Cannes Film Festival

The Cannes Festival (/kæn/; French: Festival de Cannes), until 2002 called the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually (usually in May) at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès.[1] It is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.

On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate. The board of directors also appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival.[2][3]

The 2019 Cannes Film Festival took place from 14 and 25 May 2019 and Mexican filmmaker Alejandro González Iñárritu was the jury president.[4] Parasite, directed by South Korean director Bong Joon-ho, won the Palme d'Or.[5]

Cannes Film Festival
Festival de Cannes logo
LocationCannes, France
Founded20 September 1946 (as International Film Festival)
AwardsPalme d'Or, Grand Prix
Cannes vu du Suquet
Cannes seen from Le Suquet


The early years

Note Cannes 1939
Note from 1939 with the French Government's decision not to participate at the Venice Film Festival anymore, but instead to host its own festival in Biarritz, Cannes or Nice

The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival. Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival, which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias.[6] The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and finally the beginning of World War II put an end to this plan.[7]

On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes.[8] In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented. The festival was not held in 1948 and 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the Palais des Festivals was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival which was held in autumn.[7]

1950s and 1960s

During the early 1950s, the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing. Because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the Palme d'Or was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival which had been given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection.[9]

In 1959, the Marché du Film (Film Market) was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns. Jean Cocteau, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."[10][11]

In 1962, the International Critics' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president.[12]

The 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France,[13] and in protest to the eviction of the then President of the Cinémathèque Française. The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, and they founded the Film Directors' Society (SRF) that same year.[14] In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors' Fortnight (Quinzaine des Réalisateurs), a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films.[15]

1970s and 1980s

During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, and Maurice Bessy the General Delegate. He introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, and relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like MASH, and later Chronicle of the Years of Fire marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country.[16] Also, until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, and another for foreign films.[17]

In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, and the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films; also, until that point the Jury was composed by Film Academics, and Jacob started to introduce celebrities and professionals from the film industry.[18]

In 1983, a new, much bigger Palais des Festivals et des Congrès was built to host the festival, while the Directors' Fortnight remained in the old building. The new building was nicknamed "The Bunker", provoking a lot of criticism, especially since it was hardly finished at the event and several technical problems occurred.[19] In 1984 Pierre Viot replaced Robert Favre Le Bret as President of the Festival.[20] In his term, the Festival started including films from more countries, like Philippines, China, Cuba, Australia, India, New Zealand and Argentina. In 1987, for the first time of the Festival, a red carpet was placed at the entrance of the Palais. In 1989, during the first Cinéma & liberté forum, hundred directors from many countries signed a declaration "against all forms of censorship still existing in the world".[21]

Stars posing for photographers are a part of Cannes folklore.


In 1998, Gilles Jacob created the last section of the Official Selection: la Cinéfondation, aiming to support the creation of works of cinema in the world and to contribute to the entry of the new scenario writers in the circle of the celebrities.[22] The Cinéfondation was completed in 2000 with La Résidence, where young directors could refine their writing and screenplays, and in 2005 L'Atelier, which helps twenty directors per year with the funding of their films. Gilles Jacob was appointed Honorary President in 2000, and in 2002, the Festival officially adopted the name Festival de Cannes.[23][24]

During the 2000s, the Festival started focusing more on the technological advances taking place in the film world, especially the digital techniques. In 2004 the restored historical films of the Festival were presented as Cannes Classics, which included documentaries. In 2007 Thierry Frémaux became General Delegate. In 2009 he extended the Festival in Buenos Aires, as La Semana de Cine del Festival de Cannes, and in 2010 he created the Cannes Court Métrage for the Short Film competition.


In recent years, a number of gender and sexual controversies has surrounded the Cannes Film Festival. These include "Heelgate" in which numerous female attendees of a red carpet premiere were stopped from entering in 2015 for wearing flat soled shoes instead of high heels.[25] The incident caused numerous female celebrities to wear flat soled shoes or no shoes at all to other red carpet premiers in a show of solidarity and protest.[26]

A number of high-profile directors and producers have also been accused of sexual harassment and abuse at past festivals.

As a result of the past sexual controversies and the #MeToo movement that arose out of the Harvey Weinstein scandal, in 2018, Cannes Film Festival officials announced the creation of a telephone hotline during the festival in which victims could report incidents of sexual harassment and other crimes.[27] The hotline is in collaboration with the French government.[28]

General Delegate Thierry Frémaux reportedly 'banned' selfies on the red carpet of the festival back in 2015.[29]

In 2017, along with the 70th anniversary events of the Festival, the issue of changing the rules on theatrical screening caused controversy.[30] In 2018, the enforcement of theatrical screening in France resulted in Netflix withdrawing their films from the festival.[31]

Festival team

Year President General Delegate General Secretary
1949 Jean Touzet
1952 Robert Favre Le Bret
1972 Robert
Favre Le Bret
Maurice Bessy
1978 Gilles Jacob
1984 Pierre Viot
1985 Michel P. Bonnet
1991 François
2001 Gilles Jacob General Director
Véronique Cayla
Artistic Delegate
Thierry Frémaux
2005 Catherine Démier
2007 Thierry Frémaux
2014 Pierre Lescure

The President of the Festival, who represents the Festival in front of its financial partners, the public authorities and the media, is elected by the board of directors of the Festival, officially named the "French Association of the Film Festival". The Board is composed of authorities of the world of cinema, as well as of public authorities which subsidize the event. The President has a renewable 3-year mandate and appoints the members of his team, including the General Delegate, with the approval of the board of directors.[32] Sometimes a President, after his last term, becomes the Honorary President of the Festival.

The General Delegate is responsible for the coordination of the events. When Gilles Jacob passed from General Delegate to the position of the President, in 2001, two new positions were created to take over his former post, the General Director to oversee the smooth running of the event, and the Artistic Director, responsible for the selection of films. However, in 2007, the Artistic Director Thierry Fremaux, became again the General Delegate of the Festival.

The general secretary is responsible for the reception of works and other practical matters.


The Cannes Film Festival is organised in various sections:[33]

  • The Official Selection – The main event of the festival.
    • In Competition – The films competing for the Palme d'Or. They are projected in the Théâtre Lumière.
    • Un Certain Regard – Films selected from cultures near and far; original and different works. They are projected at the Salle Debussy.
    • Out of Competition – These films are also projected in the Théâtre Lumière but do not compete for the main prize.
    • Special Screenings – The selection committee chooses for these films an environment specially adapted to their particular identity.
    • Cinéfondation – About fifteen shorts and medium-length motion pictures from film schools over the world are presented at the Salle Buñuel.
    • Short Films – The shorts competing for the Short Film Palme d'Or are presented at Buñuel and Debussy theatres. There are approximately 10 films in this competition.
    • Cannes Classics – It celebrates the heritage of film, aiming to highlight works of the past, presented with brand new or restored prints.
    • Cinéma de la Plage – Screening of Cannes Classics and Out of Competition films for the mass public on Macé beach, preceded by a programme dedicated to film music.
  • Parallel Sections – These are alternative programmes dedicated to discovering other aspects of cinema.
    • International Critics' Week – Since 1962, it has focused on discovering new talents and showcasing first and second feature films by directors from all over the world.
    • Directors' Fortnight – Since 1969, it has cast its lot with the avant-garde, even as it created a breeding ground where the Cannes Festival would regularly find its prestigious auteurs.
    • ACID (Association for Independent Cinema and its Distribution)
    • Tous les Cinémas du Monde – It showcases the vitality and diversity of cinema across the world. Each day, one country is invited to present a range of features and shorts in celebration of its unique culture, identity and recent film works.
  • Events
    • Marché du Film – The busiest film market in the world.
    • Masterclasses – Given in public by world-renowned filmmakers.
    • Tributes – Honors internationally renowned artists with the presentation of the Festival Trophee following the screening of one of their films.
    • Producers Network – An opportunity to make international co-productions.
    • Exhibitions – Each year, an artist, a body of work or a cinematographic theme becomes the focus of an exhibition that diversifies or illustrates the event's programme.
    • 60th Anniversary – Events organised in 2007 dedicated to the 60th anniversary of the Festival.


Prior to the beginning of each event, the Festival's board of directors appoints the juries who hold sole responsibility for choosing which films will receive a Cannes award. Jurors are chosen from a wide range of international artists, based on their body of work and respect from their peers.[34] The appointment of the President of the Jury is made following several annual management proposals made in the fall and submitted to the Festival's board of directors for validation.[35]

  • Feature Films – An international jury composed of a President and various film or art personalities, who determine the prizes for the feature films in Competition.
  • Cinéfondation and Short Films – Composed of a President and four film personalities. It awards the Short Film Palme d'Or as well as the three best films of the Cinéfondation.
  • Un Certain Regard – Composed of a President, journalists, students in cinema, and industry professionals. It awards the Un Certain Regard Prize for best film and can, moreover, honour two other films.
  • Caméra d'Or – Composed of a President, as well as film directors, technicians, and French and international critics. They award the best film in any category.

The jury meets annually at the historic Villa Domergue to select the winners.[36]


Palme d'Or awarded to Apocalypse Now at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival
Léa Seydoux Adèle Exarchopoulos Césars 2014
In 2013, Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux became the first and only cast members to receive the Palme d'Or for Blue Is the Warmest Colour in an "unprecedented move", alongside the director Abdellatif Kechiche.

The most prestigious award given at Cannes is the Palme d'Or ("Golden Palm") for the best film.


The festival has become an important showcase for European films. Jill Forbes and Sarah Street argue in European Cinema: An Introduction (ISBN 0333752104), that Cannes "became...extremely important for critical and commercial interests and for European attempts to sell films on the basis of their artistic quality" (page 20).[39] Forbes and Street also point out that, along with other festivals such as the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival, Cannes offers an opportunity to determine a particular country's image of its cinema and generally foster the notion that European cinema is "art" cinema.[39]

Additionally, given massive media exposure, the non-public festival is attended by many stars and is a popular venue for film producers to launch their new films and to attempt to sell their works to the distributors who come from all over the globe.

Cannes Film Festival in fiction

Though most of the media attention the festival receives is journalistic in nature, the festival has been explored from the standpoint of fiction by novelists over the years.

J. G. Ballard’s Super-Cannes is about the European elite who live in a closed society by the festival. Michael GrothausEpiphany Jones is a social satire about the festival and film industry and explores sex trafficking that occurs during the festival. The book was named one of the best Hollywood novels of all time by Entertainment Weekly.[40] Iain Johnstone’s Cannes: The Novel is a dystopian tale about terrorists holding the festival hostage.

In addition to fictional works, the festival has been examined in contexts ranging from the cultural to the historical in a host of non-fiction books.[41]

See also


  1. ^ "Presentation of the Palais". Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  2. ^ "Cannes Film Festival Names Pierre Lescure President". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  3. ^ "Pierre Lescure elected President of the Festival de Cannes". Festival de Cannes. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  4. ^ "Alejandro González Iñárritu Jury President of the Festival de Cannes 2019". 27 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  5. ^ Sharf, Zack (25 May 2019). "Cannes 2019 Full Winners List: Bong Joon-ho Wins Palme d'Or for 'Parasite'". IndieWire. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  6. ^ "First Cannes Film Festival". Archived from the original on 27 December 2013.
  7. ^ a b "1938–1951: The birth of the Festival". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  8. ^ "1st Cannes Film Festival". Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  9. ^ "Honoring the Female Trailblazers of Cannes /2. Dolores del Río". Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  10. ^ "Festival de Cannes – Festival History". Archived from the original on 14 May 2007.
  11. ^ "1952–1959: Celebrities, politics and the film world". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  12. ^ "1960–1968: The growing legitimacy of cinema and a world of new horizons". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  13. ^ "1968 Cannes Festival". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  14. ^ "The Fortnight in action". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  15. ^ "Directors' Fortnight". Directors' Fortnight website. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  16. ^ "1969–1977: A Festival that moves with the times". Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  17. ^ "1972 – Tout le monde il est beau, tout le monde il est gentil". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  18. ^ "1978 – Cannes, Le Retour". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  19. ^ "1983 – Le Festival blessé". archive. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  20. ^ "1978–1986: A wind of change". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  21. ^ "The History of the Festival / The 80s: The Modern Era". Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  22. ^ "Presentation". Cinéfondation. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  23. ^ "1987–1996: The first Palme d'Or for a woman director". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  24. ^ "1997-today: The Festival enters a new century". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  25. ^ Film, Telegraph (9 May 2016). "Heelgate and beyond: 13 controversial Cannes moments". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  26. ^ "Controversy at Cannes: When the festival made news for all the wrong reasons". 16 May 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  27. ^ Keslassy, Elsa (27 April 2018). "Cannes Film Festival to Create Hotline for Sexual Harassment Victims (Report)". Variety. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  28. ^ "Cannes film festival to open anti-sexual predator hotline". RFI. 27 April 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  29. ^ "'I am so Pathetic: I Took a Selfie at the Red Carpet' at the Cannes Film Festival=Ikon London Magazine". Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  30. ^ "Netflix Defends Strategy at Cannes: 'The Culture Is Changing'". Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  31. ^ Chiu, Allyson (26 March 2018). "Cannes Film Festival bans Netflix films from competition. Also, no more selfies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  32. ^ "Pierre Lescure officiellement à la tête du Festival de Cannes". (in French). Retrieved 30 May 2017. Le président du Festival de Cannes est élu par le conseil d'administration de l'Association française du Festival international du film. Cette instance compte vingt-huit membres et repose sur un subtil équilibre entre le monde du cinéma et les pouvoirs publics, qui subventionnent l'événement.
  33. ^ "Festival de Cannes – Official Site". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  34. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Juries". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
  35. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Juries". Archived from the original on 18 April 2015.
  36. ^ "Patrimoine: Villa Domergue". Site officiel de la Ville de Cannes. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  37. ^ "Pixar pooch picks Up Cannes prize". BBC News. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
  38. ^ "Transgender activist Pascale Ourbih on Cannes gay prize jury". On Top Magazine. 10 May 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  39. ^ a b Forbes, Jill; Street, Sarah (2001). European Cinema: An Introduction. London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-333-75210-4.
  40. ^ "The most irresistible Hollywood novels". Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  41. ^ "16 Books About Cannes Film Festival you Have to Read - Cannes Estate". Cannes Estate. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.

Further reading

  • Craig, Benjamin (2018). Cannes: A Festival Virgin's Guide (7 ed.). Cinemagine Media Publishing. ISBN 978-1999996109.
  • Bart, Peter; The Editors of Variety (1997). Cannes: Fifty Years of Sun, Sex & Celluloid: Behind the Scenes at the World's Most Famous Film Festival. Miramax Books. ISBN 978-0786882953.
  • Beauchamp, Cari; Behar, Henri (1992). Hollywood on the Riviera: The Inside Story of the Cannes Film Festival. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 978-0688110079.
  • Jungen, Christian (2015). Hollywood in Canne$: The History of a Love-Hate Relationship (Film Culture in Transition). Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-9089645661.


External links

Coordinates: 43°33′03.10″N 7°01′02.10″E / 43.5508611°N 7.0172500°E

2007 Cannes Film Festival

The 60th Cannes Film Festival ran from 16 to 27 May 2007. The President of the Jury was British director Stephen Frears. Twenty two films from twelve countries were selected to compete for the Palme d'Or. The awards were announced on 26 May. 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days, directed by Cristian Mungiu won the Palme d'Or.The festival opened with My Blueberry Nights, directed by Wong Kar-wai and closed with Days of Darkness (L'Âge des ténèbres) by Denys Arcand. Diane Kruger was the mistress of ceremonies.The official poster of the 60th Cannes festival featured Pedro Almodóvar, Juliette Binoche, Jane Campion, Souleymane Cissé, Penélope Cruz, Gérard Depardieu, Samuel L. Jackson, Bruce Willis and Wong Kar Wai, all photographed by Alex Majoli.

2009 Cannes Film Festival

The 62nd Cannes Film Festival was held from 13 May to 24 May 2009. French actress Isabelle Huppert was the President of the Jury. Twenty films from thirteen countries were selected to compete for the Palme d'Or. The awards were announced on 23 May. The film The White Ribbon (Das weiße Band), directed by Michael Haneke won the Palme d'Or.The festival opened with Pixar's film Up, directed by Pete Docter and Bob Peterson. This marked the first time that an animated film or a film in 3-D opened the festival. The festival closed with Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky directed by Jan Kounen.American director Clint Eastwood became the second recipient of the Honorary Palme d'Or, an award given to directors who had established a significant body of work without ever winning a competitive Palme d'Or.

2010 Cannes Film Festival

The 63rd Cannes Film Festival was held from 12 to 23 May 2010, in Cannes, France. The Cannes Film Festival, hailed as being one of the most recognized and prestigious film festivals worldwide, was founded in 1946. It consists of having films screened in and out of competition during the festival; films screened in competition compete for the Palme d'Or award. The award in 2010 was won by Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives, a Thai film directed by Apichatpong Weerasethakul. This was determined by the festival's jury members who reviewed films screened in competition. American film director Tim Burton was the president of the jury for the international competition, and other members of the jury for that competition included actors, screenwriters and composers, such as Kate Beckinsale, Emmanuel Carrère, Benicio del Toro, and Alexandre Desplat. Other categories for films screened in competition that have their own separate juries for other awards are for Short Films and the Un Certain Regard category.

Ridley Scott's Robin Hood opened the festival and Julie Bertuccelli's The Tree was the closing film. The full film lineup for the festival was announced on 15 April 2010. English actress Kristin Scott Thomas was the mistress of ceremonies.Agence France-Presse, Reuters, Associated Press and Getty TV boycotted the press conference that announced the line-up for the festival, due to a dispute over access to the red carpet. In a press release, the agencies said that they "may be forced to suspend their presence at the festival altogether" if an agreement was not reached. Days before the festival was to begin, concerns were expressed that attendees might be delayed, or would not attend, due to plane flights to surrounding areas in France being delayed or canceled due to volcanic ash in the sky. Two days before ths beginning of the festival, the just finished film Route Irish, directed by Ken Loach, was added to the main competition.

2011 Cannes Film Festival

The 64th Cannes Film Festival was held from 11 to 22 May 2011. American actor Robert De Niro served as the president of the jury for the main competition and French filmmaker Michel Gondry headed the jury for the short film competition. South Korean film director Bong Joon-ho was the head of the jury for the Caméra d'Or prize, which is awarded to the best first-time filmmaker. The American film The Tree of Life, directed by Terrence Malick won the Palme d'Or.Midnight in Paris, written and directed by Woody Allen, opened the festival and The Beloved (Les Bien-aimés), directed by Christophe Honoré and screened as out of competition, closed the festival. Mélanie Laurent hosted the opening and closing ceremonies.

Italian film director Bernardo Bertolucci was presented with the third Honorary Palme d'Or Award at the opening ceremony of the festival. Though the award had been given out sporadically in the past the Honorary Palme d'Or was supposed to presented annually after 2011. However it was not given again until the 2015 Cannes Film Festival. Gus Van Sant's Restless opened the Un Certain Regard section. Jailed Iranian film directors Jafar Panahi and Mohammad Rasoulof were honoured at the festival. Goodbye by Rasoulof and Panahi's This Is Not a Film was screened at the festival, and Panahi was awarded the Carrosse d'Or. Four female directors featured in the main competition: Australian Julia Leigh, Japan's Naomi Kawase, Scottish director Lynne Ramsay and France's own Maïwenn Le Besco.Danish film director Lars von Trier caused controversy with comments he made at the press conference of his film Melancholia. When he was asked about the relation between the influences of German Romanticism in the film and his own German heritage, the director made jokes about Jews and Nazis. He said he understood Adolf Hitler and admired the work of architect Albert Speer, and jokingly announced that he was a Nazi. The Cannes Film Festival first issued an official apology for the remarks the same day and clarified that Trier is not a Nazi or an antisemite, then declared the director "persona non grata" the following day. The film remained in competition.

2012 Cannes Film Festival

The 65th Cannes Film Festival was held from 16 to 27 May 2012. Italian film director Nanni Moretti was the President of the Jury for the main competition and British actor Tim Roth was the President of the Jury for the Un Certain Regard section. French actress Bérénice Bejo hosted the opening and closing ceremonies.The festival opened with the US film Moonrise Kingdom, directed by Wes Anderson and closed with the late Claude Miller's final film Thérèse Desqueyroux. The main announcement of the line-up took place on 19 April. The official poster of the festival features Marilyn Monroe, to mark the 50th anniversary of her death.The Palme d'Or was awarded to Austrian director Michael Haneke for his film Amour. Haneke previously won the Palme d'Or in 2009 for The White Ribbon. The jury gave the Grand Prize to Matteo Garrone's Reality, while Ken Loach's The Angels' Share was awarded the Jury Prize.

2013 Cannes Film Festival

The 66th Cannes Film Festival took place in Cannes, France, from 15 to 26 May 2013. Steven Spielberg was the head of the jury for the main competition. New Zealand film director Jane Campion was the head of the jury for the Cinéfondation and Short Film sections. French actress Audrey Tautou hosted the opening and closing ceremonies. Actress Kim Novak was named guest of honour and introduced a new restored version of Alfred Hitchcock's Vertigo.The festival opened with The Great Gatsby, directed by Baz Luhrmann and closed with Zulu, directed by Jérôme Salle. The film poster for the festival featured Paul Newman and his wife Joanne Woodward. The Bling Ring, directed by Sofia Coppola, opened the Un Certain Regard section.The French film Blue Is the Warmest Colour won the Palme d'Or. In an unprecedented move, along with the director, the Jury decided to take "the exceptional step" of awarding the film's two main actresses, Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux, with the Palme d'Or.On the occasion of 100 Years of Indian Cinema, India was the Official Guest Country at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival. Seven Indian feature films were premiered among various sections on the festival. Actress Vidya Balan was one of the official Jury of the festival. The first Incredible India Exhibition, a joint participation of the Ministry of Tourism and Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Republic of India was inaugurated by Indian delegate Chiranjeevi.

2015 Cannes Film Festival

The 68th Cannes Film Festival was held from 13 to 24 May 2015. Joel and Ethan Coen were the Presidents of the Jury for the main competition. It was the first time that two people chaired the jury. Since the Coen brothers each received a separate vote, they were joined by seven other jurors to form the customary nine-juror panel. French actor Lambert Wilson was the host for the opening and closing ceremonies.The Palme d'Or was awarded to the French film Dheepan directed by Jacques Audiard. On winning the award Audiard said "To receive a prize from the Coen brothers is something pretty exceptional. I'm very touched".The festival poster featured Hollywood star and Swedish actress Ingrid Bergman, photographed by David Seymour. The poster was chosen to pay tribute to Bergman for her contributions to films and who also served as the Jury President at 1973 Cannes Film Festival. As part of the tribute to Bergman, the Swedish documentary Ingrid Bergman: In Her Own Words was screened in the Cannes Classics section.Standing Tall, directed by Emmanuelle Bercot, was the festival's opening film. This was the second opening film in the festival's history to have been directed by a woman, after A Man in Love by Diane Kurys which opened the 1987 Cannes Film Festival. Ice and the Sky, directed by Luc Jacquet, was the festival's closing film. Both the opening and closing films were selected for the strength and importance of their messages—Standing Tall for the way its themes respond to the Charlie Hebdo shootings and Ice and the Sky for its concern for the future of the planet.French film director Agnès Varda was presented with the honorary Palme d'Or at the festival's closing ceremony. She is also the first female filmmaker to ever receive the award.The Official Selection of films for the 2015 festival, including the line-up for the Main Competition, was announced on 16 April 2015.At the festival, director Thierry Fremaux asked celebrities to abstain from taking selfies on the red carpet. While he did not have the powers to ban the pictures from the red carpet altogether, Thierry Fremaux urged celebrities to resist the temptation.

2016 Cannes Film Festival

The 69th Cannes Film Festival was held from 11 to 22 May 2016. Australian director George Miller was the President of the Jury for the main competition. French actor Laurent Lafitte was the host for the opening and closing ceremonies. On 15 March it was announced that Japanese director Naomi Kawase would serve as the Cinéfondation and Short Film Jury president. American director Woody Allen's film Café Society opened the festival.The Palme d'Or was awarded to the British film I, Daniel Blake directed by Ken Loach, which also served as closing film of the festival. At a press conference, Loach said that he was "quietly stunned" to win.

2017 Cannes Film Festival

The 70th Cannes Film Festival took place from 17 to 28 May 2017, in Cannes, France. Spanish film director and screenwriter Pedro Almodóvar was the President of the Jury for the festival and Italian actress Monica Bellucci hosted the opening and closing ceremonies. Ismael's Ghosts, directed by French director Arnaud Desplechin, was the opening film for the festival.The festival celebrated its 70th anniversary. In late March 2017, the official poster of the festival was revealed featuring Italian actress Claudia Cardinale. The actress responded, "'I am honoured and proud to be flying the flag for the 70th Festival de Cannes, and delighted with this choice of photo. It's the image I myself have of the Festival, of an event that illuminates everything around … Happy anniversary!"The Palme d'Or was awarded to the Swedish film The Square directed by Ruben Östlund, which also served as the closing night film of the festival.

2018 Cannes Film Festival

The 71st annual Cannes Film Festival was held from 8 to 19 May 2018. Australian actress Cate Blanchett acted as President of the Jury. The Japanese film Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or.Asghar Farhadi's psychological thriller Everybody Knows, starring Javier Bardem, Penélope Cruz and Ricardo Darín, opened the festival and competed in the Main Competition section. It was the second Spanish-language film to open Cannes, following Pedro Almodóvar's Bad Education, which screened on the opening night of the 2004 festival.

The official festival poster features Jean-Paul Belmondo and Anna Karina from Jean-Luc Godard's 1965 film Pierrot le Fou. It is the second time the festival poster was inspired by Godard's film after his 1963 film Contempt at the 2016 festival. According to festival's official statement, the poster is inspired by and paid tribute to the work of French photographer Georges Pierre.

2019 Cannes Film Festival

The 72nd annual Cannes Film Festival took place from 14 to 25 May 2019. Mexican filmmaker Alejandro González Iñárritu served as jury president. The Palme d'Or went to the South Korean film Parasite, directed by Bong Joon-ho; Bong became the first Korean director to win the award.American film director Jim Jarmusch's ensemble zombie comedy film The Dead Don't Die served as the opening film of the festival. The festival honoured French filmmaker Agnès Varda, who died in March 2019, featuring her on the official poster of the festival. The photograph used was taken during the filming of her debut film La Pointe Courte (1955), which later screened at the Cannes Film Festival.

Best Director Award (Cannes Film Festival)

The Best Director Award (French: Prix de la mise en scène) is an annual award presented at the Cannes Film Festival for best directing achievements in a feature film screened as part of festival's official selection (i.e. films selected for the competition program which compete for the festival's main prize Palme d'Or). Awarded by festival's jury, it was first given in 1946.

The prize was not awarded on 12 occasions (1947, 1953–54, 1960, 1962–64, 1971, 1973–74, 1977, 1980). In addition, the festival was not held at all in 1948 and 1950, while in 1968 no awards were given as the festival was called off mid-way due to the May 1968 events in France. Also, the jury vote was tied and prize was shared by two directors on seven occasions (1955, 1969, 1975, 1983, 2001, 2002 and 2016).

The winner of Best Director Award rarely wins the Palme d'Or, the main prize at the festival (note that the Palme d'Or is awarded to the film's director as well; the only exception is the case of Blue Is the Warmest Colour, where the actresses were also awarded with the director). This happened only twice, in 1991, when Joel Coen won both awards for Barton Fink, and in 2003, when Gus Van Sant won for his film Elephant.

Best Screenplay Award (Cannes Film Festival)

The Best Screenplay Award (French: Prix du scénario) is an award presented by the Jury to the best screenwriter for his work on a film of the Official Selection of the Cannes Film Festival. It was first awarded in 1949.

Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actor

The Cannes Best Actor Award (French: Prix d'interprétation masculine) is an award presented at the Cannes Film Festival. It is chosen by the jury from the 'official section' of movies at the festival. It was first awarded in 1946.

Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress

The Cannes Best Actress Award (French: Prix d'interprétation féminine) is an award presented at the Cannes Film Festival. It is chosen by the jury from the official films in competition at the festival. It was first awarded in 1946. The ceremony was cancelled in 1948, 1950, and 1968. No awards were given to actresses in 1947. On four occasions, the jury has awarded multiple women (more than 2) the prize from one film. The four films were A World Apart, Brink of Life, A Big Family, and Volver. The jury also on occasion cites actresses with a special citation that is separate from the main award. The award can be for lead or supporting roles with the exception of the period from 1979 to 1981, when the festival used to award a separate "Best Supporting Actress" prize.

Isabelle Adjani is the only actress to ever win the award for two films in one festival, which she did in 1981. Barbara Hershey won the award consecutively in 1987 and 1988.

Directors' Fortnight

The Directors' Fortnight (French: Quinzaine des Réalisateurs) is an independent section held in parallel to the Cannes Film Festival. It was started in 1969 by the French Directors Guild after the events of May 1968 resulted in cancellation of the Cannes festival as an act of solidarity with striking workers.The Directors' Fortnight showcases a programme of shorts and feature films and documentaries worldwide.

Grand Prix (Cannes Film Festival)

The Grand Prix is an award of the Cannes Film Festival bestowed by the jury of the festival on one of the competing feature films. It is the second-most prestigious prize of the festival after the Palme d'Or. Prior to its creation, the Special Jury Prize held the "second place".

Jury Prize (Cannes Film Festival)

The Jury Prize (French: Prix du Jury) is an award presented at the Cannes Film Festival, chosen by the Jury from the "official section" of movies at the festival. According to film critic Dave Kehr, the award is "intended to recognize an original work that embodies the spirit of inquiry."

List of Romanian films

A list of the most notable films produced in the Cinema of Romania ordered by year of release. For an A-Z list of articles on Romanian films see Category:Romanian films.

Cannes Film Festival
Awards given
by independent entities
By year
Palme d'Or winning films
(Competitive Specialised)
Documentary and Short

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