Candido Portinari (December 29, 1903 – February 6, 1962) was a Brazilian painter. He is considered one of the most important Brazilian painters as well as a prominent and influential practitioner of the neo-realism style in painting.
Portinari painted more than five thousand canvases, from small sketches to monumental works such as the Guerra e Paz panels, which were donated to the United Nations Headquarters in 1956. Portinari developed a strong social preoccupation throughout his oeuvre and maintained an active life in the Brazilian cultural and political worlds.
December 29, 1903
|Died||February 6, 1962 (aged 58)|
|O Mulato, Café, Meninos de Brodowski, Guerra e Paz|
Born to Giovan Battista Portinari and Domenica Torquato, Italian immigrants from Chiampo, Veneto, in a coffee plantation near Brodowski, in São Paulo. Growing up on a coffee plantation of dark soil and blue sky, Portinari gained his inspiration from the homeland he loved. In the majority of his later paintings, murals and frescoes, he used the color blue and lots of browns and reds because this was the color of his home.
One of Portinari’s beginner jobs was drawing photographs where he closely captured the exact image using paints and then enlarging the photos. These sold successfully because the resemblance was astounding. Portinari then studied at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes National School of Fine Arts) in Rio de Janeiro. In 1928 he won a gold medal at the ENBA and a trip to Paris where he stayed until 1930, when he returned to Brazil. He traveled to Europe again, finally returning to Brazil in 1933. These visits significantly influenced Portinari. Portinari studied various European artwork, visited museums and during his travels met his future wife, Maria Martinelli. Throughout his time traveling, he didn’t paint much but studied and possibly seeing life elsewhere, hoped to better his homeland as well. He came back to Brazil fully set on conveying the true Brazilian lifestyle and capturing the pain and struggles of his people through his art.
After his return, Portinari began portraying the reality of Brazil, from its natural beauties to the harsh lives of the country's most impoverished populations, pursuing an amalgamation of his academic formation with the modernist avant-gardes. Portinari remained himself and didn’t allow his new experiences and new outlooks change him. His roots remained important to him and he strove to portray this in his paintings; the true Brazilian spirit. He wanted the world to see the harsh reality of living conditions in Brazil and the struggle for survival. Strength, hard work, independence and authenticity shows through in almost every one of his works.
In 1939, Portinari exposed at the New York World's Fair. In the following year, Portinari had for the first time a canvas exposed at the Museum of Modern Art. The rise of fascism in Europe, the wars and the close contact with Brazilian problematic society, reaffirmed the social character of his work, as well as conducting him to political engagement.
He joined the Brazilian Communist Party and stood for deputy in 1945 and for senator in 1947, but had to flee for Uruguay due to the persecution of communists during the government of Eurico Gaspar Dutra. In 1951, the first São Paulo Art Biennial dedicated a special room for his works. He returned to Brazil in the following year, after a declaration of general amnesty from the government. In 1956, after the United Nations had appealed to its affiliated countries for the donation of a work of art to the organization's new headquarters. Brazil designated Portinari for the task, who took four years and around 180 studies to complete the painting. Dag Hammarskjöld, UN Secretary-General, named the work "the most important monumental work of art donated to the UN".
Even after being warned by the doctor of the risks of the toxins and poisoning, he didn’t give up and continued to paint. Portinari suffered from ill health during the last decade of his life. He died in Rio de Janeiro in 1962 in result of lead poisoning from his paints.
On December 20, 2007, his painting O Lavrador de Café was stolen from the São Paulo Museum of Art along with Pablo Picasso's Portrait of Suzanne Bloch. The paintings remained missing until January 8, 2008, when they were recovered in Ferraz de Vasconcelos by the Police of São Paulo. The paintings were returned, undamaged, to the São Paulo Museum of Art.
There were a number of commemorative events in the centenary of his birth in 2003, including an exhibition of his work in London.
Portinari's works comprehend a strong will to represent Brazilian people and their traits. Portinari himself said he would "paint that people with that clothing and that color". According to Antonio Callado, Portinari's oeuvre demonstrate a "monumental book of art which teaches Brazilians to love more their land".
Portinari was capable of transcending his original academic formation by experiencing with and absorbing modernist techniques and styles, which fundamentally created his painting personality. The range and sweep of his output includes paintings depicting rural and urban labour, refugees fleeing the hardships of Brazil's rural north-east; and, despite these major and better known aspects of his work, treatments of the key events in the history of Brazil since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, images of childhood, portraits of members of his family and leading Brazilian intellectuals, illustrations for books and tiles decorating the Church of São Francisco at Pampulha, Belo Horizonte.
His career coincided with and included collaboration with Oscar Niemeyer amongst others. Portinari's works can be found in galleries and settings in Brazil and abroad, ranging from the family chapel in his childhood home in Brodowski to his panels Guerra e Paz (War and Peace) in the United Nations building in New York and four murals in the Hispanic Reading Room of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC.
As previously mentioned, Candido Portinari came from a poor immigrant family. This allowed him to have a unique perspective on Brazilian culture and what it meant to truly Brazilian. This is important because he was a prominent artist during the Brazilian Modernism era. As such, his perspective gave a more proud and dignified view of the workers at that time. While other artists like Lasar Segall with Bananal and Tarsila do Amaral with Workers provided a picture of the workers that removed personality and made each individual anonymous, Portinari did the opposite. For example, in his painting, The Mestizo, he paints a character that looks strong, competent, and noble. In this, he is demonstrating that the workers were not broken. Instead, they were proud and independent. Portinari used his culture and life experience to add to the explanation of what Brazil is in a distinctive style.
In Cocoa (1938) Portinari depicts workers on the coffee plantations. A woman is seen in the back balancing a crate on her head and there is a child in the painting. This was meant to signify that children were present during this hard work as well, and were encouraged to help the parents. Land was given to families in return for their labor on the plantations where they took care of their share. Here too is included the use of blues and oranges to truly capture the significance of Brazil, which was Portinari’s desire. This artwork was described by saying “Brazil is being rescued from obscurity by ‘Portinari’s Coffee’.”
Coffee (National Museum of Fine Arts, 1935) represents strong and resourceful workers. Their big hands and feet show they were strong and did not fear hard work. The people worked together to preserve their lands and survive. This painting is also a great depiction of “realism” because of how he captures his people with the short bodies, rounder heads and the brown and red hues of the land.
In The Mestizo (1934) he tries to present not just a portrait but an individual type of person. Portinari shows that Brazilian workers were tough and proud of their work because in the background of the Mestizo are seen the fields and all their hard work; his proud stance portrays confidence and strength.
War and Peace (Guerra and Paz; Palácio Gustavo Capanema in Rio de Janeiro; 1952-56) was a mural created when the United Nations asked Brazil to donate a work of art. Portinari created two murals to show war, agony, fear and pain that showed how the people suffered and were affected during the war. His use of blue hues in War created a contrast between the lighter yellows in Peace. The second was meant to express peace and happiness. Bento Antonio in his book Portinari, describes this work as, “a sort of innocent vision of paradise.” With this mural, he also meant to connect different racial groups and show peace among the variety of individuals. There was a large variety of ethnicities that lived in Brazil at this time. His works were meant to create a bridge between the multicultural individuals. This work is located in the United Nations General Assembly building in New York which was created in remembrance to World War II and its horrors. It was meant to resemble something that should never occur again. Here, visitors come witnessing an epitome of war and leave realizing that peace is indeed attainable. “Guerra and Paz are the synthesis of an entire life committed to human beings. His painting, like his militant political views, spoke out against injustice, violence and misery in the world per his son, João Candido Portinari.
In the Hispanic Foundation of the Library of Congress, Washington D.C. are located four murals that Portinari did in 1941 depicting the struggles of the Hispanic Americans. Discovery of the Land, Entry into the Forest, Teaching of the Indians, and Discovery of Gold are all meant to represent the coming of the Spaniards and Portuguese to America and took him two months to complete with the help of his brother Luiz. The Discovery of the Land is meant to show common sailors that sailed the boats. Entry in the Forest is the “reminiscent of frescoes” where he also doesn’t fail to capture his style of enlarging the figures’ arms and legs to show their strength. In the Teaching of the Indians, Portinari tries to create a scene of a priest or Spanish “Jesuit father” with Indians and obvious unity. Also the presence of the red Brazilian soil. The last mural, Discovery of Gold the artist chooses to paint just a single boat and specific people to represent that they had found gold. The Brazilian government paid for Portinari to travel to Washington to create the murals and represent their country.
Portinari once said, “I am the Son of the Red Earth. I decided to paint the Brazilian reality, naked and crude as it is.” Life in Brazil wasn’t easy for Portinari, especially considering he was never wealthy, but his desire to show proof of this reality is evident in all his artworks. Poor housing, inadequate nutrition, no education, little or no healthcare access and various diseases created desperate situations for the Brazilian people who struggled to survive. This led to Portinari’s desire to raise global awareness of the human pain which he tried to depict in almost every painting.
Portinari also greatly affected the future Brazilian generation of artists, musicians, poets and composers. Having vastly traveled Europe, studying their art, their technique and styles, he came back to Brazil hoping to create his personal method and interpret his own style. Instead of continuing to imitate the European appearance, Portinari painted what he experienced and his life. Portinari’s works urged emerging artists to pursue their own, unique style particular to their lives, experiences and reality in their country. This is also another reason blues, reds, and oranges were so commonly used in his art; the colors of his homeland.
Projeto Portinari, begun in 1979 is dedicated to Candido Portinari by his son Joao Candido to revive his works, make them more known and preserve the history. Not only was his son able to locate more than 5,000 paintings, he also found thousands of drawings, sketches, and documents related to Portinari’s life and travels and interactions. The Catalogue Raisonné of Portinari’s complete works was published in 2004. It was the first Raisonné covering the complete works of a Latin American painter. “Projeto Portinari” also curated the first retrospective exhibition of Portinari’s oeuvre, at the “Museu de Arte de São Paulo - MASP”, in 1997.
Candido Portinari name continues to be seen today. Rodovia Candido Portinari is a State highway located in Brazil in São Paulo.
Paintings and murals
Events in the year 1903 in Brazil.Alberto da Veiga Guignard
Alberto da Veiga Guignard ( 25 February 1896 — 25 June 1962) was a Brazilian painter, known by painting the landscapes of Minas Gerais.Guignard was born in Nova Friburgo, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. He was born with a cleft lip and palate. Guignard's father died when he was a child and his mother remarried, to German baron Friedrich von Schilgen. Therefore, they moved to Germany.
In Europe, Guignard studied painting from 11 to 33 years old. Guignard attended the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, where he studied with Herman Groeber and Adolf Engeler and visited Florence.
After he returned to Brazil in 1929, he became an example of Brazilian Modernist painting, alongside Candido Portinari, Ismael Nery and Cícero Dias.He became mentor of painters such as Iberê Camargo, Vera Mindlin and Alcides da Rocha Miranda. In 1944, Guignard was invited by Juscelino Kubitschek,then mayor of Belo Horizonte, to establish a program for drawing and painting at the newly created Instituto de Belas Artes (now the Guignard University of Art of Minas Gerais). He lived in Belo Horizonte until his death, in 1962.
Guignard had several exhibitions in Brazil. In 1953, he was honored with a retrospective in the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro and,in 1992, at the Museu Lasar Segall.
His body was buried in the São Francisco de Assis Church, in Ouro Preto.Art Museum of the Americas
Art Museum of the Americas (AMA), located in Washington, D.C., is the first art museum in the United States primarily devoted to exhibiting works of modern and contemporary art from Latin America and the Caribbean. The museum was formally established in 1976 by the Organization of American States (OAS). Artists represented in the AMA's permanent collection include Carlos Cruz-Diez, Candido Portinari, Pedro Figari, Fernando de Szyszlo, Amelia Peláez and Alejandro Obregón.
The art collection of the OAS was initiated under the organization's Visual Arts Unit, beginning with the first donated artwork by the Brazilian neo-realist artist Portinari, in 1949. In the following decade the Permanent Council of the OAS determined to establish an acquisitions fund, in order to build up a permanent collection of artworks by significant contemporary artists from the member states of the OAS. A number of works were also purchased from or donated directly by artists, after the temporary exhibitions periodically held at the OAS gallery.
The Art Museum of the Americas itself was established in 1976 by OAS Permanent Council resolution, on the occasion of the United States Bicentennial. The museum opened in what was formerly the official residence of the OAS Secretary General, a Spanish Colonial-style structure designed in 1912 by the architect Paul Cret.
Initially the permanent collection held some 250 artworks, expanding over the next quarter-century to over 2000 items of painting, sculpture, installations, photography, and drawing, from the early 20th century and onwards. In addition to its permanent collection of mainly Caribbean and Latin American art, AMA hosts temporary and special exhibitions from across the region, and provides educational seminars and lectures from invited speakers.
The Art Museum of the Americas has also expanded its programs to include evening events, such as Art After Dark, with cutting edge music, video, performance, and installation art.Athos Bulcão
Athos Bulcão (July 2, 1918 – July 31, 2008) was a Brazilian painter and sculptor. He was born in Rio de Janeiro.
In the 1940s he assisted Cândido Portinari with the "São Francisco de Assis" painting at the Pampulha Church, in Belo Horizonte. Later he moved to Paris, where he lived until 1949. Back to Brazil, he became one of the collaborators of the construction of Brasília, taking part in several of Oscar Niemeyer's projects, and in 1958 he moved to Brasília where he lived until his death in 2008.
Athos Bulcão died in Brasília on July 31, 2008 due to complications from Parkinson's disease.Banknotes of the Brazilian cruzado
In 1986 because of inflation banknotes of the cruzado were issued by Central Bank of Brazil in denominations of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10 000 cruzados. This bank had the sole authority to issue cruzado notes and Casa da Moeda do Brasil was the sole printer of these banknotes. Cruzado notes on the front/obverse featured prominent people while on the back/reverse depicted buildings and/or activities of those people mentioned before. Between 1989 and 1990 cruzado currency had also been replaced, this time by cruzado novo at a rate of 1 cruzado to 1000 cruzados novos.Brazilian painting
Brazilian painting, or visual arts, emerged in the late 16th century, influenced by the Baroque style imported from Portugal. Until the beginning of the 19th century, that style was the dominant school of painting in Brazil, flourishing across the whole of the settled territories, mainly along the coast but also in important inland centers like Minas Gerais. Major painters in this period were Ricardo do Pilar, José Joaquim da Rocha, José Teófilo de Jesus, Joaquim José da Natividade, José Eloy, Manuel de Jesus Pinto, João de Deus Sepúlveda, Manuel da Cunha, but chief among them was Manuel da Costa Ataíde, working towards the end of the 18th century, head of the first original school of painting in the country, with a delicate and somewhat personal interpretation of Rococo style in which he first depicted angels and saints with mulato features.
A sudden break with the Baroque tradition was imposed on the art of the nation by the arrival of the Portuguese court in 1808, fleeing the French invasion of Portugal. However, Baroque painting still survived in many places until the end of the 19th century. In 1816, the king, John VI, supported the project of creating a national Academy at the suggestion of some French artists led by Joachim Lebreton, a group later known as the French Artistic Mission. They were instrumental in introducing the Neoclassical style and a new concept of artistic education mirroring the European academies, being the first teachers at the newly founded school of art. Through the following 70 years, the Royal School of Sciences, Arts and Crafts, later renamed the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, would dictate the standards in art, a mixed trend of Neoclassicism, Romanticism, and Realism with nationalist inclinations which would be the basis for the production of a large amount of canvases depicting the nation's history, battle scenes, landscapes, portraits, genre painting, and still lifes, and featuring national characters like black people and Indians. Victor Meirelles, Pedro Américo, and Almeida Junior were the leaders of such academic art, but this period also received important contributions from foreigners like Georg Grimm, Augusto Müller, and Nicola Antonio Facchinetti.
In 1889 the monarchy was abolished, and the republican government renamed the Imperial Academy the National School of the Fine Arts, which would be short-lived, absorbed in 1931 by the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Meanwhile, Modernism was already being cultivated in São Paulo and by some academic painters, and the new movement superseded Academicism. In 1922 the event called Week of Modern Art broke definitely with academic tradition and started a nationalist trend which was, however, influenced by Primitivism and by European Expressionism, Surrealism and Cubism. Anita Malfatti, Ismael Nery, Lasar Segall, Emiliano di Cavalcanti, Vicente do Rego Monteiro, and Tarsila do Amaral wrought major changes in painting, while groups like Santa Helena and Núcleo Bernardelli evolved toward a moderate interpretation of Modernism, with important artists such as Aldo Bonadei and José Pancetti. Cândido Portinari is the best example of this last tendency. Under government patronage he dominated Brazilian painting in the mid-20th century until Abstractionism showed up in the 1950s.
The period between 1950 and 1970 witnessed the emergence of many new styles. Action painting, Lyrical Abstraction, Neoconcretism, Neoexpressionism, Pop art, Neorealism — all contributed to some extent to the creation of huge diversity in Brazilian painting and to the updating of Brazilian art. After a period of relative decline in the conceptualist 1970s, national art revived in the 1980s under the influence of the world's renewed interest in traditional painting. Then Brazilian painting showed a new strength, spread across the whole country, and started being appreciated in international forums.Brodowski, São Paulo
Brodowski is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The population is 23,460 (2015 est.) in an area of 278 km². The elevation is 861 m.
The painter Cândido Portinari was born in Brodowski.Candido
Candido is both a given name and a surname. Notable people with the name include:
Candido Amantini (1914–1992), Italian Roman Catholic priest
Candido Camero known simply as "Candido" (born 1921), Cuban percussionist
Candido Jacuzzi (1903–1986), Italian-American inventor
Candido Portinari (1903–1962), Brazilian painterSurname:
Antonio Candido (1918–2017), writer, professor, and literary critic
Candy Candido (1913–1999), American actor and bass player
Chris Candido (1972–2005), American professional wrestler
Giacomo Candido (1871–1941), Italian mathematician
Johnny Candido (born 1982), American professional wrestlerPseudonym
Jose Martinez Ruiz (1873-1967) Spanish essayistCataguases
Cataguases is a municipality located in the southeastern part of the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The estimated population in 2015 was 74,171. It is mainly an industrial centre (textile, metallurgy, clothes) with a strong influence of coffee plantation in its early history (19th century).Church of Saint Francis of Assisi
The Church of Saint Francis of Assisi (Igreja de Sao Francisco de Assis, commonly known as the Igreja da Pampulha) is a church in Pampulha region of Belo Horizonte, in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. It was designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer in the organic modern style. It is the first listed modern architectural monument in Brazil and consists of four undulating concrete parabolas with outdoor mosaics. The distinctive landscape of the church is the work of Roberto Burle Marx, a longtime Niemeyer collaborator.The church was controversial from the beginning. The mayor of Belo Horizonte, Juscelino Kubitschek, was the patron of the project. Niemeyer said that he was inspired by the French Poet Paul Claudel's statement: "A church is God's hangar on earth," but Time Magazine wrote that the Archbishop of Belo Horizonte, Antonio dos Santos Cabral, saw it as "the devil's bomb shelter." Despite its completion in 1943 and Kubitschek's call for its consecration, it was not consecrated until 1959; Archbishop Cabral opposed both its architectural and artistic forms, particularly the mural of St. Francis behind the altar painted by Candido Portinari. He proclaimed the church "unfit for religious purposes."A later mayor of Pampulha tried to have it condemned and demolished and when that failed, abused it by filling it with altars and monuments of various styles that did not fit the building. It was finally taken over by the National Department of Artistic and Historical Patrimony. After the church was refurbished by Niemeyer, Auxiliary Archbishop João Rezende Costa (Archbishop Cabral was in virtual retirement by then) finally agreed that the church has "great artistic significance and a spiritual atmosphere" and it was consecrated. He consecrated the church in April 1959, saying "Now we can feel the wonderful art created here in homage to the Creator."The Church of Saint Francis of Assisi became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in July 2016. It is part of the Pampulha Modern Ensemble, a UNESCO-designated collection of Niemeyer buildings in Pampulha.Edemar Cid Ferreira
Edemar Cid Ferreira (born 31 May 1943) is a Brazilian economist and banker who was formerly head of Banco Santos, whose fraudulent bankruptcy was enacted on September 20, 2005. He was a noted art collector.George Papassavas
George Papassavas (January 28, 1924) is a painter who has traveled extensively throughout Latin America.
Born in Stavroupoli, Greece, Papassavas against his father's will taught himself the techniques of the classical artist at a young age. At the age of 17, he was put into exile and forced into labor by the invading Bulgarian army. After his return to Greece, he began formal study at the Athens School of Fine Arts. In 1955, after being enchanted by the book Brazil: A Land of the Future by Stefan Zweig, Papassavas journeyed with his wife to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where he studied under Candido Portinari. In search of artistic inspiration, Papassavas made several trips throughout South America observing both its people and natural environment. At the end of 1967, he moved to United States and continued his development in art at Harvard University.
The end of 1974, Papassavas moved to Florida, where he became a U.S. citizen in 1978. To this day he still paints. He and his wife currently divide their time between Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts. He has numerous one man and group shows throughout Europe, South America, and the United States. His work is included in museums, libraries, and both private and corporate collections. His art has also been featured in many newspapers, magazines, and books.
Bold outlines and warm colors characterize his dominate style in painting.Hermínio Bello de Carvalho
Hermínio Bello de Carvalho (born March 28, 1935 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian record producer, composer, writer and poet.
He is regarded as one of the most respected experts in Brazilian music.Portinari
Portinari may refer to:
Beatrice Portinari (1266–1290), muse of Dante
Candido Portinari (1903–1962), Brazilian painter
Tommaso Portinari (c.1424–1501), Florentine banker
Portinari Triptych, a painting by Hugo van der Goes
Portinari Chapel, in the Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio, MilanRodovia Cândido Portinari
Rodovia Cândido Portinari (official designation SP-334) is a State highway in the state of São Paulo. It is named after Cândido Portinari, a noted painter, who was born in the city of Brodowski.
The highway runs through these places:
Ribeirão Preto (where it starts at SP-330)
Franca - near Rifaina (division of Minas Gerais which links with another state highway)Rodrigo Melo Franco
Rodrigo Melo Franco de Andrade (1898–1969) was a Brazilian art critic and historian. He served as director of preservation of artistic patrimony of Brazil at the Ministry of Education. He is credited, among many similar discoveries, with reviving interest in Antônio Francisco Lisboa. He is the author of Monumentos Históricos y Arqueológicos de Brasil (Mexico, 1952).Santa Teresa, Rio de Janeiro
Santa Teresa (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃tɐ teˈɾezɐ]) is the name of a neighborhood in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is located on top of the Santa Teresa hill, by the centre of Rio, and is famous for its winding, narrow streets which are a favourite spot for artists and tourists.
The neighborhood originated around the Santa Teresa Convent, built in the 1750s on the Desterro hill. At the end of the 19th and early 20th century it was an upper class borough, as testified by its many opulent villas. Santa Teresa ceased being an upper-class neighbourhood long ago, but it has been revived as a fashionable hotspot. It is home to several artists and art studios and galleries. The offer of restaurants and bars is also varied.
One of Santa Teresa's most illustrious inhabitants was Raymundo Ottoni de Castro Maia, an art collector who lived in his Chácara do Céu mansion in the neighborhood. The estate was turned into a museum (Museu da Chácara do Céu) and its exhibits include works by Matisse, Jean Metzinger, Eliseu Visconti, Di Cavalcanti, and Candido Portinari. It is located near the cultural center Parque das Ruínas. In 2006, some paintings were stolen, and have not yet been recovered.Another museum is the Museu do Bonde, which tells the history of the famous Santa Teresa Tram since its historic origins. A ride on the tram is a popular attraction among tourists. It sports crossing the old Carioca Aqueduct, going through picturesque streets of the Santa Teresa neighbourhood and wonderful views of the city downhill.Teresa Nicolao
Teresa Nicolao (born February 8, 1928) is a Brazilian artist, designer and film maker.
She was born Maria Tereza Joaquim Nicolao in Rio de Janeiro. Nicalao studied graphic arts and design with Axel Leskoscheck at the Fundação Getúlio Vargas. In 1949, she went to Paris, where she studied with Fernand Léger, André Lhote, Maria Helena Vieira da Silva and Árpád Szenes. Later the following year, she moved to São Paulo, where she worked as a set designer for Multifilmes. In 1954, Nicolao returned to Rio de Janeiro, where she resumed painting, working in the studio of Candido Portinari. She began painting geometric works inspired by the favelas; her later work became more abstract. She also worked on set design for several films.Nicolao participated in the 1957 São Paulo Art Biennial, the 1958 Bienal Interamericana de Pintura y Grabado in Mexico City , the 1960 Venice Biennale and the 1961 Biennale de Paris. She was included in an exhibition of works by Brazilian artists which was presented in several cities in Europe in 1960. in In 1961, she had a solo exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, Rio de Janeiro.War and Peace (Portinari)
War and Peace (Portuguese: Guerra e Paz) are two paintings made by Brazilian painter Candido Portinari between 1952 and 1956. They are about 14.32 metres (47.0 ft) tall and 10.66 metres (35.0 ft) large each. They were painted for the United Nations Headquarters as a gift from the Brazilian government.
Viewing Cândido Portinari’s War and Peace assists in the understanding of war, regardless of the time period. It does not feature any weapons, but instead features the suffering of victims from war, which illustrates the barbarity of combat. The contrast between the elements of chaos and harmony show the importance of maintaining peace and the attempts to end violent conflicts. Though painted in the 1950s, they were, and still are a representation of the worldwide struggle for peace. The whole set of paintings work together as a representation of the atrocity of war and the importance of peace in the world.
War and Peace were re-inaugurated in the United Nations Headquarters on September 8, 2015. The murals were celebrated by several guests, among whom were several heads of states, iconic artists, and the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. During this event people shared a moment of silence in order to honour Portinari and his contributions. Overall, the murals were acknowledged as a symbol of obtaining and working towards worldwide peace.
Portinari reportedly sacrificed his own health for the murals, as during the long term process of creating the artworks Portinari became increasingly sick because of the paint he used. Doctors had warned him about being intoxicated due to inhalation, which would cause a decline in his health. Despite this, Portinari was dedicated to finishing his masterpieces, through which he hoped to send an important message to the world. He was able to complete the timeless murals, though, this cost him his health: he died on February 6, 1962 due to lead intoxication.
Portinari was banned from entering the US to inaugurate the panels, accused of being communist.
Nevertheless, Portinari remains eternal through his numerous paintings, including the murals of War and Peace. As UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stated during the re-installation, "Portinari is no longer alive, but his legacy will live forever at the United Nations. Let us realize his vision and move from war to peace."