Cap Anson

Adrian Constantine Anson (April 17, 1852 – April 14, 1922), nicknamed "Cap" (for "Captain") and "Pop", was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) first baseman. Including his time in the National Association (NA), he played a record 27 consecutive seasons.[1] Anson was regarded as one of the greatest players of his era and one of the first superstars of the game.[2] Anson spent most of his career with the Chicago Cubs franchise (then known as the "White Stockings" and later the "Colts"), serving as the club's manager, first baseman and, later in his tenure, minority owner. He led the team to five National League pennants in the 1880s. Anson was one of baseball's first great hitters, and probably the first to tally over 3,000 career hits.

His contemporary influence and prestige are regarded by historians as playing a major role in establishing the racial segregation in professional baseball that persisted until the late 1940s.[3] On several occasions, Anson refused to take the field when the opposing roster included black players.[4] Anson may have influenced the most noted vote in 19th-century professional baseball in favor of segregation: a July 14, 1887 one by the high-minor International League to ban the signing of new contracts with black players.[5]

After retiring as a player and leaving the Colts, Anson briefly managed the New York Giants. He ran several enterprises in Chicago, including opening a billiards and bowling hall and running a semi-professional baseball team he dubbed "Anson's Colts". Anson also toured extensively on the vaudeville circuit, performing monologues and songs. Many of his business ventures failed. As a result, Anson lost his ownership stake in the Colts (by then known as the Cubs) and filed for bankruptcy. Anson was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939.

Cap Anson
Cap anson studio photo
First baseman
Born: April 17, 1852
Marshalltown, Iowa
Died: April 14, 1922 (aged 69)
Chicago, Illinois
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
May 6, 1871, for the Rockford Forest Citys
Last MLB appearance
October 3, 1897, for the Chicago Colts
MLB statistics
Batting average.334
Hits2,995–3,435
Home runs97
Runs batted in2,075
Managerial record1,295–947
Winning %.578
Teams
As player

As manager

Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction1939
Election MethodVeteran's Committee

Early life

Anson was born in Marshalltown, Iowa.[2][3] Beginning in 1866, he spent two years at the high-school age boarding school of the University of Notre Dame after being sent there by his father in hopes of curtailing his mischievousness.[6] His time away did little to discipline him. Soon after he returned home, his father sent him to the University of Iowa, where his bad behavior resulted in the school asking him to leave after one semester.[6]

Professional career

National Association

Anson played on a number of competitive baseball clubs in his youth and began to play professionally in the National Association (NA) at the age of 19, playing primarily third base for the Rockford Forest Citys, one of the original teams of the Association.[3][7] He was a large and powerful man, standing 6'2" tall and weighing about 220 pounds.[8]

After being traded to Philadelphia Athletics, in 1872 and 1873, Anson finished in the NA's top five in batting, on-base percentage (OBP), and on-base plus slugging (OPS). He led the NA in OBP in 1872. His numbers declined slightly in 1874 and 1875, but he was still good enough that Chicago White Stockings secretary-turned-president William Hulbert sought him to improve his club for the 1876 season. Hulbert broke league rules by negotiating with Anson and several other stars while the 1875 season was still in progress and ultimately founded the new National League to forestall any disciplinary action.[3][9]

Anson, who had become engaged to a Philadelphia native in the meantime,[10] had second thoughts about going west, but Hulbert held Anson to his contract and he eventually warmed to the Windy City.[11]

Chicago White Stockings/Colts

Cap Anson Chicago
Cap Anson, Chicago.

The White Stockings won the first league title, but fell off the pace the following two seasons. During this time, Anson was a solid hitter, but not quite a superstar. Both his fortunes and those of his team would change after Anson was named captain-manager of the club in 1879.

His new role led to the nickname "Cap",[3] though newspapers typically called him by the more formal "Captain Anson" or "Capt. Anson". With Anson pacing the way, the White Stockings won five pennants between 1880 and 1886. They were helped to the titles using new managerial tactics, including the use of a third-base coach, having one fielder back up another, signaling batters, and the rotation of two star pitchers.[3][12] In the first half of the 1880s, aided by speedy players like Mike Kelly, Anson had his players aggressively run the bases, forcing the opposition into making errors. After the expression first became popular in the 1890s, he retroactively claimed to use some of the first "hit and run" plays.

Anson shares credit as an innovator of modern spring training along with the president of the Chicago club, Albert Spalding. They were among the first to send their clubs to warmer climates in the South to prepare for the season, beginning in Hot Springs, Arkansas in 1886.[12] On the field, Anson was the team's best hitter and run producer. In the 1880s, he won two batting titles (1881, 1888) and finished second four times (1880, 1882, 1886–1887). During the same period, he led the league in runs batted in (RBIs) seven times (1880–82, 1884–86, 1888). His best season was in 1881, when he led the league in batting (.399), OBP (.442), OPS (.952), hits (137), total bases (175), and RBIs (82). He also became the first player to hit three consecutive home runs, five homers in two games, and four doubles in a game, as well as being the first to perform two unassisted double plays in a game. He is one of only a few players to score six runs in a game, a feat he accomplished on August 24, 1886.

Anson signed a ten-year contract in 1888 to manage the White Stockings (which, because of a typographical error he failed to spot, ended after the 1897 season instead of 1898),[2][12] but his best years were behind him. He led the league in walks in 1890 and garnered his eighth and final RBI crown in 1891. On the managerial front, he failed to win another pennant.

As the end of the 1880s approached, the club had begun trading away its stars in favor of young players, with the exception of the veteran Anson. Local newspapers had started to call the team "Anson's Colts", or just "Colts", before the decade was out. With the advent of the Players' League in 1890, what little talent the club still had was drained away, and the team nickname "Colts", though never official, became standard usage in the local media[2][13][14] along with variants such as (Anson's) White Colts and (Anson's) Broncos.[12]

He also mellowed enough that he became a fatherly figure and was often called "Pop".[3] When he was fired as manager after the 1897 season, it also marked the end of his 27-year playing career. The following season, newspapers dubbed the Colts the "Orphans", as they had lost their "Pop".[3][12]

Racial intolerance

Cap Anson 0555fu
Cap Anson baseball card (N162), 1888

Anson refused to play in exhibition games versus dark-skinned players.[12]

On August 10, 1883, he refused to play an exhibition game against the Toledo Blue Stockings because their catcher, Moses Fleetwood Walker, was African American.[12] When Blue Stockings Manager Charlie Morton told Anson the White Stockings would forfeit the gate receipts if they refused to play, Anson backed down.[3][15]

In 1884, Chicago again played an exhibition game at Toledo, which was now in the American Association, a major league. Walker sat it out, and unclear is whether he did so to placate Chicago or because he was injured; Jimmy McGuire instead did the catching. Both had sore hands, the Toledo Blade had said a few days earlier. Of the two catchers, Walker was seemingly the more injured, as he did not play in Toledo's second-most recent game.[16] Among Anson's incidents, this one is unique in that private correspondence provides insight. Three months before the game, Chicago Treasurer-Secretary John A. Brown wrote Toledo manager Charlie Morton that "the management of the Chicago Ball Club have no personal feeling about the matter, while "the players do most decisively object and to preserve harmony in the club it is necessary that I have your assurance in writing that [Walker] will not play any position in your nine July 25. I have no doubt such is your meaning[;] only your letter does not express in full [sic]. I have no desire to replay the occurrence of last season and must have your guarantee to that effort.[17]

Walker and his brother Welday were released from their team later that year, Welday last playing on August 6 and Fleet on September 4. On July 14, 1887 the Chicago White Stockings played an exhibition game against the Newark Little Giants. African American George Stovey was listed in the Newark News as the scheduled Newark starting pitcher. Anson objected, and Stovey did not pitch. Moreover, International League owners had voted 6-to-4 at a 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. meeting in Buffalo on the morning of the game to exclude African-American players from future contracts.[18]

Betting on baseball/personal character

Anson acted in ways that would not be tolerated today, because the sport's rules are stricter in certain respects. One was the relative freedom a captain had in his day to argue with the usually lone umpire. Also, starting in the latter 1880s, he often bet on baseball, mainly on his team's chances to win the pennant. And yet, he arguably stood out as the player with the greatest integrity. In that era, the big taboo was for players to take bribes to purposely lose games. Betting by players, managers, and owners was regarded as acceptable so long as they did not bet against their team doing well or associate with gamblers.[19]

On corruption in sports, he said the following in 1891: "The time may have been, and probably was, when base-ball was as rotten as horse racing, but that time has gone by. The men in control of base-ball matters are of the highest personal character, and no one will say anything against them. As to the charges against any individual player, I will believe them when they have been proved. Every thing [sic] possible has been done to protect the patrons of the National game, and efforts in that direction will never be abated. I don’t know of any crookedness in the ball field. If I did I’d undoubtedly say something about it."[20]

A chronological review of 162 reports of bets on regular season baseball by players, managers or club officials, from 1876 to 1900, tallied the sport's top bettors in that era as follows:

Albert Spalding and James Hart

Anson first met Albert Spalding while both were players; Spalding was a pitcher for the Rockford Forest Citys, Anson played for the Marshalltown, Iowa, team.[12] Spalding convinced the 18-year-old Anson to come play for the Forest Citys at a salary of $65 per month. In 1876, when Anson was playing for Philadelphia, Spalding and William Hulbert lured Anson to the Chicago team, which Spalding now managed.[12] After signing the contract, Anson had second thoughts (his future wife did not want to leave her family in Philadelphia), and offered Spalding $1,000 to void the contract. Spalding held Anson to the contract, and Anson came to Chicago in March 1876.[12]

Spalding retired as a player and manager after the 1877 season, but continued as secretary, and later president, of the White Stockings.[12] Anson became a player/manager of the team in 1879, and by 1889 had a 13% ownership.[10][12] In 1888 Spalding announced that the White Stockings, including Anson, and a "picked nine"[10] from the rest of the National League would begin a World Tour after the end of the season. Spalding put up most of the money, but Anson invested $3,750 of his own.[10] James Hart was hired as business manager and Anson developed an intense dislike for him.[10]

After Spalding stepped down as president of the Chicago club in 1891, he appointed James Hart to the position,[12] which Anson felt should have been his despite his dismal business record.[10] Spalding, however, continued to run the club behind the scenes.[12] In December 1892, Hart, with Spalding's blessing, reorganized the White Stockings into a stock company.[10] Anson was required to sign a new contract, which ended in 1898 instead of 1899 as the previous one had.[10] Anson spotted the error later but said nothing, trusting that Spalding would honor the previous terms.[10]

Hart began to undermine Anson's managerial decisions by reversing fines and suspensions imposed by Anson.[10] By 1897 Anson had little control over his players; after Anson demanded a sportswriter print that Anson thought "the Chicago ball club is composed of drunkards and loafers who are throwing him down",[10] his days as manager were numbered. Spalding invited Anson and his wife on a four-week journey to England in late November 1897. Spalding dropped many hints on the voyage, encouraging Anson to voluntarily retire, but Anson had no intention of doing so.[10] Things remained in limbo until January 29, 1898 when the Associated Press printed a statement by Spalding: "I have taken pains as a mediator to find out from Chicagoans how they feel about a change of management. There has been a decided undercurrent in favor... Lovers of baseball think that Anson has been in power too long."[10]

Cap Anson WSP 19080422
Cap Anson throws out the first pitch for the home opener for the Cubs on April 22, 1908, at Chicago's West Side Park

Career hits total

There has been some controversy as to whether Anson should be considered the first player ever to reach the 3,000 hit milestone. For many years, official statistics credited him with achieving that goal. When the first edition of Macmillan's Baseball Encyclopedia was published in 1969, it disregarded a rule in place only for the 1887 season which counted base-on-balls (walks) as hits and times-at-bat instead of zeroes in both categories as they were before and have been since. Anson's 60 walks were removed from his 1887 hit total, resulting in a career mark of 2,995, though later editions of the encyclopedia still added five more hits to exactly 3,000.[10]

The other controversy over Anson's total hits had to do with his five years in the National Association.[22] Neither the Macmillan Encyclopedia editions nor MLB itself at that time recognized the National Association as being a true major league.[10] MLB.com does not count Anson's time in the NA in his statistics, but tallies his NL total as 3,011 hits.[23] This places Anson 25th on the all-time list.[24]

Other sources credit Anson with a different number of hits, largely because scoring and record keeping was haphazard in baseball until well into the 20th century.[25]

Beginning with the publication of the Baseball Encyclopedia, statisticians have continually found errors and have adjusted career totals accordingly. According to the Sporting News baseball record book, which does not take NA statistics into account, Anson had 3,012 hits over his career.[26] Baseball Reference also credits Anson with 3,012 hits during his NL career; including his time in the NA, Anson is credited with 3,435 hits.[7] The National Baseball Hall of Fame, which uses statistics verified by the Elias Sports Bureau, credits Anson with 3,081 hits.[27] This figure disregards games played in the NA, but includes the walks earned during 1887 as hits.

Retirement

Anson briefly made a return to baseball managing the New York Giants in June and July of 1898.[12] He then attempted to buy a Chicago team in the Western League, but failed after being opposed by Spalding.[12] In 1900, he helped to organize a new version of the defunct American Association, called the New American Base Ball Association, and was named its president.[10][3] However, at the first sign of trouble he dissolved the league before a single game was played, drawing heated criticism from other backers.[10][3]

After a number of failed business attempts, including a handball arena and bottled ginger beer that exploded on store shelves,[10] he was later elected city clerk of Chicago in 1905.[28] After serving one term, he failed in the Democratic primary to become sheriff in 1907.[29]

Cap Anson
Anson in 1907

In 1907, Anson made another attempt to come back to baseball, acquiring a semi-pro team in the Chicago City League, which he would call "Anson's Colts".[10][3] Anson initially had no intention of playing for the team, but in June 1907, at the age of 55, Anson started playing some games at first base in an attempt to boost poor attendance. Despite the draw of seeing Anson play, the team did not attract much attendance, and lost money for Anson. In the fall of 1908, Anson assembled a semi-pro football team, also called Anson's Colts. Although the football team won the city championship, they were not a financial success.[10]

Anson's few successful ventures included a combination billiards hall and a bowling alley he opened in downtown Chicago in 1899.[10][29] Anson was named vice-president of the American Bowling Congress in 1903, and led a team to the five-man national championship in 1904.[2] Anson was forced to sell the billiards hall in 1909 when faced with mounting financial problems that led to his bankruptcy.[29] Anson was also an avid golfer.

Anson's 1900 book A Ball Player's Career: Being the Personal Reminiscences of Adrian C. Anson, was ghostwritten by Chicago horse racing writer and poet Richard Cary Jr., who had the pen name of Hyder Ali. Right after it was published, Cary told the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, "I really thought when I started that the ‘Cap’ [sic] would be able to reel off the story of his life about as fast as a nimble man would care to write it. It took me just two days to find that was not the case. A day and a half to get the ‘Cap’ to sit down and the other half day in egging him on. The story had to be literally dragged out of him. The incidents of his baseball career were apparently fresh in his mind, but when it came to actual dates he was all at sea. When he did give a date nine times out of ten it was wrong and had to be corrected later on." The New York Times said whether Anson "wrote every word in this volume of reminiscences or not[,] the book reads characteristically. The expression is Ansonian."[30]

Anson began acting during his baseball career. In 1888, he made his stage debut with a single appearance in Hoyt's play A Parlor Match at the Theatre Comique in Harlem.[31] He also played himself in an 1895 Broadway play called The Runaway Colt, written to take advantage of his fame.[22][31] Later, Anson began touring on the vaudeville circuit, a common practice for athletes of the time,[31] which lasted up until about a year before his death.[28]

He first appeared in vaudeville in 1913 doing a monologue and a short dance. In 1914, George M. Cohan wrote a monologue for him,[31] and in 1917, Cohan, with Chicago Tribune sportswriter Ring Lardner wrote another piece for him, titled First Aid for Father.[10] Anson appeared with two of his grown daughters, Adele and Dorothy, and would bat papier-mâché baseballs made by Albert Spalding into the audience.[10] He appeared in 1921 accompanied by his two daughters in an act written by Ring Lardner with songs by Herman Timberg.[32]

Anson retired from vaudeville in 1921, and continued to refuse a pension from Major League Baseball, despite having no other income.[10] In April 1922, he became the general manager of a new golf club in the South Side of Chicago.[10]

Death

Anson died on April 14, 1922 in Chicago from a glandular ailment.[33] He was interred at the Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago.[34]

Legacy

Anson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939, one of the first 19th century players selected. Over 100 years after his retirement, he still holds several Cubs franchise records, including most career RBI, runs, hits, singles, and doubles while being the only Cub in the 3,000 hit club.[35]

Defensively, he also holds the franchise record for putouts, but also is second in franchise history for errors.[36]

Personal life

In 1872, the 20-year-old Anson met 13-year-old Virginia Fiegal, the daughter of a Philadelphia bar and restaurant owner, whom he married on November 21, 1876. The marriage lasted until her death in 1915.[10] For the first seven years of their marriage, the couple lived in Chicago during the baseball season and Philadelphia during the off-season, but eventually moved to Chicago on a year-round basis.[10]

The Ansons had seven children, three of whom died in infancy.[10] Daughter Grace was born in October 1877; son Adrian Hulbert was born in 1882 and died four days later; daughter Adele was born in April 1884; son Adrian Constantine, Jr. was born in 1887 and died four months later; daughter Dorothy was born in 1889; son John Henry was born in 1892 and died four days later; and daughter Virginia Jeanette was born in 1899.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Most Seasons Played". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2006-11-22. (Note that Nolan Ryan's 27 seasons are not consecutive.)
  2. ^ a b c d e Fleitz, David L. "Cap Anson". Society for American Baseball Research Baseball Biography Project. Retrieved January 22, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Pietrusza, David; Matthew Silverman; Gershman, Michael (2000). Baseball: The Biographical Encyclopedia. New York: Total Sports. pp. 29–31. ISBN 1-892129-34-5.
  4. ^ Moses Fleetwood Walker is generally considered the first African-American to play in Major Leagues, in 1884 for Toledo in the then-major American Association, although the first black player is now considered to be a recently discovered one, William Edward White, who played in a single game in 1879 in the National League and who apparently passed for being white.
  5. ^ Rosenberg, Howard W. (2006). Cap Anson 4: Bigger Than Babe Ruth: Captain Anson of Chicago. Tile Books. p. 560. ISBN 978-0-9725574-3-6., p. 443 and Rosenberg. "Fantasy Baseball: The Momentous Drawing of the Sport's 19th-Century 'Color Line' is still Tripping up History Writers"., The Atavist, June 14, 2016. By a 6-to-4 vote, on July 14, 1887, the International League’s entirely white teams voted in favor of the ban and those with at least one black player voted in the negative. The Binghamton, N.Y., team, which had just released its two black players, voted with the majority. Right after the vote, the sports weekly Sporting Life stated, “Several representatives declared that many of the best players in the league are anxious to leave on account of the colored element, and the board finally directed Secretary [C.D.] White to approve of no more contracts with colored men.”
  6. ^ a b "Cap Chronicled — Chapter 1: The First Son". Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  7. ^ a b "Baseball-Reference.com: Cap Anson".
  8. ^ "Capt. Anson", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 5, 1886, pg. 5.
  9. ^ "William Hulbert". BaseballLibrary.com. Archived from the original on 2005-12-11. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Fleitz, David L. (2005). Cap Anson: The Grand Old Man of Baseball. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 346. ISBN 0-7864-2238-6.
  11. ^ "Cap Chronicled — Chapter 2: A Ballplayer is Born". Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Golenbock, Peter (1997). Wrigleyville: A Magical History Tour of the Chicago Cubs. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 20–90. ISBN 0-312-15699-5.
  13. ^ Gold, Eddie; Art Ahrens (1985). The Golden Era Cubs: 1876–1940. Bonus Books. p. 2. ISBN 0-931028-66-3.
  14. ^ "Chicago Defeated Again" (PDF). The New York Times. June 14, 1891. p. 3.
  15. ^ "Cap Chronicled — Chapter 4: Cap's Great Shame — Racial Intolerance". Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  16. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 4: Bigger Than Babe Ruth: Captain Anson of Chicago., p. 424-425.
  17. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 4., p. 424.
  18. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 4., p. 436-437.
  19. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 4., p. 5.
  20. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 4., p. 6.
  21. ^ Rosenberg (2004). Cap Anson 2: The Theatrical and Kingly Mike Kelly: U.S. Team Sport's First Media Sensation and Baseball's Original Casey at the Bat. Arlington, Virginia: Tile Books,. pp. 321–352. ISBN 0-9725574-0-7.
  22. ^ a b Merkin, Scott (July 27, 2007). "Complex Anson a legend of baseball". Major League Baseball. Retrieved 2008-01-05.
  23. ^ "Cap Anson Stats, Fantasy & News". Major League Baseball.
  24. ^ "Sortable Player Stats". Major League Baseball.
  25. ^ Schwarz, Alan (2005). The Numbers Game: Baseball's Lifelong Fascination With Statistics. Macmillan. pp. 99–103. ISBN 0-312-32222-4.
  26. ^ "2007Complete Baseball Record Book — Career Milestones" (PDF). Sporting News. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-22. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
  27. ^ "Cap Anson's Hitting Stats". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 2007-04-07. Retrieved 2007-06-05.
  28. ^ a b "Cap Chronicled — Chapter 5: Saloons & Stages — Life after Baseball". Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  29. ^ a b c "CapAnson.com — Timeline". Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  30. ^ Rosenberg. Cap Anson 4., p. 35, quoting both the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 24, 1900 and The New York Times, June 2, 1900.
  31. ^ a b c d Mark Lamster (2006). Spalding's World Tour: The Epic Adventure that Took Baseball Around the Globe — And Made It America's Game. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-58648-311-0.
  32. ^ Laurie, Joe, Jr. (1953). Vaudeville: From the Honky-tonks to the Palace. New York: Henry Holt.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  33. ^ "'Pop' Anson, Famed in Baseball, Dead. Grand Old Man' of the Diamond Succumbs Two Days Before Seventieth Birthday. Anson Filled First Professional Engagement in 1873 and Played Until Retirement in 1897". The New York Times. Adrian C. ("Pop") Anson, 'the Grand Old Man of Baseball', died this afternoon in St. Luke's Hospital, two days before his seventieth birthday. Stricken Sunday with a glandular ailment while out walking, he was rushed to the hospital and operated on the next day.
  34. ^ "Adrian Constantine "Cap" Anson profile". FindAGrave.com. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  35. ^ "Chicago Cubs Hitting Stats, Career All Time". Major League Baseball. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
  36. ^ "Chicago Cubs Fielding Stats, Career All Time". Major League Baseball. Retrieved 2008-01-25.

External links

1879 Chicago White Stockings season

The 1879 Chicago White Stockings season was the 8th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 4th in the National League and the 2nd at Lakefront Park. The White Stockings finished fourth in the National League with a record of 46–33.

1880 Chicago White Stockings season

The 1880 Chicago White Stockings season was the 9th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 5th in the National League and the 3rd at Lakefront Park. The White Stockings won the National League championship with a record of 67–17.

1881 Chicago White Stockings season

The 1881 Chicago White Stockings season was the 10th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 6th in the National League and the 4th at Lakefront Park. The White Stockings won the National League championship with a record of 56–28.

1882 Chicago White Stockings season

The 1882 Chicago White Stockings season was the 11th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 7th in the National League and the 5th at Lakefront Park. The White Stockings won the National League championship with a record of 55–29, 3 games ahead of the second place Providence Grays.

1883 Chicago White Stockings season

The 1883 Chicago White Stockings season was the 12th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 8th in the National League and the 6th at Lakefront Park. The White Stockings finished second in the National League with a record of 59–39.

1884 Chicago White Stockings season

The 1884 Chicago White Stockings season was the 13th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 9th in the National League and the 7th at Lakefront Park. The White Stockings finished fifth in the National League with a record of 62–50. White Stocking 3rd baseman, Ned Williamson set the then major league single season home run record with 27 home runs.

1887 Chicago White Stockings season

The 1887 Chicago White Stockings season was the 16th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 12th in the National League and the 3rd at the first West Side Park. The White Stockings finished third in the National League with a record of 71–50.

1888 Chicago White Stockings season

The 1888 Chicago White Stockings season was the 17th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 13th in the National League and the 4th at the first West Side Park. The White Stockings finished second in the National League with a record of 77–58, 9 games behind the New York Giants.

1889 Chicago White Stockings season

The 1889 Chicago White Stockings season was the 18th season of the Chicago White Stockings franchise, the 14th in the National League and the 5th at the first West Side Park. The White Stockings finished third in the National League with a record of 67–65.

1890 Chicago Colts season

The 1890 Chicago Colts season was the 19th season of the Chicago Colts franchise, the 15th in the National League and the 6th at the first West Side Park. The Colts finished second in the National League with a record of 83–53.

1891 Chicago Colts season

The 1891 Chicago Colts season was the 20th season of the Chicago Colts franchise, the 16th in the National League and the 1st at South Side Park. The Colts finished second in the National League with a record of 82–53.

3,000 hit club

In Major League Baseball (MLB), the 3,000 hit club is the group of batters who have collected 3,000 or more regular-season hits in their careers. Cap Anson was the first to join the club on July 18, 1897, although his precise career hit total is unclear. Two players—Nap Lajoie and Honus Wagner—reached 3,000 hits during the 1914 season. Ty Cobb became the club's fourth member in 1921 and became the first player in MLB history to reach 4,000 hits in 1927; he ultimately finished his career with 4,191. Pete Rose became the second player to reach 4,000 hits on April 13, 1984 while playing for the Montreal Expos. Cobb, also the major leagues' all-time career batting average leader, remained the MLB hit leader until September 11, 1985, when Rose collected his 4,192nd hit. Rose, the current record holder, finished his career with 4,256 hits. Roberto Clemente's career ended with precisely 3,000 hits, reaching the mark in the last at bat of his career on September 30, 1972.In total, 32 players have reached the 3,000 hit mark in MLB history. Of these, 17 were right-handed batters, 13 were left-handed, and two were switch hitters, meaning they could bat from either side of the plate. Ten of these players have played for only one major league team. Six players—Hank Aaron, Willie Mays, Eddie Murray, Rafael Palmeiro, Albert Pujols and Alex Rodriguez—are also members of the 500 home run club. At .367, Cobb holds the highest career batting average among club members, while Cal Ripken Jr. holds the lowest at .276. Rodriguez, Derek Jeter, and Wade Boggs are the only players to hit a home run for their 3,000th hit and Paul Molitor and Ichiro Suzuki are the only players to hit a triple for their 3,000th; all others hit a single or double. Craig Biggio was thrown out at second base attempting to stretch his 3,000th hit, a single, into a double. Biggio and Jeter are the only players whose 3,000th hit came in a game where they had five hits; Jeter reached base safely in all of his at bats. The most recent player to join the club is Pujols, who collected his 3,000th hit on May 4, 2018, while playing for the Los Angeles Angels.Baseball writer Josh Pahigian writes that reaching 3,000 hits has been "long considered the greatest measure of superior bat handling", and it is often described as a guarantee of eventual entry into the Baseball Hall of Fame. All eligible players with 3,000 or more career hits with the exception of Palmeiro, whose career has been tainted by steroid allegations, have been elected to the Hall, and since 1962 all who have been inducted were elected on the first ballot, except for Biggio. Rose is ineligible for the Hall of Fame because he was permanently banned from baseball in 1989. After four years on the ballot, Palmeiro failed to be named on 5% of ballots in 2014, and accordingly his name was removed from the Baseball Writers' Association of America ballot for future elections, although it is possible that the Veterans Committee could select him. Twenty-one different teams have had a player reach 3,000 hits.

Jim McCormick (pitcher)

James McCormick (3 November 1856 – 10 March 1918) was a Scottish right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball. A native of Glasgow (he was actually born outside the Glasgow boundary, in Thornliebank, Renfrewshire), he was the first ballplayer born in Scotland to appear in a major league game.

McCormick was great friends with Mike "King" Kelly and was also very well liked by Cap Anson, two of the great personalities of early baseball. Anson was McCormick's captain-manager in 1885 and 1886, when Chicago won its last 19th-century pennants.

King Kelly

Michael Joseph "King" Kelly (December 31, 1857 – November 8, 1894), also commonly known as "$10,000 Kelly," was an American outfielder, catcher, and manager in various professional American baseball leagues including the National League, International Association, Players' League, and the American Association. He spent the majority of his 16-season playing career with the Chicago White Stockings and the Boston Beaneaters. Kelly was a player-manager three times in his career – in 1887 for the Beaneaters, in 1890 leading the Boston Reds to the pennant in the only season of the Players' League's existence, and in 1891 for the Cincinnati Kelly's Killers – before his retirement in 1893. He is also often credited with helping to popularize various strategies as a player such as the hit and run, the hook slide, and the catcher's practice of backing up first base.In only the second vote since its creation in 1939 the Old Timers Committee (now the Veterans' Committee) elected Kelly to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1945.

In concluding where to truly give Kelly credit as an innovator, a 2004 book devoted to 19th-century rule bending in baseball—and which came close to exhaustively accounting for all contemporary reporting on various subjects—placed stress on the following: "Kelly's hook slide does sound special, and players probably tried to copy it. Also, he seems to have been the first big leaguer to successfully cut a base (when the usually lone umpire wasn't looking), at least according to the newspaper record." And, "Kelly could have been the first to foul off lots of pitches on purpose. Doing so was a top trick of some Baltimore players of the 1890s. At the turn of the century, that trick was defused when all foul balls began counting as strikes."Kelly's autobiography Play Ball was published while he was with the Beaneaters in 1888, the first autobiography by a baseball player; it was ghostwritten by Boston baseball writer John J. "Jack" Drohan. Kelly also became a vaudeville performer during his playing career, first performing in Boston where he would recite the now-famous baseball poem "Casey at the Bat", sometimes butchering it. Kelly's baserunning innovations are also the subject of the hit 1889 song entitled "Slide, Kelly, Slide" and a 1927 comedy film of the same name.

List of Chicago Cubs team records

The following lists statistical records and all-time leaders as well as awards and major accomplishments for the Chicago Cubs professional baseball club of Major League Baseball. The records list the top 5 players in each category since the inception of the Cubs.

Players that are still active with the Cubs are denoted in bold.

Records updated as of August 5, 2011.

List of Major League Baseball career fielding errors as a first baseman leaders

In baseball statistics, an error is an act, in the judgment of the official scorer, of a fielder misplaying a ball in a manner that allows a batter or baserunner to advance one or more bases or allows an at bat to continue after the batter should have been put out.

First base, or 1B, is the first of four stations on a baseball diamond which must be touched in succession by a baserunner in order to score a run for that player's team. A first baseman is the player on the team playing defense who fields the area nearest first base, and is responsible for the majority of plays made at that base.

Cap Anson is the all-time leader in errors as a first baseman with 658 career. Anson is the only first baseman to commit over 600 career errors. Dan Brouthers is second all-time with 513 career errors and the only other first baseman to commit more than 500 errors.

List of Major League Baseball career fielding errors leaders

In baseball statistics, an error is an act, in the judgment of the official scorer, of a fielder misplaying a ball in a manner that allows a batter or baserunner to advance one or more bases or allows an at bat to continue after the batter should have been put out.

Herman Long is the all-time leader in errors, committing 1,096 in his career. Bill Dahlen (1,080), Deacon White (1,018), and Germany Smith (1,009) are the only other players to commit over 1,000 career errors. Tommy Corcoran (992), Fred Pfeffer (980), Cap Anson (976), and John Montgomery Ward (952) are the only other players to commit over 900 career errors.

List of Major League Baseball career putouts leaders

In baseball statistics, a putout (denoted by PO or fly out when appropriate) is given to a defensive player who records an out by a Tagging a runner with the ball when he is not touching a base (a tagout), catching a batted or thrown ball and tagging a base to put out a batter or runner (a Force out), catching a thrown ball and tagging a base to record an out on an appeal play, catching a third strike (a strikeout), catching a batted ball on the fly (a flyout), or being positioned closest to a runner called out for interference.

Jake Beckley is the all-time leader in career putouts with 23,743. Cap Anson (22,572), Ed Konetchy (21,378), Eddie Murray (21,265), Charlie Grimm (20,722), and Stuffy McInnis (20,120) are the only other players to record 20,000 career putouts.

List of Major League Baseball runs batted in records

Major League Baseball has numerous records related to runs batted in (RBI).

Players denoted in boldface are still actively contributing to the record noted.

(r) denotes a player's rookie season.

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