Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross

The Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross, commonly called Crosiers, are a Roman Catholic religious order. [1][2]

Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross
Canonici Regulares Ordinis S. Crucis
Kruisheren 1964 Canons Regular of the Order Sanctae Crucis
A group of Crosiers with their Master General, Willem van Hees (on the right), in front of their former monastery in Fort Wayne, Indiana in 1964
TypeClerical Religious Congregation (Institute of Consecrated Life)
HeadquartersVia del Velabro 19, 00186 Roma, Italy
Membership (2014)
383 (241 priests)
Superior General
Msgr. Laurentius Tarpin, O.S.C.


The Crosiers were founded by five men attached to the household of the prince-bishop of Liege, Rudolf of Zähringen, who accompanied the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa on the Third Crusade (1189–1191). Upon their return, the five, led by Theodorus de Cellis (1166–1236),[3] sought a new way of life, and shortly before his death, their bishop appointed them to be canons of his St. Lambert's Cathedral, Liège.

After efforts to renew the life and practice of the college of canons to which they belonged, the five withdrew from Liège and moved up the Meuse River to a place called Clairlieu, outside the city of Huy, and began a way of life more in keeping with their ideals. This settlement of the five at Huy was the beginning of their Order, and the house and small church dedicated to Saint Theobald that they established there became the Order's motherhouse. Pope Innocent III verbally approved their Order on the feast day of the Finding of the Holy Cross, 3 May 1210, and Pope Innocent IV granted them full and final approval on 3 May 1248 the Feast of the Finding of the Holy Cross.


In 1410, the Crosiers' general chapter ordered the destruction of its records and decisions from the time of its foundation. The reason for this radical act is recorded to have been a thorough reformation of some sort, but it left the Order's modern historians with only fragments and clues to their Order's first two centuries, and the tradition summarized above.

The principal source of information about the origin of the order is in the Chronicon Cruciferorum of Henricus Russelius, Prior of Suxy.[4] Their own sources, and mention of them in non-Crosier sources, usually call them "the Brethren of the Holy Cross," and the French and English words used for them, Croisiers and Crosiers, are derived from the French "croisé",[5] one of the words used for a crusader, and meaning "marked with a cross."

Only one of their five founders for whom they have a name is the group's leader, and that only in its Latin form, Theodoricus (or Diederick)[4] de Cellis, which first appears in a short history of the Order published in 1636. While Rusellius does not mention Theodore's parents, there are biographies from the 17th century that say he was the son of Walter de Beaufort and Oda de Celles, guardians of the abbatial church of Celles near Dinant during the latter half of the 12th century.[4]

There is no record of the presence of the Crosiers at Huy until the 1240s, and only in 1322 did Clairlieu become the site of a magnificent church dedicated to the Holy Cross instead of the small chapel of St. Theobald.

Couvent de Clair-Lieu à Huy
Clairlieu convent in Huy, Belgium

The new institution soon extended to France, the Netherlands, Germany, and also to England.[6] Because they were established in the early 13th century, they were contemporaries of the Dominicans and Franciscans, and were usually referred to as "Brethren of the Holy Cross," they were frequently misidentified as friars and were often confused with other religious orders who identified themselves with the Cross. So, for example, there was a very old tradition that Bishop Albert of Prague took several Crosiers with him to Livonia, but these were in fact members of a Bohemian order of the Holy Cross. In England, too, they and an Italian order of the Holy Cross were both identified as Crutched Friars, and so the location of their houses and their activities are often mistaken for each other.

One tradition claims that Theodorus de Cellis assisted St. Dominic in his preaching to the Albigenses of southern France;[6] a Crosier presence in that area is reliably recorded from early in their history. A similar tradition places Crosiers in the train of the French king St. Louis IX of France in 1248 during his crusade; he did enable the Crosiers to build their Paris monastery in 1254.[6]

Kruisheren uden bij paus pius xii Crosiers from Uden Holland with PiusXII
Crosiers from Europe with Pope Pius XII during an audience in Vatican City

The Order flourished in the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries, and at its greatest extent had about ninety houses scattered across northern Europe. But those in England and in parts of the Netherlands and Germany were suppressed during the Protestant Reformation, and almost all of those that survived, notably in France and the Southern Netherlands, including the ancient motherhouse at Huy, were suppressed in the Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution, dissolution of monasteries and convents after the French Revolution [7] . In 1794, the area west of the Rhine river fell to France. Along with other abbeys in French controlled areas, the Crosier monasteries were abolished and the monks were forced to leave.[8]

By 1840, only two Crosier houses remained, both in North Brabant, the Netherlands: that of St. Agatha, outside Cuijk, and that in Uden. They seemed likewise doomed to extinction by the decree of King William I of the Netherlands, which forbade religious houses in his realm to admit novices. When King William II lifted his father's ban on 14 September 1840, only four elderly Crosiers remained: the youngest around sixty and the oldest, Father William Kantor, the only Crosier able to remember his Order as it had been before the Revolution. Thereafter the Order slowly began to recover. In second half of the 19th century, the Crosiers returned to their Belgian birthplace, and even made an effort to transplant the Order outside Europe to the United States when their Master General sent some members to Bay Settlement, Wisconsin, in 1857. That attempt failed, however, and it was not until the first decades of the 20th century that the Crosiers were able to establish themselves outside Europe, in the U.S., Brazil, Indonesia, and the Congo. There are still Crosiers in all these places, and the Order presently numbers about four hundred men. In the United States today, the Crosiers have a conventual priory in Phoenix, Arizona and a filial priory in Onamia, Minnesota.

Crosier Father Tom Enneking was elected in 2018 as the conventual provincial of the Crosiers in the United States.


Crosiers in Campo Belo, Brazil
Crosier Fathers from the Netherlands, in Campo Belo, Minas Gerais, Brazil

The Crosiers are an order of Canons Regular. The membership consists of priests and brothers, all of whom live together according to the Rule of St. Augustine.[5] Their way of life consists of three parts: life in a community setting, daily communal celebration of the Church's liturgy, and some form of active ministry. This ministry takes the form of preaching, directing retreats, parish work, education, prison ministry, immigration services and spiritual direction.

The primary feast of the Crosiers, the Exaltation of the Cross, reflects a spirituality focused on the triumphal cross of Christ.[5] Crosiers believe the resurrection of Jesus guarantees that in suffering and pain, there is hope and healing. Because of this, Crosiers emphasize the glorious, or triumphant, cross.

The Crosier habit is also canonical in form. They wear a white soutane or tunic, and over it a black pendant sash, a black scapular and an elbow-length black cape called a mozzetta. Unlike the mozzetta worn by diocesan canons, that of the Crosiers is left unbuttoned to reveal the cross on their scapular, which has the form of a Maltese cross with a red upright and white crosspiece.

The members of the Order usually reside in houses called priories, so called because they are under the governance and direction of a prior whom the members elect. The Order is divided into districts called provinces, which are under the governance and direction of a prior provincial, who is elected by the provincial chapter, the formal assembly of delegates from the priories in the province who have been elected by the members of these houses. At the time of this writing, the Order has provinces in Europe, the U.S., Indonesia, and Brazil. Two other parts of the Order, in the Congo and Irian Jaya (formerly the western part of the island of New Guinea) hold the status of "regions," i.e., have a certain independence from the provinces that supervise them, but have not yet achieved the status of provinces. The entire Order is under the governance and direction of its Master General, who is elected by the general chapter, the formal assembly of delegates from the Order's provinces and regions who have been elected by their members. Priors, priors provincial, and masters general of the Order are all elected for specific terms.

Catholic men who wish to enter the Order undergo a period of consideration and review, after which they may be accepted for a year of novitiate. Upon conclusion of his novitiate, a Crosier is admitted to a three-year period of temporary vows. Thereafter, a second period of temporary vows may follow or immediate admission to solemn profession, viz., vows taken for life.

The Crosiers venerate Odilia of Cologne, one of the martyr companions of St. Ursula, as their patroness. She is said to have appeared to a lay brother of the Order, John Novelan, in the Paris house in 1287 and to have instructed him to go to Cologne and exhume her relics from under a pear tree in the garden of one Arnulf, a prominent burger of that city. After some disbelief and resistance on the part of his superiors, Brother John fulfilled the saint's directions and brought her relics to the motherhouse at Huy on 18 July. The saint soon acquired a reputation as a miracle-worker, and continues to enjoy the veneration of both Crosiers and those outside the Order. There are always a number of pilgrims who come to various houses and churches of the Order on her feast day to ask for intercession, especially against blindness and diseases of the eyes. In response to requests, the Crosiers send small vials of water blessed with her relics all over the world. The National Shrine of Saint Odilia is located in Onamia, Minnesota.

In 2010, the Crosiers celebrated 800 years since their founding with Jubilee celebrations at St. Agatha Monastery near Cuijk, the Netherlands, where the Crosiers have lived continuously since 1371, as well as in the United States, Rome, Indonesia, Brazil and the Congo.

Crosier monasteries

See also


  1. ^ "Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross (O.S.C.) Crosiers" Gabriel Chow. Retrieved February 29, 2016
  2. ^ "Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross - Crosier Fathers (Institute of Consecrated Life)" David M. Cheney. Retrieved February 29, 2016
  3. ^ "Klooster Ter Apel wordt gerestaureerd". Reformatorisch Dagblad. 20 February 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
  4. ^ a b c Vinken O.S.C, M. The Spirituality of the Crosier Fathers, (translated by Bernard Van Gils, O.S.C.) Our Lady of the Lakes Seminary Press, Syracuse, Indiana, 1958
  5. ^ a b c Crosier Fathers and Brothers
  6. ^ a b c Yzermans, Henricus. "The Crosiers." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 17 Jun. 2013
  7. ^ See 1° R.P. EMILE FONTAINE O.S.C.translated by Michael Cotone " Jacques Dubois, Crozier Prior General at Clairlieu 1778-1796" edited by Crozier Jubilee Publication 1996-ISBN 978-0-9799986-1-4. 2° FREDDY VAN DAELE writer-publisher in " Huy, 1795. Le Retour de l'Emigré" published in Hosdent-sur-Mehaigne in 2013 and relating that last General's trial by the Revolutionary Court.
  8. ^ Paul Fabianek: Following the Secularization of Cloisters in the Rhineland – Including the Schwarzenbroich Cloister and Kornelimünster, 2012, Verlag BoD, ISBN 978-3-8482-1795-3
  • Father Michael Cotone, o.s.c., quondam archivist, historian, and translator for the U.S. Crosiers; August 2008
  • The Crosier Journey, 2009 Crosier Fathers and Brothers Province, Inc.

External links


The 1210s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1210, and ended on December 31, 1219.

== Events ==

=== 1210 ===

==== By area ====

====== Asia ======

Emperor Juntoku succeeds Emperor Tsuchimikado, on the throne of Japan.

Jochi, eldest son of Genghis Khan, leads a Mongol campaign against the Kyrgyz.

====== Europe ======

May – The Second Parliament of Ravennika is held at Ravennika in Central Greece, resulting in a concordat between the princes of Frankish Greece and the Roman Catholic clergy.

July 18 – Battle of Gestilren: Former king Sverker II of Sweden is defeated and killed, by the reigning king Erik X.

November 18 – Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III, for invading southern Italy in defiance of the Concordat of Worms.

November 21 – King Eric X of Sweden is crowned, which is the first known coronation of a Swedish king. Shortly thereafter, he marries the Danish princess Richeza, in order to strengthen his relationship to the Danish king Valdemar the Conqueror. Valdemar used to support King Sverker II, but through the marriage, Valdemar makes peace with his former enemy, Eric.

King John I of England raises £100,000 from church property as an extraordinary fiscal levy; the operation is described as an “inestimable and incomparable exaction” by contemporary sources.

Livonian Crusade – Battle of Ümera: Estonian forces defeat the Livonian Brothers of the Sword.

The citadel of the Acrocorinth in Greece surrenders to the Crusaders, after a five-year siege.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and culture ======

Gottfried von Strassburg writes his epic poem Tristan (approximate date).

1210–1211 – Shazi creates the Pen Box, from Persia (Iran) or Afghanistan (it is now kept at Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.).

====== Nature ======

September 24 – Venus occults Jupiter (the last such occurrence until 1570).

====== Religion ======

Pope Innocent III gives oral permission to Francis of Assisi, to begin the Order of Friars Minor.

The church of St Helen's Bishopsgate in the City of London is founded, as a priory of Benedictine nuns.

=== 1211 ===

April 21 – Santiago de Compostela Cathedral (begun in the 11th century) is consecrated, in the presence of King Alfonso IX of León.

September 14 – The Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross are founded in Liège.

October 15 – Battle of the Rhyndacus: Latin emperor Henry of Flanders defeats the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Lascaris.

Livonian Crusade: Battles of Viljandi and Turaida – The Crusaders fail to conquer the Viljandi stronghold, but manage to baptize Sakala and Ugandi counties in southern Estonia.

Mongol forces under Genghis Khan invade the Jurchen-led Jin Dynasty of northern China, aiming at this stage simply to loot the countryside. A Jin army is defeated and slaughtered at the Battle of Yehuling near Zhangjiakou, and another is beaten at Mukden, where the city is taken. Zhongdu is also besieged by the Mongol hordes.

Byzantine–Seljuq wars: Battle of Antioch on the Meander in Anatolia – Forces of the Empire of Nicaea under Theodore I Laskaris defeat those of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm whose leader, Kaykhusraw I, is killed on the battlefield.

The church in the French city of Reims burns down; soon after, construction begins on Reims Cathedral.

King John of England sends a gift of herrings to nunneries in almost every shire, despite his status as an excommunicant.

The oldest extant double-entry bookkeeping system record dates from this year.

=== 1212 ===

July 10 – The most severe of several early fires of London burns most of the city to the ground; over 3,000 people die, many of them by drowning in the Thames. According to a contemporary account, "An awful fire broke out on the Southwark side of Lond. Bridge; and by some means, while it was raging, a fire broke out at the other end also, and so hemmed in the numerous crowds who had assembled to help the distressed. The sufferers, to avoid the flames, threw themselves over the bridge into boats and barges; but many of these sunk, the people crowding into them.".

July 16 – Battle of Navas de Tolosa: The Christian kingdoms of Spain decisively defeat the Almohads, and the victory leaves the Kingdom of Castile in a difficult financial position, as numerous soldiers have to be paid by the treasury.

December – Frederick II of Hohenstaufen is crowned King of Germany, with the support of Pope Innocent III.

The Children's Crusade for the Holy Land is organised. There are probably two separate movements of young people, both led by shepherd boys, neither of which embark from Europe, but both of which suffer considerable hardship:Early spring – Nicholas leads a group from the Rhineland to Genoa and Rome.

June – 12-year-old Stephen of Cloyes leads a group across France to Marseilles.

The contemplative Order of Poor Clares is founded by Clare of Assisi.

In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese prose.

Bran Castle is erected by the Teutonic Knights, in the Southern Carpathians (present day Romania).

John of England impounds the revenue of all prelates appointed by bishops who had deserted him at his excommunication. He remains on good terms, however, with churchmen who stood by him, including Abbot Sampson, who this year bequeaths John his jewels.

The Banner of Las Navas de Tolosa is begun. It is a trophy of Ferdinand III of Castile, and will end up in the Museo de Telas Medievales.

=== 1213 ===

May 15 – King John of England submits to Pope Innocent III, who in turn lifts the interdict of 1208.

May 30 – Battle of Damme: The English fleet under William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, destroys a French fleet off the Belgian port, in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy.

September 12 – Battle of Muret: The Toulousain and Aragonese forces of Raymond VI of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon are defeated by the Albigensian Crusade, under Simon de Montfort.

Jin China is overrun by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, who plunder the countryside and cities, until only Beijing remains free, despite two bloody palace coups and a lengthy siege.

Pope Innocent III issues a charter, calling for the Fifth Crusade to recapture Jerusalem.

Mukhali seizes Mi Prefecture and orders all the inhabitants massacred.

=== 1214 ===

==== By area ====

====== Asia ======

November 1 – Siege of Sinope: The Black Sea port city of Sinope surrenders to the Seljuq Turks.

The Emperor Xuanzong of Jin China surrenders to the Mongols under Genghis Khan, who have besieged Beijing for a year. He pays a huge ransom and then abandons northern China, heading for Kaifeng.

In his campaigns in Liaodong, the Mongol general Mukhali commands a newly formed Khitan–Chinese army, and a special corps of 12,000 Chinese auxiliary troops.

====== Europe ======

February 15 – John, King of England, lands an invasion force at La Rochelle in France.

July 27 – Battle of Bouvines: Philip II of France defeats an army of Imperial German, English and Flemish soldiers led by Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, in the Kingdom of France, ending the Anglo-French War (1213–14).

Summer – King Alfonso VIII of Castile besieges Almohad troops in Baeza. The famine experienced in the peninsula is such that neither army is able to fight.

September 18 – The Treaty of Chinon is signed by John, King of England, and Philip II of France, recognising the Capetian gains from the Angevin Empire.

October 5 – Upon the death of their father, King Alfonso VIII of Castile, and of their mother, Eleanor (October 31), Berenguela becomes the regent of her young brother, King Henry I.

December 4 – William the Lion, King of the Scots, dies, having reigned since 1165; he is succeeded by his son, Alexander II (crowned at Scone on December 6), who will reign until his death in 1249.

The German city of Bielefeld is founded.

==== By topic ====

====== Education ======

June 20 – A papal ordinance defines the rights of the scholars at the University of Oxford.

====== Religion ======

April 13 (approx.) – Simon of Apulia is elected Bishop of Exeter in England.

According to Catholic Church tradition, the rosary is given to Saint Dominic by Mary (mother of Jesus).

=== 1215 ===

March 4 – King John of England makes an oath to Pope Innocent III as a crusader, to gain his support.

May 31 – Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: after the long Battle of Zhongdu, Genghis Khan's Mongols capture and torch Beijing (the city burns for more than a month).

June 15 – King John of England is forced, by rebellious barons of England at Runnymede, to put the Great Seal of the Realm on a set of articles confirming their rights and those of the towns and Church, and confirming the status of trial by jury, which on June 19 is confirmed as the Magna Carta.

August – King John of England rejects the Magna Carta, leading to the First Barons' War.

August 24 – Pope Innocent III declares the Magna Carta invalid.

November 11 – The Fourth Council of the Lateran gathers in Rome under Pope Innocent III, who adopts the title "Vicar of Christ".

December – First Barons' War: Alexander II of Scotland invades northern England.

Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, is excommunicated and forced to abdicate as Emperor and King of Burgundy, replaced by Frederick II (King of the Romans 1212–1250).

The Dominican Order is founded, according to some sources.

Bhiksu Ananda of Kapitanagar completes writing the holy Buddhist book Arya Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita (sutra), in gold ink in Ranjana script.

1215–1216 – The Macy Jug, from Iran, is made. It is now kept at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Kalinga Magha, from Kalinga Province in India, lands in Sri Lanka with a force of 24,000 men, to capture the city of Polonnaruwa and depose its king, Parakrama Pandya.

=== 1216 ===

==== By area ====

====== Europe ======

January – First Barons' War: The English army sacks Berwick-on-Tweed, and raids southern Scotland.

April 10 – Upon the death of Erik Knutsson, he is succeeded by his rival Johan Sverkersson, as king of Sweden.

April 22 – Battle of Lipitsa: Mstislav the Daring and Konstantin of Rostov defeat their rivals for the rule of the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal.

May 21 – First Barons' War: Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in support of the barons, landing in Thanet. Entering London without opposition, he is proclaimed, but not crowned, King of England at Old St Paul's Cathedral.

July 24 – The French Albigensian Crusaders of the castle of Beaucaire surrenders to Raymond, future count of Toulouse.

October 18 or 19 – John, King of England, dies at Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire; he is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry, with William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, as regent. The young Henry III of England is crowned at Gloucester on October 28.

November 12 – William Marshal and the papal legate to England, Guala Bicchieri, issue a Charter of Liberties, based on the Magna Carta, in the new King of England's name.

Dresden receives city rights.

In England, Roger of Wendover begins to cover contemporary events, in his continuation of the chronicle Flores Historiarum.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

July 24 – Pope Honorius III succeeds Pope Innocent III, as the 177th pope.

December 22 – Pope Honorius III officially approves the Order of Preachers (the Dominican Order), by the Papal bull Religiosam vitam.

Ballintubber Abbey is founded by King Cathal Crovdearg O'Connor of Connaught, in Ireland.

=== 1217 ===

==== By area ====

====== Asia ======

Mukhali returns to Genghis Khan's camp in Mongolia, and receives the hereditary title of prince, a golden seal, and a white standard with nine tails and a black crescent in the middle. He is appointed commander in chief of operations in North China.

The Fifth Crusade reaches the Holy Land.

====== Europe ======

April 9 – Peter II of Courtenay is crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III.

May 20 – First Barons' War in England: Occupying French forces are defeated at the Battle of Lincoln, by English royal troops led by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, and survivors are forced to flee south.

June 6 – King Henry I of Castile dies aged 13, from the fall of a roof tile in Palencia, an event which his regent, Álvaro Núñez de Lara, attempts to conceal. Henry's sister Berengaria succeeds to the throne.

June – Haakon Haakonsson becomes King Haakon IV of Norway, following the death of Inge II, and largely ends the civil war era in Norway, reigning until 1263.

August 24 – First Barons' War: In the Battle of Sandwich in the English Channel, English forces destroy the French, and the French mercenary Eustace the Monk is captured and beheaded.

August 31 – Ferdinand becomes King of Castile, upon the abdication of his mother Berengaria.

September 12 – The First Barons' War in England is ended by the Treaty of Kingston upon Thames; The French and Scots are to leave England, and an amnesty is granted to rebels.

September 20 – The Treaty of Lambeth is signed, ratifying the Treaty of Kingston.

September 21 – Livonian Crusade: The Livonian Brothers of the Sword and allied Livs and Letts defeat the Estonian army in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day, and kill their leader Lembitu.

October 18 – Fifth Crusade, Reconquista: Alcácer do Sal is reconquered by the troops of King Afonso II of Portugal.

November – In the Kingdom of Castile, former regent Álvaro Núñez de Lara is captured, and forced to relinquish all his castles.

Stefan Nemanjić is elevated to be the first King of the Serbian lands by Pope Honorius III, and crowned by Stefan's brother, Archimandrite Sava, in Žiča.

A decree made in England establishes that only Englishmen can be clergy of Ireland.

=== 1218 ===

==== By area ====

====== Africa ======

August 31 – Al-Kamil becomes the new Egyptian Sultan, on the death of his father Al-Adil.

====== Asia ======

May 24 – The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt.

May 30 – Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade.

Minamoto no Sanetomo becomes Udaijin of Japan.

The Kara-Khitan Khanate is destroyed by Genghis Khan's Mongolian cavalry.

Genghis Khan's Mongols, under the leadership of his eldest son Jochi, conduct a second campaign against the Kyrgyz.

Genghis Khan proposes to the Khwarazm shah of Persia that he accept Mongol overlordship, and establish trade relations.

====== Europe ======

March – The Treaty of Worcester recognises Llywelyn the Great as regent of south Wales.

July – Spain: In order to facilitate the movement of Reconquista, Pope Honorius III reverses Innocent III’s earlier judgement, and declares Ferdinand III of Castile legitimate heir to the Kingdom of Leon.

==== By topic ====

====== Education ======

Alfonso IX of León grants a royal charter to the University of Salamanca.

====== Markets ======

The northern French city of Rheims emits the first recorded public life annuity in medieval Europe. Theretofore, this type of instrument had been mostly issued by religious institutions. The emission by Rheims is the first evidence of a consolidation of public debt that is to become common in the Langue d'Oïl, the Low Countries and Germany.

====== Religion ======

Saint Pedro Nolasco founds the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy in Barcelona, Spain.

=== 1219 ===

==== By area ====

====== Africa ======

November 5 – Fifth Crusade: Damietta, Egypt falls to the Crusaders after a siege.

Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade.

The Egyptian city of Al Mansurah is founded.

====== Asia ======

By letter, Genghis Khan summons Qiu Chuji (Chongchan) to visit him, to advise him on the medicine of immortality (the Philosopher's Stone).

The Hojo family, vassals of the shōgun, reduce him to a figurehead.

====== Europe ======

June 15 – Livonian Crusade: Danish crusaders, led by King Valdemar II, conquer Tallinn in the Battle of Lindanise. What is to become the flag of Denmark allegedly falls from the sky during that battle. Their stronghold in Tallinn will help the Danes conquer the entirety of northern Estonia. The Dannebrog remains the national flag of Denmark.

Twenty-four Lithuanian dukes and nobles purportedly sign a peace treaty with Halych-Volhynia, stating a common cause against invading Christian Crusaders.

Upon the death of Aymeric of Saint Maur, Alan Marcell becomes master of the Temple in England.

The East Frisian island of Burchana is broken up in a North Sea flood.

==== By topic ====

====== Technology ======

The windmill is first introduced to China, with the travels of Yelü Chucai to Transoxiana.


Year 1211 (MCCXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Alphonsus Augustus Sowada

Alphonsus Augustine Sowada (June 23, 1933 – January 11, 2014) was an American Roman Catholic bishop.

Born in Avon, Minnesota, United States, Sowada was ordained to the priesthood for the Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross on May 31, 1958. On May 29, 1969, he was appointed bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Agats, Indonesia and was ordained on November 29, 1969. He resigned on May 9, 2001.

Anthony of Padua

Saint Anthony of Padua (Portuguese: Santo António de Pádua), born Fernando Martins de Bulhões (15 August 1195 – 13 June 1231) - also known as Saint Anthony of Lisbon (Portuguese: Santo António de Lisboa) - was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. He was born and raised by a wealthy family in Lisbon, Portugal, and died in Padua, Italy. Noted by his contemporaries for his powerful preaching, expert knowledge of scripture, and undying love and devotion to the poor and the sick, he was one of the most quickly canonized saints in church history. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on 16 January 1946. He is also the patron saint of lost things.

Antonius Subianto Bunjamin

Antonius Subianto Bunjamin, OSC (born 14 February 1968) is a Roman Catholic bishop.

Ordained to the priesthood in 1996, Bunjamin was named bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bandung, Indonesia in 2014 succeeding Johannes Pujasumarta.

Bernardo Florio

Bernardo Florio, O.Cruc. (1587 – 14 February 1656) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Zadar (1621–1642) and Bishop of Canea (1642–1656).

Canon (priest)

A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.

Originally, a canon was a cleric living with others in a clergy house or, later, in one of the houses within the precinct of or close to a cathedral and conducting his life according to the orders or rules of the church. This way of life grew common (and is first documented) in the eighth century. In the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth. Those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, whilst those who did not were known as secular canons.

Canons Regular of the Holy Cross

Canons Regular of the Holy Cross can refer to one of two Catholic orders:

Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross, which originated in Belgium

Canons Regular of the Holy Cross of Coimbra, which originated in Portugal

Crosier Monastery, Maastricht

The Crosier Monastery or Monastery of the Crutched Friars (Dutch: Kruisherenklooster) is a former monastery of the Order of the Holy Cross in Maastricht, Netherlands. The well-preserved convent buildings house a five-star hotel, the Kruisherenhotel. It is a rare example of a Gothic monastery in the Netherlands, having survived more or less in its entirety. The buildings from the 15th and 16th century constitute three listed buildings (Rijksmonuments). The more or less intact monastery archive is unique in the Netherlands.

Giovanni Matteo Konings

Giovanni Matteo Konings, OSCr (died 1929) was a Prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

Konings was a member of the Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross. In 1926 he was appointed Prefect of the then Mission "Sui Iuris" of Bulawayo. He died in 1929.

Marco Antonio Quirino

Marco Antonio Quirino, O. Cruc. or Marco Sebastianus Quirino (born 1581) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Naxos (1622–1625).


A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits). A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, and may also serve as an oratory.

Monasteries vary greatly in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, dormitory, cloister, refectory, library, balneary and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may also include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community. These may include a hospice, a school, and a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery.

In English usage, the term monastery is generally used to denote the buildings of a community of monks. In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics (nuns), particularly communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. Historically, a convent denoted a house of friars (reflecting the Latin), now more commonly called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways.

Nicola Stridoni

Nicola Stridoni was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Mylopotamos (1582–?).

Order of the Holy Cross (disambiguation)

Order of the Holy Cross refers to several institutions by that name:

Order of the Holy Cross (OHC) an Anglican Benedictine community founded in 1884, based in New York state

Canons Regular of the Holy Cross (ORC), a Catholic religious order founded in Portugal in 1131 and refounded in 1977

Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross (OSC), alias the Crosiers, a Catholic religious order founded in 1211 at Clairlieu near Huy, Belgium

Patriarchal Order of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem, an ecclesiastical order conferred by the Melkite Catholic Church

San Giorgio in Velabro

San Giorgio in Velabro is a church in Rome, Italy, devoted to St. George.

The church is located next to the Arch of Janus in the rione of Ripa in the ancient Roman Velabrum. According to the founding legend of Rome, the church was built where Roman history began: it is here that the she-wolf found Romulus and Remus. The ancient Arcus Argentariorum is attached to the side of the church's façade.

San Giorgio in Velabro is the station church for the first Thursday in Lent.

Ter Apel Monastery

Ter Apel Monastery (Dutch: Klooster Ter Apel) is a former monastery in the village of Ter Apel in the northeastern Dutch province of Groningen. It is the only monastery in the larger area of Friesland and Groningen that survived the Reformation in a decent condition, and the only remaining rural monastery from the Middle Ages in the Netherlands. The convent buildings house a museum for monastery and church history and for religious art, as well as two contemporary art galleries. The former lay church of the monastery still functions as a reformed church.The monastery is located in the extreme southeast of the province of Groningen on a forested sand ridge along the ancient trade route from Münster to Groningen. For passing travelers and pilgrims, the monastery was a place of hospitality and dedication. Ter Apel is the last monastery founded in Groningen, and of 34 monasteries in the province it is the only one still recognizable as a convent.


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