A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.[1]

In British English, the term "canoe" can also refer to a kayak,[2] while canoes are then called Canadian canoes to distinguish them from kayaks.

Canoes are widely used for competition and pleasure, such as racing, whitewater, touring and camping, freestyle, and general recreation. Canoeing has been part of the Olympics since 1936. The intended use of the canoe dictates its hull shape and length and construction material. Historically, canoes were dugouts or made of bark on a wood frame,[3] but construction materials evolved to canvas on a wood frame, then to aluminum. Most modern canoes are made of molded plastic or composites such as fiberglass.

Canoes were developed by cultures all over the world, including some designed for use with sails or outriggers. Until the mid-1800s the canoe was an important means of transport for exploration and trade, and in some places it still is used as such, perhaps with the addition of an outboard motor. Where the canoe played a key role in history, such as the northern United States, Canada, and New Zealand, it remains an important theme in popular culture.

A B.N. Morris Canoe Company wood-and-canvas canoe built approximately 1912
Birchbark canoe, Abbe Museum, Bar Harbor, ME IMG 2301
Birchbark canoe at Abbe Museum in Bar Harbor, Maine
Native tribes of South-East Australia Fig 24 - A Kurnai bark canoe
Bark canoe in Australia, Howitt 1904


FAHopkins Shooting Rapids
Frances Anne Hopkins: Shooting the Rapids (Quebec) (1879), Voyageur canoe.

The word canoe comes from the Carib kenu (dugout), via the Spanish canoa.[4]

Constructed between 8200 and 7600 BC, and found in the Netherlands, the Pesse canoe may be the oldest known canoe. Excavations in Denmark reveal the use of dugouts and paddles during the Ertebølle period, (c. 5300–3950 BC).[5]

Australian Aboriginal people made canoes using a variety of materials, including bark and hollowed out tree trunks.[6] The indigenous people of the Amazon commonly used Hymenaea trees. The Pacific Northwest canoes are a dugouts usually made of red cedar.

Many indigenous peoples of the Americas built bark canoes. They were usually skinned with birch bark over a light wooden frame, but other types could be used if birch was scarce. At a typical length of 4.3 m (14 ft) and weight of 23 kg (50 lb), the canoes were light enough to be portaged, yet could carry a lot of cargo, even in shallow water. Although susceptible to damage from rocks, they are easily repaired.[7] Their performance qualities were soon recognized by early European immigrants, and canoes played a key role in the exploration of North America,[8] with Samuel de Champlain canoeing as far as the Georgian Bay in 1615. René de Bréhant de Galinée a French missionary who explored the Great Lakes in 1669 declared: "The convenience of these canoes is great in these waters, full of cataracts or waterfalls, and rapids through which it is impossible to take any boat. When you reach them you load canoe and baggage upon your shoulders and go overland until the navigation is good; and then you put your canoe back into the water, and embark again.[9] American painter, author and traveler George Catlin wrote that the bark canoe was "the most beautiful and light model of all the water crafts that ever were invented".[10]

Historic Center of Quito - World Heritage Site by UNESCO - Photo 437
These antique dug out canoes are in the courtyard of the Old Military Hospital in the Historic Center of Quito.

Native American groups of the north Pacific coast made dugout canoes in a number of styles for different purposes, from western red-cedar (Thuja plicata) or yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), depending on availability.[11] Different styles were required for ocean-going vessels versus river boats, and for whale-hunting versus seal-hunting versus salmon-fishing. The Quinault of Washington State built shovel-nose canoes, with double bows, for river travel that could slide over a logjam without portaging. The Kootenai of British Columbia province made sturgeon-nosed canoes from pine bark, designed to be stable in windy conditions on Kootenay Lake.[12]

The first explorer to cross the North American continent, Alexander Mackenzie, used canoes extensively, as did David Thompson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

In the North American fur trade the Hudson's Bay Company's voyageurs used three types of canoe:[13]

  • The rabaska or canot du maître was designed for the long haul from the St. Lawrence River to western Lake Superior. Its dimensions were: length approximately 11 m (35 ft), beam 1.2 to 1.8 m (4 to 6 ft), and height about 76 cm (30 in). It could carry 60 packs weighing 41 kg (90 lb), and 910 kg (2,000 lb) of provisions. With a crew of eight or ten (paddling or rowing), they could make three knots over calm waters. Four to six men could portage it, bottom up. Henry Schoolcraft declared it "altogether one of the most eligible modes of conveyance that can be employed upon the lakes". Archibald McDonald of the Hudson's Bay Company wrote: "I never heard of such a canoe being wrecked, or upset, or swamped ... they swam like ducks."[14]
  • The canot du nord (French: "canoe of the north"), a craft specially made and adapted for speedy travel, was the workhorse of the fur trade transportation system. About one-half the size of the Montreal canoe, it could carry about 35 packs weighing 41 kg (90 lb) and was manned by four to eight men. It could be carried by two men and was portaged in the upright position.[14]
  • The express canoe or canot léger, was about 4.6 m (15 ft) long and were used to carry people, reports, and news.

The birch bark canoe was used in a 6,500-kilometre (4,000 mi) supply route from Montreal to the Pacific Ocean and the Mackenzie River, and continued to be used up to the end of the 19th century.[15]

Also popular for hauling freight on inland waterways in 19th Century North America were the York boat and the batteau.

In 19th-century North America, the birch-on-frame construction technique evolved into the wood-and-canvas canoes made by fastening an external waterproofed canvas shell to planks and ribs by boat builders Old Town Canoe, E. M. White Canoe, Peterborough Canoe Company and at the Chestnut Canoe Company[16] in New Brunswick.

Although canoes were once primarily a means of transport, with industrialization they became popular as recreational or sporting watercraft. John MacGregor popularized canoeing through his books, and in 1866 founded the Royal Canoe Club in London and in 1880 the American Canoe Association. The Canadian Canoe Association was founded in 1900, and the British Canoe Union in 1936.

Sprint canoe was a demonstration sport at the 1924 Paris Olympics and became an Olympic discipline at the 1936 Berlin Olympics.[17] The International Canoe Federation was formed in 1946 and is the umbrella organization of all national canoe organizations worldwide.

In recent years First Nations in British Columbia, Washington State have been revitalizing the ocean-going canoe tradition. Beginning in the 1980s, the Heiltsuk and Haida were early leaders in this movement. The paddle to Expo 86 in Vancouver by the Heiltsuk, and the 1989 Paddle to Seattle were early instances of this. In 1993 a large number of canoes paddled from up and down the coast to Bella Bella in its first canoe festival – 'Qatuwas.[18] The revitalization continued – and Tribal Journeys began with trips to various communities held most years.

Hull design

Parts of Canoe
1 Bow, 2 Stern, 3 Hull, 4 Seat, 5 Thwart, 6 Gunwale, 7 Deck, 8 Yoke
Prospector canoe showing rocker at the stern

Hull design must meet different, often conflicting, requirements for speed, carrying capacity, maneuverability, and stability[19] The canoe's hull speed can be calculated using the principles of ship resistance and propulsion.

  • Length: this is often stated by manufacturers as the overall length of the boat, but what counts in performance terms is the length of the waterline, and more specifically its value relative to the displacement of the canoe. Displacement is the amount of water displaced by the boat. It is equal to the total weight of the boat and its contents, since a floating body displaces its own weight in water. When a canoe is paddled through water, it takes an effort to push all of the displaced water out of the way. Canoes are displacement hulls: the longer the waterline relative to its displacement, the faster it can be paddled. Among general touring canoeists, 5.2 m (17 ft) is a popular length, providing a good compromise between capacity and cruising speed.[20] Too large a canoe will simply mean extra work paddling at cruising speed.
  • Width (beam): a wider boat provides more stability at the expense of speed. A canoe cuts through the water like a wedge, and a shorter boat needs a narrower beam to reduce the angle of the wedge cutting through the water.[20]
  • Freeboard: a higher-sided boat stays drier in rough water. The cost of high sides is extra weight, extra wind resistance[20] and increased susceptibility to cross-winds.
  • Stability and immersed bottom shape: the hull can be optimized for initial stability (the boat feels steady when it sits flat on the water) or final stability (resistance to rolling and capsizing). A flatter-bottomed hull has higher initial stability, versus a rounder or V-shaped hull in cross section has high final stability.[21] The fastest flat water non-racing canoes have sharp V-bottoms to cut through the water, but they are difficult to turn and have a deeper draft which makes them less suitable for shallows. Flat-bottomed canoes are most popular among recreational canoeists. At the cost of speed, they have shallow draft, turn better, and more cargo space. The reason a flat bottom canoe has lower final stability is that the hull must wrap a sharper angle between the bottom and the sides, compared to a more round-bottomed boat.[20] However, the sides of the canoe can be constructed where the gunwale sheer line is compressed inboard towards to keel line (rather than flaring outboard and outwards from the keel line) resulting in tumblehome, which increases final stability (increases the number of degrees of lateral roll possible before the gunwale is first submerged).
  • Keel: an external keel makes a canoe track (hold its course) better, and can stiffen a floppy bottom, but it can get stuck on rocks and decrease stability in rapids.[21]
  • Profile, the shape of the canoe's sides. Sides which flare out above the waterline deflect water but require the paddler to reach out over the side of the canoe. If the gunwale width is less than the waterline width (or the maximum width) the canoe is said to have tumblehome. This increases final hull stability.[22]
  • Rocker: viewed from the side of the canoe, rocker is the amount of curve in the hull, much like the curve of a banana. A straight keeled canoe, with no rocker, is meant for covering long distances in a straight line. The full length of the hull is in the water, so it tracks well and has good speed. As the rocker increases, so does the ease of turning, at the cost of tracking.[23] Native American birch bark canoes were often characterized by extreme rocker.[20]
  • Hull symmetry: viewed from above, a symmetrical hull has its widest point at the center of the hull and both ends are identical. An asymmetrical hull typically has the widest section aft of center line, creating a longer bow and improving speed.[23]

Materials and construction


BWCA Canoe Outing - 001
Aluminum canoe
  • Plastic: Royalex is a composite material, comprising an outer layer of vinyl and hard acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastic (ABS) and an inner layer of ABS foam, bonded by heat treatment.[24] As a canoe material, Royalex is lighter, more resistant to UV damage, is more rigid, and has greater structural memory than non-composite plastics such as polyethylene. Royalex canoes are, however, more expensive than aluminium canoes or canoes made from traditionally molded or roto-molded polyethylene hulls.[24] It is heavier, and less suited for high-performance paddling than fiber-reinforced composites, such as fiberglass, kevlar, or graphite. Rotational molding Roto-molded polyethylene is a cheaper alternative to Royalex. Production of Royalex ceased in 2014.
  • Fiber reinforced composites: Fiberglass is the most common material used in manufacturing canoes.[25] Fiberglass is not expensive, can be molded to any shape, and is easy to repair.[20] Kevlar is popular with paddlers looking for a light boat that will not be taken in whitewater. Fiberglass and Kevlar are strong but lack rigidity. Boats are built by draping the cloth on a mold, then impregnating it with a liquid resin. A gel coat on the outside gives a smoother appearance.[20]
  • Polycarbonate: Lexan is used in transparent canoes.
  • Aluminum: Before the invention of fiberglass, this was the standard choice for whitewater canoeing. It is good value and very strong by weight.[20] This material was once more popular but is being replaced by modern lighter materials. "It is tough, durable, and will take being dragged over the bottom very well", as it has no gel or polymer outer coating which would make it subject to abrasion. The hull does not degrade from long term exposure to sunlight, and "extremes of hot and cold do not affect the material". It can dent, is difficult to repair, is noisy, can get stuck on underwater objects, and requires buoyancy chambers to assist in keeping the canoe afloat in a capsize.[26]
  • Folding canoes usually consist of a PVC skin around an aluminum frame.
  • Inflatable: These contain no rigid frame members and can be deflated, folded and stored in a bag. The more durable types consist of an abrasion-resistant nylon or rubber outer shell, with separate PVC air chambers for the two side tubes and the floor.[27]


Stretching canvas on a canoe
Dugout canoe Rennell
Dugout canoe of pirogue type in the Solomon Islands

These materials and techniques are used by artisans and produce boats that some consider more attractive, but which are more fragile than those made with modern methods.[28]

  • Bark: the indigenous peoples of eastern Canada and the northeast United States made canoes using the bark of the paper birch, which was harvested in early spring by stripping off the bark in one piece, using wooden wedges. Next, the two ends (stem and stern) were sewn together and made watertight with the pitch of balsam fir. The ribs of the canoe, called verons in Canadian French, were made of white cedar, and the hull, ribs, and thwarts were fastened using watap, a binding usually made from the roots of various species of conifers, such as the white spruce, black spruce, or cedar, and caulked with pitch.[29][30]
  • Dugout: Many indigenous groups from around the world made dugout canoes, by carving out a single piece of wood; either a whole trunk, or a slab of trunk from particularly large trees.[11][31]
  • Reed: Some peoples, with less access to suitable trees, made canoes from bundled reeds. Papyrus was used in Egypt, Totora in South America, and Tule in California.
  • Canvas on wood frame: while similar to bark canoes in the use of ribs, and a waterproof covering, the construction method is different, being built by bending ribs over a solid mold. Once removed from the mold, the decks, thwarts and seats are installed, and canvas is stretched tightly over the hull. The canvas is then treated with a combination of varnishes and paints to render it more durable and watertight.[32]
  • Wood strips: these are built by securing narrow, flexible strips of wood, usually cedar, edge-to-edge over a building jig that defines the shape of the hull. Once the strips are glued together, a transparent fiberglass and epoxy coating is applied to the canoe inside and out.
  • Clinker, lapstrake, or carvel: a wooden construction using longitudinal planks to form the hull. Traditionally planking is nailed together with copper tacks. Once the planking is completed, steam-bent ribs are inserted into the hull and fastened with nails or rivets.
  • Stitch and glue: plywood panels are stitched together to form a hull shape, and the seams are reinforced with fiberglass tape and thickened epoxy.

In culture

La Chasse-galerie (1906)
Henri Julien:La Chasse-galerie, oil painting 1906

In Canada, the canoe has been a theme in history and folklore, and is a symbol of Canadian identity.[33] From 1935 to 1986 the Canadian silver dollar depicted a voyageur and an Indigenous person paddling a canoe with the Northern Lights in the background.

The Chasse-galerie is a French-Canadian tale of voyageurs who, after a night of heavy drinking on New Year's Eve at a remote timber camp want to visit their sweethearts some 100 leagues (about 400 km) away. Since they have to be back in time for work the next morning they make a pact with the devil. Their canoe will fly through the air, on condition that they not mention God's name or touch the cross of any church steeple as they fly by in the canoe. One version of this fable ends with the coup de grâce when, still high in the sky, the voyageurs complete the hazardous journey but the canoe overturns, so the devil can honour the pact to deliver the voyageurs and still claim their souls.

In John Steinbeck's novella The Pearl set in Mexico, the main character's canoe is a means of making a living that has been passed down for generations and represents a link to cultural tradition.[34]

The Māori, indigenous Polynesian people arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyage. Canoe traditions are important to the identity of Māori. Whakapapa (genealogical links) back to the crew of founding canoes served to establish the origins of tribes, and defined tribal boundaries and relationships.[35]


Modern canoe types are usually categorized by the intended use. Many modern canoe designs are hybrids (a combination of two or more designs, meant for multiple uses). The purpose of the canoe will also often determine the materials used. Most canoes are designed for either one person (solo) or two people (tandem), but some are designed for more than two people.

Women C-2
Women's C2


Sprint canoe is also known as flatwater racing. The paddler kneels on one knee, and uses a single-blade paddle.[36] Canoes have no rudder, so the boat must be steered by the athlete's paddle using a j-stroke. Canoes may be entirely open or be partly covered. The minimum length of the opening on a C1 is 280 cm (110 in). Boats are long and streamlined with a narrow beam, which makes them very unstable. A C4 can be up to 9 m (30 ft) long and weigh 30 kg (66 lb).[37] ICF classes include C1 (solo), C2 (crew of two), and C4 (crew of four). Race distances at the 2012 Olympic Games were 200 and 1000 meters.

Slalom and wildwater

Whitewater slalom canoe

In ICF whitewater slalom paddlers negotiate their way down a 300 m (980 ft) of whitewater rapids, through a series of up to 25 gates (pairs of hanging poles). The colour of the poles indicates the direction in which the paddlers must pass through; time penalties are assessed for striking poles or missing gates. Categories are C1 (solo) and C2 (tandem), the latter for two men, and C2M (mixed) for one woman and one man.[38] C1 boats must have a minimum weight and width of 10 kg (22 lb) and 0.65 m (2 ft 2 in) and be not more than 3.5 m (11 ft) long. C2s must have a minimum weight and width of 15 kg (33 lb) and 0.75 m (2 ft 6 in), and be not more that 4.1 m (13 ft). Rudders are prohibited. Canoes are decked and propelled by single-bladed paddles, and the competitor must kneel.[39]

In ICF wildwater canoeing athletes paddle a course of class III to IV whitewater (using the international scale of river difficulty), passing over waves, holes and rocks of a natural riverbed in events lasting either 20–30 minutes ("Classic" races) or 2–3 minutes ("Sprint" races). Categories are C1 and C2, for both women and men. C1s must have a minimum weight and width of 12 kg (26 lb) and 0.7 m (2 ft 4 in), and a maximum length of 4.3 m (14 ft). C2s must have a minimum weight and width of 18 kg (40 lb) and 0.8 metres (2 ft 7 in), and a maximum length of 5 metres (16 ft). Rudders are prohibited. The canoes are decked boats which must be propelled by single bladed paddles and inside which the paddler kneels.[40]


Marathons are long-distance races which may include portages. Under ICF rules minimum canoe weight is 10 and 14 kg (22 and 31 lb) for C1 and C2 respectively. Other rules can vary by race, for example in the Classique Internationale de Canots de la Mauricie athletes race in C2s, with a maximum length of 5.6 m (18 ft 6 in), minimum width of 69 cm (27 in) at 8 cm (3 in) from the bottom of the centre of the craft, minimum height of 38 cm (15 in) at the bow and 25 cm (10 in) at the centre and stern.[41] The Texas Water Safari, at 422 km (262 mi), includes an open class, the only rule being the vessel must be human-powered, and although novel setups have been tried, the fastest so far has been the six-man canoe.[42]

General recreation

A square-stern canoe is an asymmetrical canoe with a squared-off stern for the mounting of an outboard motor, and is meant for lake travel or fishing. (In practice, use of a side bracket on a double-ended canoe often is more comfortable for the operator, with little or no loss of performance.) Since mounting a rudder on the square stern is very easy, such canoes often are adapted for sailing.

Touring and camping

In North America, a "touring canoe" or "tripping" canoe is a good-tracking boat, good for wind-blown lakes and large rivers with larger capacity for wilderness travel. Touring canoes are often made of lighter materials and built for comfort and cargo space. Tripping canoes such as the Chestnut Prospector derivates, and the Old Town Trippers, are typically made of heavier and tougher materials, and are usually a more traditional design. A Prospector canoe is a generic name for copies of the Chestnut model, a popular type of tripping canoe marked by a symmetrical hull and a relatively large amount of rocker, giving a nice balance for wilderness tripping. This model also has the ability to carry large amounts of gear while being maneuverable enough for rapids. This makes it a superb large capacity wilderness boat, but requires skill on windy, broad waters when lightly loaded. It is made in a variety of materials. For home construction, 4 mm (316 in) plywood is commonly used, mainly marine ply, using the "stitch and glue" technique. Commercially built canoes are commonly built of fibreglass, HDPE, Kevlar, Carbon Fiber, and Royalex which although relatively heavy, is very durable.

A touring canoe is sometimes covered with a greatly extended deck, forming a "cockpit" for the paddlers. A cockpit has the advantage that the gunwales can be made lower and narrower so the paddler can reach the water more easily.


C1 Playboat
Playboating decked canoe

A canoe specialized for whitewater play and tricks. Most are identical to short, flat-bottomed kayak playboats except for internal outfitting. The paddler kneels and uses a single-blade canoe paddle. Playboating is a discipline of whitewater canoeing where the paddler performs various technical moves in one place (a playspot), as opposed to downriver where the objective is to travel the length of a section of river (although whitewater canoeists will often stop and play en-route). Specialized canoes known as playboats can be used.



Wood-and-canvas canoe by Joe Seliga, 2006


Wood-and-canvas canoe in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, 1974


Paul Kane (1810–1871): Spearing Salmon By Torchlight, oil painting

Voyageur canoe

Frances Anne Hopkins, Canoe Manned by Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall (Ontario) (1869), oil painting


Ojibwe women in canoe on Leech Lake, Bromley 1896

Kerala backwater 20080218-11

Canoe in Kerala, India, 2008

Women Rowing - My Tho - Vietnam

Canoe in Vietnam in the Mekong delta, 2009

Canoes in Phewa

Canoes in Phewa Lake, Nepal

See also


  1. ^ "Canoe". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  2. ^ "Buying a canoe or kayak". Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  3. ^ "Dugout Canoe". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  4. ^ "The history of the canoe". Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  5. ^ "Dugouts and paddles". Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  6. ^ "Carved wooden canoe, National Museum of Australia". Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  7. ^ "Bark canoes". Canadian Museum of Civilization. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  8. ^ "Our Canoeing Heritage". The Canadian Canoe Museum. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  9. ^ Kellogg, Louise Phelps (1917). Early Narratives of the Northwest. 1634–1699. New York. pp. 172–173.
  10. ^ Catlin, George (1989). Letters and Notes on the Manners. Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians (reprint ed.). New York. p. 415.
  11. ^ a b Pojar and MacKinnon (1994). Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Vancouver, British Columbia: Lone Pine Publishing. ISBN 1-55105-040-4.
  12. ^ Nisbet, Jack (1994). Sources of the River. Seattle, Washington: Sasquatch Books. ISBN 1-57061-522-5.
  13. ^ "The Canoe". The Hudson's Bay Company. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  14. ^ a b "Portage Trails in Minnesota, 1630s-1870s". United States Department of the Interior National Park Service. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  15. ^ "Canoeing". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  16. ^ "A Venerable Chestnut". Canada Science and Technology Museum. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  17. ^ "Canoe / kayak sprint equipment and history". Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  18. ^ Neel, David The Great Canoes: Reviving a Northwest Coast Tradition. Douglas & McIntyre. 1995. ISBN 1-55054-185-4
  19. ^ Canoeing : outdoor adventures. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2008. ISBN 0-7360-6715-9.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h Davidson, James & John Rugge (1985). The Complete Wilderness Paddler. Vintage. pp. 38–39. ISBN 0-394-71153-X.
  21. ^ a b "How to Choose a Canoe: A Primer on Modern Canoe Design". GORP. Archived from the original on 2012-10-18. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  22. ^ "Canoe Design". Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  23. ^ a b "The Hull Truth". Mad River Canoe. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  24. ^ a b "Royalex (RX)". Archived from the original on 2011-02-25. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  25. ^ "Canoe Materials". Frontenac Outfittesr. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  26. ^ "Buying The Right Canoe". Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  27. ^ James Weir, Discover Canoeing: A Complete Introduction to Open Canoeing, p.17, Pesda Press, 2010, ISBN 1906095124
  28. ^ "Buying The Right Canoe - Materials". Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  29. ^ Margry, Pierre (1876–1886). Decouvertes et etablissements des francais dans I'ouest et dans le sud de I'Amerique Septentrionale (1614–1754). 6 vols. Paris.
  30. ^ Tom Vennum, Charles Weber, Earl Nyholm (Director) (1999). Earl's Canoe: A Traditional Ojibwe Craft. Smithsonian Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies. Archived from the original on 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
  31. ^ Olympic Peninsula Intertribal Cultural Advisory Committee (2002). Native Peoples of the Olympic Peninsula. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3552-2.
  32. ^ "The Wood and Canvas Canoe". Wooden Canoe Heritage Association. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  33. ^ "The Canoe". McGill University. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  34. ^ "The Pearl: Themes, Motifs, & Symbols". Spark Notes. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  35. ^ "Story: Canoe traditions". The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  36. ^ "Canoe sprint". International Canoe Federation. Archived from the original on 2010-10-08. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  37. ^ "Canoe Sprint Overview". International Canoe Federation. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  38. ^ "About Canoe Slalom". International Canoe Federation. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  39. ^ "Rules for Canoe Slalom" (PDF). International Canoe Federation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  40. ^ "Wildwater Competition rules 2011" (PDF). International Canoe Federation. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  41. ^ "La Classique Internationale de Canots de la Mauricie: Rules and Regulations". Archived from the original on 2013-01-19. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  42. ^ "Texas Water Safari: History". Retrieved 30 November 2012.

External links

  • Media related to Canoes at Wikimedia Commons is an English-language Canadian portal site and website network, and is a subsidiary of Postmedia Network. The French-language version continues to use the former name for both sites,, and is owned by Quebecor Media. The phrase Canadian Online Explorer appears in the header of the English version of the site; the name is also evidently a play on words on canoe (or canoë in French). Canoe's head office is in Toronto at 333 King Street East.The Canoe Network attracts over 7.7 million monthly visitors and includes separate English and French portals at and, information verticals like Cnews, SLAM!, JAM! and Lifewise, as well as the Sun Media newspaper sites. also offers online services in the fields of employment and continuing education (, housing (, automobiles ( and ASL Internet. ASL Internet is an abbreviated Aged Stock Limited incorporated in 2002 by James Kovacs and sold to Canoe in 2008), personals (, social networks (, classified ads ( and advertising solutions (

Canoe polo

Canoe polo, also known as Kayak polo, is one of the competitive disciplines of kayaking, known simply as "polo" by its aficionados. Polo combines boating and ball handling skills with a contact team game, where tactics and positional play are as important as the speed and fitness of the individual athletes.

The game requires excellent teamwork and promotes both general canoeing skills and a range of other techniques unique to the sport. Each team has five players on the pitch (and up to three substitutes), who compete to score in their opponents goal which is suspended two metres above the water. The ball can be thrown by hand, or flicked with the paddle to pass between players and shoot at the goal. Pitches can be set up in swimming pools or any stretch of flat water.

The kayaks are specifically designed for polo and are faster and lighter than typical kayaks which give them superior maneuverability. The blades of a polo paddle have thick rounded edges to prevent injury. Paddles are also very lightweight and designed with both pulling power and ball control in mind. Nose and tail boat bumpers, body protection, helmets and face-guards are all compulsory.

In International Canoe Federation nomenclature used in some European countries, chiefly the United Kingdom, the term canoe can refer to a kayak too. The boats in this game are paddled with a double-bladed paddle and are called "kayaks".

Canoe slalom

Canoe slalom (previously known as whitewater slalom) is a competitive sport with the aim to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of hanging downstream or upstream gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. It is one of the two kayak and canoeing disciplines at the Summer Olympics, and is referred to by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as Canoe/Kayak Slalom. The other Olympic canoeing discipline is canoe sprint. Wildwater canoeing is a non-Olympic paddlesport.

Canoe sprint

Canoe sprint is a sport in which athletes race canoes or kayaks on calm water.


Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle. Common meanings of the term are limited to when the canoeing is the central purpose of the activity. Broader meanings include when it is combined with other activities such as canoe camping, or where canoeing is merely a transportation method used to accomplish other activities. Most present-day canoeing is done as or as a part of a sport or recreational activity. In some parts of Europe canoeing refers to both canoeing and kayaking, with a canoe being called an Open canoe.

A few of the recreational forms of canoeing are canoe camping and canoe racing. Other forms include a wide range of canoeing on lakes, rivers, oceans, ponds and streams.

Dragon Boat Festival

The Duanwu Festival, also often known as the Dragon Boat Festival, is a traditional holiday originating in China, occurring near the summer solstice. It is also known as Zhongxiao Festival (Chinese: 忠孝節; pinyin: Zhōngxiàojié), commemorating fealty and filial piety. The festival now occurs on the 5th day of the 5th month of the traditional Chinese calendar, which is the source of the festival's alternative name, the Double Fifth Festival. The Chinese calendar is lunisolar, so the date of the festival varies from year to year on the Gregorian calendar. In 2017, it occurred on 30 May; in 2018, on 18 June; and, in 2019, on 7 June.

Dragon boat

A dragon boat is a human-powered watercraft originating from the Pearl River Delta region of China's southern Guangdong Province. These were made of teak, but in other parts of China, different kinds of wood are used. It is one of a family of traditional paddled long boats found throughout Asia, Africa, the Pacific islands, and Puerto Rico. The sport of dragon boat racing has its roots in an ancient folk ritual of contending villagers, which dates back 2000 years throughout southern China, and even further to the original games of Olympia in ancient Greece. Both dragon boat racing and the ancient Olympiad included aspects of religious observances and community celebrations, along with competition.

Dragon boat racing is a canoe-sport, and began as a modern international sport in Hong Kong in 1976. These boats are typically made of carbon fiber, fiberglass, and other lightweight materials. For competition events, dragon boats are generally rigged with decorative Chinese dragon heads and tails. At other times (such as during training), decorative regalia is usually removed, although the drum often remains aboard for drummers to practice. For races, there are 18-20 people in a standard boat, and 8-10 in a small boat, not including the steersperson (helm) and the drummer.

In December 2007, the central government of the People's Republic of China added Duanwu, along with Qingming and Mid-Autumn festivals, to the schedule of national holidays.

Dugout canoe

A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed tree trunk. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. Monoxylon (μονόξυλον) (pl: monoxyla) is Greek -- mono- (single) + ξύλον xylon (tree) -- and is mostly used in classic Greek texts. In German, they are called einbaum ("one tree" in English). Some, but not all, pirogues are also constructed in this manner.

Dugouts are the oldest boats archaeologists have found, dating back about 8,000 years to the Neolithic Stone Age. This is probably because they are made of massive pieces of wood, which tend to preserve better than, e.g., bark canoes. Along with bark canoe and hide kayak, dugout boats were also used by indigenous peoples of the Americas.

ICF Canoe Marathon World Championship

ICF Canoe Marathon World Championships is an International Canoe Federation competitions in canoe marathon in which athletes compete over long distances. The race usually starts and ends at the same place, and includes portages. Race categories vary by the number of athletes in the boat, the length of the course, and whether the boat is a canoe or kayak. In a kayak, the paddler is seated in the direction of travel, and uses a double-bladed paddle. In a canoe the paddler kneels on one knee with the other leg forward and foot flat on the floor inside the boat, and paddles a single-bladed paddle on one side only. The World Championships were held every two years from 1988, becoming annual in 1998.

ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships

The ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships are an international event in canoeing organized by the International Canoe Federation. The World Championships have taken place every year in non-Summer Olympic years since 2002. From 1949 to 1999, they had taken place in odd-numbered years. The 2001 championships were scheduled to take place in Ducktown, Tennessee (East of Chattanooga) from 20 to 23 September, but were canceled in the wake of the September 11 attacks.Men race in single kayaks (K1) and single canoes (C1) both individually and in teams. Women race in K1 both individually and in teams and since the 2010 championships also in C1 individually. A team event was scheduled for those championships, but it was canceled because of weather conditions. The first women's C1 team event took place at the 2011 world championships, but no medals were awarded. The first medals in this event were awarded in 2013.

The men's C2 event was removed from the World Championships before the 2018 edition. The mixed C2 event was reinstated in 2017 after a 36 year hiatus. The extreme K1 events for men and women were first introduced in 2017.

ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships

The ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships are an international event in canoeing, one of two Summer Olympic sport events organized by the International Canoe Federation (the other being the ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships). The World Championships have taken place every non-Olympic year since 1970 and officially included paracanoe events since 2010; since 2012, paracanoe-specific editions of this event (named ICF Paracanoe World Championships) have been held in Summer Paralympic years.

Prior to November 2008, canoe sprint was known as flatwater racing.

International Canoe Federation

The International Canoe Federation (ICF) is the umbrella organization of all national canoe organizations worldwide. It is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, and administers all aspects of canoe sport worldwide. 157 countries are affiliated with the ICF after seven national federations were added at the 2008 ICF Congress in Rome.


Jam! was a Canadian website which covers entertainment news. It was part of the online portal, formerly owned and operated by Quebecor through its Sun Media division, and now owned by Postmedia Network.Jam! was the only media outlet that published a comprehensive collection of the official Canadian record charts as compiled by Nielsen SoundScan and Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems.

CKXT-TV, Sun Media's television station in Toronto, aired a nightly entertainment magazine series, Inside Jam!. However, due to low ratings the program's airtime was reduced substantially. Effective March 24, 2006, the show went from a daily program to a weekend only show, before later being removed from the schedule altogether. One of the hosts of the show, Chris Van Vliet, announced on the programme in February 2010 that he would be leaving the show to join the CBS affiliate in Cleveland as their entertainment reporter. His co-host Tara Slone re-located in August 2010 to Calgary to become co-host of Breakfast Television on CityTV Calgary.

John Morrison (wrestler)

John Randall Hennigan (born October 3, 1979) is an American professional wrestler, actor and traceur, who currently wrestles for Impact Wrestling under the ring name Johnny Impact. He is best known for his tenure in WWE where he used the ring names John Morrison and Johnny Nitro. He is also known for wrestling in Mexico's Lucha Libre AAA Worldwide and Lucha Underground under the ring name Johnny Mundo, and under various names on the independent circuit.

Hennigan was the winner of Tough Enough III, a televised competition that would award the winner a WWE contract, and was assigned to their then developmental territory, Ohio Valley Wrestling (OVW), to continue his wrestling training. Hennigan was called up to the SmackDown! roster in April 2005 and on his debut match, Hennigan (as a part of MNM) won the WWE Tag Team Championship. In the main roster, Hennigan won the ECW World Championship once, the Intercontinental Championship three times, and is a five-time world tag team champion (one World Tag Team and four WWE Tag Team Championships).

After leaving WWE in November 2011, Hennigan began wrestling overseas on the independent circuit before finding success in lucha libre wrestling promotions Lucha Underground and Lucha Libre AAA Worldwide. In Lucha Underground, Hennigan won the main event of the debut episode, as well as the first ladder match and steel cage match in the promotion's history. He is also the second Triple Crown Champion, having held the Lucha Underground, Gift of the Gods and Trios Championship once each. In AAA, he was the promotion's first-ever triple champion, holding the AAA Mega, Latin American and World Cruiserweight Championships simultaneously. He also (with partners Chavo Guerrero Jr. and Brian Cage) won the 2016 Lucha Libre World Cup. Hennigan also signed with Impact Wrestling in 2017. He headlined the promotion's 2017 and 2018 Bound for Glory events and won the Impact World Championship once; his reign was the longest in seven years.


A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft which is typically propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle. The word kayak originates from the Greenlandic word qajaq (IPA: [qajaq]).

The traditional kayak has a covered deck and one or more cockpits, each seating one paddler. The cockpit is sometimes covered by a spray deck that prevents the entry of water from waves or spray, differentiating the craft from a canoe. The spray deck makes it possible for suitably skilled kayakers to roll the kayak: that is, to capsize and right it without it filling with water or ejecting the paddler.

Some modern boats vary considerably from a traditional design but still claim the title "kayak", for instance in eliminating the cockpit by seating the paddler on top of the boat ("sit-on-top" kayaks); having inflated air chambers surrounding the boat; replacing the single hull by twin hulls, and replacing paddles with other human-powered propulsion methods, such as foot-powered rotational propellers and "flippers". Kayaks are also being sailed, as well as propelled by means of small electric motors, and even by outboard gas engines.

The kayak was first used by the indigenous Aleut, Inuit, Yupik and possibly Ainu hunters in subarctic regions of the world.


Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. It is distinguished from canoeing by the sitting position of the paddler and the number of blades on the paddle. A kayak is a low-to-the-water, canoe-like boat in which the paddler sits facing forward, legs in front, using a double-bladed paddle to pull front-to-back on one side and then the other in rotation. Most kayaks have closed decks, although sit-on-top and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well.

Outrigger canoe

The outrigger canoe is a type of canoe featuring one or more lateral support floats known as outriggers, which are fastened to one or both sides of the main hull. Smaller canoes often employ a single outrigger on the port side, while larger canoes may employ a single-outrigger, double-outrigger, or double-hull configuration (see also catamaran). The sailing canoes are an important part of the Austronesian heritage. They are also very popular in Puerto Rico.

Unlike a single-hulled canoe, an outrigger or double-hull canoe generates stability as a result of the distance between its hulls rather than due to the shape of each individual hull. As such, the hulls of outrigger or double-hull canoes are typically longer, narrower and more hydrodynamically efficient than those of single-hull canoes. Compared to other types of canoes, outrigger canoes can be quite fast, yet are also capable of being paddled and sailed in rougher water. This paddling technique, however, differs greatly from kayaking or rowing. The paddle, or blade, used by the paddler is single sided, with either a straight or a double-bend shaft.


Portage or portaging is the practice of carrying water craft or cargo over land, either around an obstacle in a river, or between two bodies of water. A path where items are regularly carried between bodies of water is also called a portage.

Early French explorers in New France and French Louisiana encountered many rapids and cascades. The Native Americans carried their canoes over land to avoid river obstacles.

Over time, important portages were sometimes provided with canals with locks, and even portage railways. Primitive portaging generally involves carrying the vessel and its contents across the portage in multiple trips. Small canoes can be portaged by carrying them inverted over one's shoulders and the center strut may be designed in the style of a yoke to facilitate this. Historically, voyageurs often employed tump lines on their heads to carry loads on their backs.

Portages can be many kilometers in length, such as the 19-kilometre (12 mi) Methye Portage and the 8.5-mile (13.7 km) Grand Portage (both in North America) often covering hilly or difficult terrain. Some portages involve very little elevation change, such as the very short Mavis Grind in Shetland, which crosses an isthmus.

Waka (canoe)

Waka (Māori: [ˈwaka]) are Māori watercraft, usually canoes ranging in size from small, unornamented canoes (waka tīwai) used for fishing and river travel, to large, decorated war canoes (waka taua) up to 40 metres (130 ft) long.

The earliest archaeological find of a canoe in New Zealand was reported in 2014. It was found near the Anaweka estuary in a remote part of Tasman and radiocarbon-dated to about 1400. The canoe was constructed in New Zealand, but was a sophisticated canoe, compatible with the style of other Polynesian voyaging canoes at that time.Since the 1970s about eight large double-hulled canoes of about 20 metres have been constructed for oceanic voyaging to other parts of the Pacific. but they are made of a blend of modern and traditional materials, incorporating features from both ancient Melanesia, as well as Polynesia.

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