list of shipwrecks in February 1939 includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during February 1939.Llançà
Llançà (Catalan pronunciation: [ʎənˈsa]) is a municipality in the comarca of the Alt Empordà in
Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the coastline of the Costa Brava, between the Cap de Creus and the French
frontier and is an important fishing port and tourist centre. The N-260 connects the town with Figueres
and continues on to the border at Portbou.Outline of Catalonia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Catalonia:
Catalonia – nationality and one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain, located on the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula.Port Lligat
Port Lligat or Portlligat is a small village located in a small bay on Cap de Creus peninsula, on the Costa Brava of the Mediterranean Sea, in the municipality of Cadaqués in the Alt Empordà comarca, in Girona province, Catalonia, Spain. The Island of Port Lligat (or Island of Portlligat) is located at the entrance of the bay, separated from the mainland by a narrow 30-metre-wide canal.
Salvador Dalí lived in the village and his house has been converted into the Casa-Museo Salvador Dalí. Both the bay and the island have been represented in several of Dalí's paintings, such as The Madonna of Port Lligat, Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus), and The Sacrament of the Last Supper.Pyrenees
The Pyrenees (; Spanish: Pirineos [piɾiˈneos]; French: Pyrénées [piʁene]; Aragonese: Pirineus; Catalan: Pirineus [piɾiˈnɛws]; Occitan: Pirenèus; Basque: Pirinioak [piˈɾinioˌak]) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea (Cap de Creus).
For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between. The Principality of Catalonia alongside with the Kingdom of Aragon in the Crown of Aragon, Occitania and the Kingdom of Navarre have historically extended on both sides of the mountain range, with smaller northern portions now in France and larger southern parts now in Spain.The demonym for the noun "Pyrenees" in English is Pyrenean.Sant Pere de Rodes
Sant Pere de Rodes (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈsam ˈpeɾə ðə ˈrɔðəs]) is a former Benedictine monastery in the comarca of Alt Empordà, in the North East of Catalonia, Spain.Shear zone
A shear zone is a very important structural discontinuity surface in the Earth's crust and upper mantle. It forms as a response to inhomogeneous deformation partitioning strain into planar or curviplanar high-strain zones. Intervening (crustal) blocks stay relatively unaffected by the deformation. Due to the shearing motion of the surrounding more rigid medium, a rotational, non co-axial component can be induced in the shear zone. Because the discontinuity surface usually passes through a wide depth-range, a great variety of different rock types with their characteristic structures are produced.The Great Masturbator
The Great Masturbator (1929) is a painting by Salvador Dalí executed during the surrealist epoch, and is currently displayed at Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid.