Canaletto

Giovanni Antonio Canal (18 October 1697 – 19 April 1768),[1] commonly known as Canaletto (Italian: [kanaˈletto]), was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice, Rome, and London. He also painted imaginary views (referred to as capricci), although the demarcation in his works between the real and the imaginary is never quite clearcut.[2] He was further an important printmaker using the etching technique. In the period from 1746 to 1756 he worked in England where he painted many views of London and other sites including Warwick Castle and Alnwick Castle.[3] He was highly successful in England, thanks to the British merchant and connoisseur Joseph "Consul" Smith, whose large collection of Canaletto's works was sold to King George III in 1762.[2]

Canaletto
Giovanni Antonio Canal
Born
Giovanni Antonio Canal

18 October 1697
Died19 April 1768 (aged 70)
NationalityVenetian
EducationLuca Carlevaris
Known forLandscape art, etching
Patron(s)Owen Swiny
Joseph Smith

Early career

House of Canaletto, Venice
Canaletto's birthplace
Canaletto - The Stonemason's Yard
The Stonemason's Yard, painted c. 1725

He was born in Venice as the son of the painter Bernardo Canal, hence his mononym Canaletto ("little Canal"), and Artemisia Barbieri.[4] Canaletto served his apprenticeship with his father and his brother. He began in his father's occupation, that of a theatrical scene painter. Canaletto was inspired by the Roman vedutista Giovanni Paolo Pannini, and started painting the daily life of the city and its people.

After returning from Rome in 1719, he began painting in his topographical style.[5] His first known signed and dated work is Architectural Capriccio (1723, Milan, in a private collection).[1] Studying with the older Luca Carlevarijs, a well-regarded painter of urban cityscapes,[5][6] he rapidly became his master's equal.

In 1725, the painter Alessandro Marchesini, who was also the buyer for the Lucchese art collector Stefano Conti, had inquired about buying two more 'views of Venice', when the agent urged him to consider instead the work of "Antonio Canale... it is like Carlevaris, but you can see the sun shining in it."[7]

Outdoor painting

Much of Canaletto's early artwork was painted "from nature", differing from the then customary practice of completing paintings in the studio. Some of his later works do revert to this custom, as suggested by the tendency for distant figures to be painted as blobs of colour – an effect possibly produced by using a camera obscura, which blurs farther-away objects – although research by art historians working for the Royal Collection in the United Kingdom has shown Canaletto almost never used a camera obscura.[8]

However, his paintings are always notable for their accuracy: he recorded the seasonal submerging of Venice in water and ice.[9]

Early and late work

View of the entrance to the Arsenal by Canaletto, 1732
View of the Entrance to the Venetian Arsenal, 1732

Canaletto's early works remain his most coveted and, according to many authorities, his best. One of his early pieces is The Stonemason's Yard (c. 1725, the National Gallery, London) which depicts a humble working area of the city. It is regarded one of his finest works and was presented by Sir George Beaumont in 1823 and 1828.[10]

Later Canaletto painted grand scenes of the canals of Venice and the Doge's Palace. His large-scale landscapes portrayed the city's pageantry and waning traditions, making innovative use of atmospheric effects and strong local colours. For these qualities, his works may be said to have anticipated Impressionism.

His graphic print S. A. Giustina in Prà della Vale was found in the 2012 Munich Art Hoard.[11]

Work in England

Canaletto - Architectural Capriccio - Google Art Project
Architectural Capriccio, drawing, Morgan Library & Museum
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - The portico with a lantern - from the series 'Vedute' (Views) - Google Art Project
The portico with a lantern, from the series 'Vedute', c. 1740–44, etching
Canaletto - Westminster Bridge, with the Lord Mayor's Procession on the Thames - Google Art Project
The first Westminster Bridge, 1746
Westminster Abbey by Canaletto
Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath, 1749

Many of his pictures were sold to Englishmen on their Grand Tour, first through the agency of Owen Swiny and later the banker Joseph Smith, appointed British Consul in Venice in 1744. It was Swiny in the late 1720s who encouraged the artist to paint small topographical views of Venice with a commercial appeal for tourists and foreign visitors to the city. Sometime before 1728, Canaletto began his association with Joseph Smith, an English businessman and collector living in Venice, who later became the artist's principal agent and patron. Smith eventually acquired nearly fifty paintings, one hundred fifty drawings, and fifteen rare etchings from Canaletto, the largest and finest single group of the artist's works, that he sold to King George III in 1763.[12]

In the 1740s Canaletto's market was disrupted when the War of the Austrian Succession led to a reduction in the number of British visitors to Venice.[13] Smith also arranged for the publication of a series of etchings of "capricci" (or architectural phantasies) (capriccio Italian for fancy) in his vedute ideale,[6] but the returns were not high enough, and in 1746 Canaletto moved to London, to be closer to his market.[5]

He remained in England until 1755, producing views of London (including several of the new Westminster Bridge, which was completed during his stay) and of his patrons' castles and houses. His 1754 painting of Old Walton Bridge includes an image of Canaletto himself.

He was often expected to paint England in the fashion with which he had painted his native city. Canaletto's painting began to suffer from repetitiveness, losing its fluidity, and becoming mechanical to the point that the English art critic George Vertue suggested that the man painting under the name 'Canaletto' was an impostor. Historian Michael Levey described his work from this period as "inhibited".[14]

The artist was compelled to give public painting demonstrations in order to refute this claim; however, his reputation never fully recovered in his lifetime.[15]

After his return to Venice, Canaletto was elected to the Venetian Academy in 1763 and appointed prior of the Collegio dei Pittori. He continued to paint until his death in 1768. In his later years he often worked from old sketches, but he sometimes produced surprising new compositions. He was willing to make subtle alterations to topography for artistic effect.[6]

Market

His pupils included his nephew Bernardo Bellotto, Francesco Guardi, Michele Marieschi, Gabriele Bella, and Giuseppe Moretti. The painter, Giuseppe Bernardino Bison was a follower of his style.[9]

Joseph Smith sold much of his collection to George III, creating the bulk of the large collection of works by Canaletto owned by the Royal Collection. in 1762, George III paid £20,000 for Consul Smith's collection of 50 paintings and 142 drawings.[16] There are many examples of his work in other British collections, including several (19) at the Wallace Collection and a set of 24 in the dining room at Woburn Abbey. A large set of Canaletto works was also part of the collection of the Earls of Carlisle, however many were lost at the 1940 fire of Castle Howard and others were sold over the last century. Among those formerly at the Carlisle collection are "The Bacino di San Marco: looking East", now at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (sold in 1939) and the pair "Entrance to the Grand Canal from the Molo, Venice" and "The Square of Saint Mark's, Venice", now at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC (sold in 1938). The last important venetian veduta at Castle Howard was by Bernardo Bellotto, "A View of the Grand Canal Looking South from the Palazzo Foscari", which was sold at Sotheby's in July 2015 for £2.6 million.

Canaletto's views always fetched high prices, and as early as the 18th century Catherine the Great and other European monarchs vied for his grandest paintings. The record price paid at auction for a Canaletto is £18.6 million for View of the Grand Canal from Palazzo Balbi to the Rialto, set at Sotheby's in London in July 2005.

Works

Painting Title Date Location
Piazzetta in Venice 1700s Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany
Venice: the Grand Canal 1700s LLL Art Galleries
Canaletto capriccio gotica Capriccio with Gothic church and lagoon c. 1720-21 Galleria d'Italia - Palazzo Leoni Montanari, Vicenza
Ca' Rezzonico - Canal Grande da Palazzo Balbi a Rialto C.1722 - Canaletto Grand Canal, Looking Northeast from Palazo Balbi toward the Rialto Bridge 1720–23 Ca' Rezzonico, Venice, Italy
San Cristoforo, San Michele, and Murano from the Fondamenta Nuove, Venice (1722) San Cristoforo, San Michele and Murano from the Fondamenta Nuove, Venice 1722–23 Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, Texas, United States
Piazza San Marco in Venice looking West with the Campanile 1723 House of Liechtenstein, Liechtenstein
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - The Piazzetta towards San Giorgio Maggiore - WGA03873 The Piazzetta towards San Giorgio Maggiore c. 1724 Royal Collection, Buckingham Palace, England
Venice: The Grand Canal, Looking North East from Palazzo Balbi to the Rialto Bridge c. 1724 Private collection
Canaletto - The Piazza San Marco in Venice - Google Art Project Piazza San Marco Looking East along the Central Line 1723–24 Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - Grand Canal, Looking East from the Campo San Vio - WGA03847 Grand Canal, Looking East from the Campo San Vio 1723–24 Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain
Ca' Rezzonico - Il rio dei Mendicanti - Canaletto Rio dei Mendicanti 1723–24 Ca' Rezzonico, Venice, Italy
The Stonemason's Yard, painted c. 1725 The Stonemason's Yard c. 1725 National Gallery, London, England
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - Rio dei Mendicanti - Looking South - WGA03855 Rio dei Mendicanti: Looking South c. 1725 Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - Entrance to the Grand Canal - Looking East - WGA03858 Entrance To The Grand Canal Looking East 1725 Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany
Doge's Palace 1725
The Parvis of the churches Saint Jean and Saint Paul 1725 Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresde
View of the Grand Canal by Canaletto View of the Grand Canal late 1720s Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, Alabama, United States
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - Grand Canal - Looking from Palazzo Balbi - WGA03875 Grand Canal: Looking from Palazzo Balbi c. 1726 Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - Grand Canal - Looking North from Near the Rialto Bridge - WGA03874 Grand Canal: Looking North from Near the Rialto Bridge c. 1726 Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - San Giacomo di Rialto - WGA03860 San Giacomo di Rialto c. 1726 Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany
The Bacino di San Marco, Venice 1725–26 Farnborough Hall, Warwickshire
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - The Grand Canal near Santa Maria della Carità - WGA03863 The Grand Canal near San Maria della Carità 1726 Pinacoteca Giovanni e Marella Agnelli, Turin, Italy
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - Santi Giovanni e Paolo and the Scuola di San Marco - WGA03862 Santi Giovanni e Paolo and the Scuola di San Marco 1726 Private collection
The Bacino di San Marco, Venice, Seen from the Giudecca 1726 Upton House, National Trust, England
Venice: the Grand Canal Looking North from the Rialto 1726–27 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
Canaletto, The Reception of the French Ambassador Jacques–Vincent Languet, Compte de Gergy at the Doge’s Palace, 4 November 1726 The Reception of the French Ambassador Jacques–Vincent Languet, Comte de Gergy at the Doge’s Palace, Venice 1726–27 Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Canaletto - S. Geremia and the Entrance to the Cannaregio RCIN 400532 Venice: S. Geremia and the Entrance to the Cannaregio 1726–27 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
The Rialto Bridge from the South - Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - Wells-Next-The-Sea, The Earl of Leicester and Trustees of the Holkham Estate Grand Canal. The Rialto Bridge from the South 1727 Private collection
Canaletto - The Grand Canal from the Palazzo Vendramin-Calergi towards S. Geremia RCIN 406982 Venice: The Grand Canal from the Palazzo Vendramin-Calergi towards S. Geremia 1727–28 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
View of the Isles of San Michele, San Cristoforo and Murano from the Fondamenta Nuove 1725–28 Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - View of San Giovanni dei Battuti at Murano - WGA03870 View of Church of San Giovanni dei Battuti on the Isle of Murano 1725–28 Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia
A View of Dolo on the Brenta Canal 1725–29 Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, England
The Doge's Palace, Venice c. 1730 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England
Tatton Park 2016 114 The Doge's Palace and Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice c. 1730 Tatton Park, National Trust, England
Canaletto - View of the Grand Canal - Santa Maria della Salute and the Dogana from Campo Santa Maria Zobenigo CAM CCF PD 106 1992 View of the Grand Canal: Santa Maria della Salute and the Dogana from Campo Santa Maria Zobenigo c. 1730 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England
Canaletto - The Entrance to the Grand Canal, Venice - Google Art Project
The Entrance to the Grand Canal, Venice c. 1730 Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Houston, United States
Tatton Park 2016 115 The Grand Canal, Piazzetta and Dogana, Venice c. 1730 Tatton Park, National Trust, England
Canaletto - The Stonemason's Yard Stonemason's Yard 1726–30 (or 1727) National Gallery, London, England
Venice: the Grand Canal with S. Maria della Salute towards the Riva degli Schiavoni 1730 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
The Bacino di San Marco, Looking North 1730 National Museum, Cardiff, Wales
S. Geremia and the Entrance to the Cannaregio 1730 National Gallery, London, England
The Piazzetta, Venice, Looking North 1730s Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena, California
The Molo Seen from the Bacino di San Marco 1730s Musée du Louvre, Paris, France
Return of the Bucintoro to the Molo on Ascension Day, painted 1729–32 Return of the Bucintoro to the Molo on Ascension Day 1729–1732 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
The Molo, Venice c. 1735 Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, United States
View of the Piazzetta San Marco Looking South c. 1735 Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
The Bucintoro Returning to the Molo 1730–35 Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, England
Piazza San Marco, Venice, c. 1730–1735, Fogg Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Piazza San Marco, Venice 1730–35 Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, United States
A Regatta on the Grand Canal 1730–35 Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, England
A View of the Rialto, Venice 1734–35 Sir John Soane's Museum, London, England
The Piazza di San Marco, Venice 1734–35 Sir John Soane's Museum, London, England
Venice: A Regatta on the Grand Canal 1735 National Gallery, London, England
View of the Riva degli Schiavoni 1736 Sir John Soane's Museum, London, England
St. Mark's and the Clock Tower, Venice 1737 National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola, c. 1738, Getty Museum The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola c. 1738 The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles
Santi Giovanni e Paolo and the monument to Bartolomeo Colleoni 1735–38
The St Mark's Square, Venice 1738–40 Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan, United States
Canaletto Bacino di San Marco Bacino di San Marco 1738–40 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, United States
Antonio Canal - Il Bucintoro al molo nel giorno dell'Ascensione Il Bucintoro al molo nel giorno dell'Ascensione c. 1740 Pinacoteca Giovanni e Marella Agnelli, Turin, Italy
Venice: The Campo SS. Giovanni e Paolo 1740 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
Venice: The Basin of San Marco on Ascension Day 1740 National Gallery, London, England
Venice: Santa Maria della Salute 1740 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, United States
A Regatta on the Grand Canal 1740 National Gallery, London, England
View of Piazza San Marco in Venice c. 1740 Musée Jacquemart André, Paris, France
The Rialto Bridge in Venice c. 1740 Musée Jacquemart André, Paris, France
The Porta Portello, Padua 1741–42 National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., United States
Rome: The Arch of Constantine 1742 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
Rome: The Arch of Septimius Severus 1742 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
Rome: The Arch of Titus 1742 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
Rome: Ruins of the Forum looking towards the Capitol 1742 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
Rome: The Pantheon 1742 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
Rome: View of the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine 1743 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
Venice: the Bacino di San Marco from San Giorgio Maggiore 1735–44 Wallace Collection, London, England
The Square of Saint Mark's, Venice 1742–44 National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., United States
Entrance to the Grand Canal from the Molo, Venice 1742–44 National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., United States
Venice: the Molo with Santa Maria della Salute 1740–45 Wallace Collection, London, England
Venice: the Riva degli Schiavoni 1740–45 Wallace Collection, London, England
View of the Grand Canal looking toward the Punta della Dogana from Campo Sant'Ivo c. 1740-45 Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, Italy
Giovanni Antonio Canal called Il Canaletto - Prà della Valle in Padua - Google Art Project Prà della Valle in Padua 1741–46 Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan, Italy
The River Thames With St. Paul's Cathedral On Lord Mayor's Day , painted 1746. Lobkowicz Collections, Prague London: The Thames on Lord Mayor's Day 1746–47 Lobkowicz Palace, Prague, Czech Republic
Canaletto - The City Seen Through an Arch of Westminster Bridge London seen through an arch of Westminster Bridge 1746–47 Syon House, London
Ruins with Figures 1747 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England
Ruins with Figures (companion of the above) 1747 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England
London: River Thames looking towards Westminster from Lambeth 1747 Lobkowicz Palace, Prague, Czech Republic
The South Façade of Warwick Castle 1748 Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain
Canaletto - Warwick Castle - Google Art Project
Warwick Castle 1748–49 Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, United States
The Thames at Westminster, London 1749 Penrhyn Castle, National Trust, Gwynedd, Wales
The Bucintoro 1745–50 Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain
The Molo from the Basin of San Marco, Venice 1747–50 San Diego Museum of Art, San Diego, California[17]
A View of the Molo and the Riva degli Schiavone in Venice 1750 Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, United States
Bacino di S. Marco: From the Piazzetta 1750 National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
The Bucintoro at the Molo on Ascension Day 1760 Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, England
View of the Grand Canal from Campo San Vio 1740–50 Ca' Rezzonico, Venice, Italy
Venice: the Grand Canal from the Palazzo Foscari to the Carità 1740–50 Wallace Collection, London, England
Venice: the Grand Canal from the Palazzo Dolfin-Manin to the Rialto Bridge 1740–50 Wallace Collection, London, England
Venice: the Grand Canal from the Palazzo Flangini to San Marcuola 1740–50 Wallace Collection, London, England
Venice: the Canale di Santa Chiara 1740–50 Wallace Collection, London, England
The Thames from the Terrace of Somerset House, Looking toward St. Paul's 1750 Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, United States
The Thames from the Terrace of Somerset House, Looking toward Westminster 1750 Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, United States
The Rialto Bridge and The Church of S. Giorgio Maggiore c. 1750 North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
London: The Thames from Somerset House Terrace towards Westminster 1750–51 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
London: The Thames from Somerset House Terrace towards the City 1750–51 Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, England
Chelsea from the Thames at Battersea Reach 1751 Blickling Hall, National Trust, Norfolk, England
Canaletto Alnwick
Alnwick Castle 1752 Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, England
Greenwich Hospital from the North Bank of the Thames c. 1752 National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, England
Warwick Castle, the east front by Canaletto, 1752
Warwick Castle, the East Front 1752 Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham, England
Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery - Warwick Castle, the East Front from the Courtyard - Canaletto
Warwick Castle, the East Front from the Courtyard 1752 Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham, England
Interior of King Henry VII Chapel 1753 Museum of London, London, England
English Landscape Capriccio with a Column 1754 National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., United States
English Landscape Capriccio with a Palace 1754 National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., United States
London: Interior of the Rotunda at Ranelagh 1754 National Gallery, London, England
St. Paul's Cathedral 1754 Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, United States
A View of Walton Bridge 1754 Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, England
Eton College 1754 National Gallery, London, England
Old Walton Bridge 1755 Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, United States
Saint Mark's, Venice c. 1756 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England
Interior Court of the Doge's Palace, Venice c. 1756 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England
Venice: Palazzo Grimani 1756–58 National Gallery, London, England
1385082667-canaletto---venice---piazza-san-marco.jpeg Piazza San Marco Looking East from the North-West Corner c. 1760 National Gallery, London, England
Venice: the Grand Canal from Campo San Vio towards the Bacino 1734–60 Wallace Collection, London, England
The Campo di Rialto and S. Giacomo di Rialto, Venice 1760 National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Porta Portello, Padua 1760 Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain
Venice: the Grand Canal with Santa Maria della Salute towards the Riva degli Schiavoni 1734–62 Wallace Collection, London, England
Venice: the Grand Canal from the Palazzo Foscari to the Carità 1734–62 Wallace Collection, London, England
Northumberland House in London, 1752 London: Northumberland House 1753–63 Wallace Collection, London, England
Giovanni Antonio Canal, il Canaletto - Perspective View with Portico - WGA03965 Perspective with a Portico 1765 Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice, Italy
Capriccio with Colonnade in the Interior of a Palace 1765 Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain
The School of San Marco 1765 Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain
The Square and the church San Francesco della Vigna ? Private collection, Milan

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Filippo Pedrocco (1995). Canaletto. Giunti Editore. ISBN 978-88-09-76198-8.
  2. ^ a b Alice Binion and Lin Barton. "Canaletto." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 6 Jan. 2017
  3. ^ Constable, William G. "Canaletto". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  4. ^ "Canaletto", National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  5. ^ a b c Haldane MacFall (20 September 2004). A History of Painting: Later Italians and Genius of Spain Part Three. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-4508-5.
  6. ^ a b c Betsy Dru Tecco (30 July 2004). Pk:how to Draw Italy. PowerKids Press. ISBN 978-0-8239-6686-8.
  7. ^ J.G. Links, Canaletto and his patrons, Granada Publishing/Paul Elek Ltd., London 1977, p. 1.
  8. ^ Hannah Furness, 'Royal Collection uses infrared to prove Canaletto did not trace his drawings' in The Daily Telegraph (UK newspaper), 14 April 2017.
  9. ^ a b C. A. Fletcher; T. Spencer (14 July 2005). Flooding and Environmental Challenges for Venice and its Lagoon: State of Knowledge. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84046-0.
  10. ^ "Canaletto | The Stonemason's Yard | NG127 | National Gallery, London". www.nationalgallery.org.uk. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  11. ^ "Photo Gallery: Munich Nazi Art Stash Revealed". Spiegel. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  12. ^ Canaletto Venetian, 1697 - 1768 https://www.nga.gov/collection/artist-info.1080.html
  13. ^ Antonio Canaletto; Antonio Visentini (1971). Views of Venice: By Canaletto. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-22705-4.
  14. ^ Michael Levey (1994). Painting in Eighteenth-century Venice. Yale University Press. pp. 114–5. ISBN 978-0-300-06057-7.
  15. ^ John Eglin (13 January 2001). Venice Transfigured: The Myth of Venice in British Culture, 1660–1797. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23299-3.
  16. ^ Louise Jury, the Independent, 11 November, 2005
  17. ^ "The Molo from the Basin of San Marco, Venice". The San Diego Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
  18. ^ "Canale, Antonio" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 172.

External links

2015 Epsom Derby

The 2015 Epsom Derby (known as the Investec Derby for sponsorship reasons) was the 236th annual running of the Derby horse race and took place at Epsom Downs Racecourse on 6 June 2015. The race was won by the favourite, Golden Horn, a British-bred bay colt, owned by Anthony Oppenheimer, trained in Newmarket, Suffolk by John Gosden and ridden by Frankie Dettori. The colt's win was the first for his owner, the second for Dettori (after Authorized in 2007) and the second for Gosden (after Benny the Dip in 1997).

Bernardo Bellotto

Bernardo Bellotto, (c. 1721/2 or 30 January 1721 – 17 November 1780), was an Italian urban landscape painter or vedutista, and printmaker in etching famous for his vedute of European cities (Dresden, Vienna, Turin and Warsaw). He was the pupil and nephew of the famous Giovanni Antonio Canal Canaletto and sometimes used the latter's illustrious name, signing himself as Bernardo Canaletto. In Germany and Poland, Bellotto called himself by his uncle's name, Canaletto.

Bellotto's style was characterized by elaborate representation of architectural and natural vistas, and by the specific quality of each place's lighting. It is plausible that Bellotto, and other Venetian masters of vedute, may have used the camera obscura in order to achieve superior precision of urban views.

Fitzwilliam Museum

The Fitzwilliam Museum is the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge. It is located on Trumpington Street opposite Fitzwilliam Street in central Cambridge. Founded in 1816, the Fitzwilliam Museum includes one of the best collections of antiquities and modern art in western Europe. With over half a million objects and artworks in its collections, the displays in the Museum explore world history and art from antiquity to the present. The treasures of the museum include artworks by Monet, Picasso, Rubens, Vincent van Gogh, Rembrandt, Cézanne, Van Dyck, and Canaletto, as well as a winged bas-relief from Nimrud. Admission to the public is always free.The museum is a partner in the University of Cambridge Museums consortium, one of 16 Major Partner Museum services funded by Arts Council England to lead the development of the museums sector.

Francesco Guardi

Francesco Lazzaro Guardi (Italian pronunciation: [franˈtʃesko ˈgwardi]; October 5, 1712 – January 1, 1793) was an Italian painter of veduta, nobleman, and a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners, along with his brothers, of the classic Venetian school of painting.

In the early part of his career he collaborated with his older brother Gian Antonio in the production of religious paintings. After Gian Antonio's death in 1760, Francesco concentrated on veduta. The earliest of these show the influence of Canaletto, but he gradually adopted a looser style characterized by spirited brush-strokes and freely imagined architecture.

History of Italian culture (1700s)

The 1700s refers to a period in Italian history and culture which occurred during the 18th century (1700–1799): the Settecento. The Settecento saw the transition from Late Baroque to Neoclassicism: great artists of this period include Vanvitelli, Canaletto and Canova, as well as the composer Vivaldi and the writer Goldoni.

Island Gardens

Island Gardens is a public park located at the southern end of the Isle of Dogs—hence the name 'Island'—in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets on the north bank of the River Thames. The park was formally opened on 3 August 1895 by local politician Will Crooks.

The 1.12-hectare (2.8-acre) waterside park is notable for its spectacular cross-river view of the classical buildings of the former Greenwich Hospital, the Cutty Sark and the National Maritime Museum, with Greenwich Park forming a backdrop. The northern entrance of the Greenwich foot tunnel is also within the park. It is almost certain that the view from this location is the one that the Canaletto painting 'Greenwich Hospital from the North Bank of the Thames' is taken from, though whether Canaletto himself actually visited the site is in doubt.The park also gave its name to Island Gardens DLR station. This opened in 1987 as the southern terminus of the DLR's initial system, and was an elevated terminal station situated to the west of the park. The later construction of the DLR extension to Lewisham involved a tunnel under the Thames, and Island Gardens station was relocated about 100 metres (330 ft) north, close to the northern entrance to the tunnel by Millwall Park. The new station is largely underground; the original elevated station was demolished.

Joseph Smith (art collector)

Joseph Smith often known as Consul Smith, (c. 1682 – Venice, 6 November 1770), the British consul at Venice, 1744–1760, was a patron of artists, most notably Canaletto, and a collector and connoisseur, banker to the British community at Venice and a major draw on the British Grand Tour. His collection of drawings were bought for George III of Great Britain and form a nucleus of the Royal Collection of drawings in the Print Room at Windsor Castle.

Kingswood, Buckinghamshire

Kingswood is a hamlet of 30 dwellings on the South side of the A41 from Waddesdon to Bicester and between the villages of Ludgershall and Grendon Underwood in Buckinghamshire, England. Kingswood is also a civil parish within Aylesbury Vale district. Parish matters are currently administered via a parish meeting. There is one Italian restaurant and public house, Canaletto which opened in 2013. There is also a derelict Village Hall blown down in the Great Storm of 1987.

Krakowskie Przedmieście

Krakowskie Przedmieście (Polish pronunciation: [kraˈkɔfskʲɛ pʂɛdˈmjɛɕt͡ɕɛ], literally: Kraków suburb; French: Faubourg de Cracovie) is one of the best known and most prestigious streets of Poland's capital Warsaw, surrounded by historic palaces, churches and manor-houses. Krakowskie Przedmieście Royal Avenue constitutes the northernmost part of Warsaw's Royal Route, and links the Old Town and Royal Castle (at Castle Square) with some of the most notable institutions in Warsaw, including – proceeding southward – the Presidential Palace, Warsaw University, and the Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in the Staszic Palace. The immediate southward extension of Krakowskie Przedmieście along the Royal Route is ulica Nowy Świat (New World Street).

Several other Polish cities also have streets named Krakowskie Przedmieście. In Lublin, it is the main and most elegant street. Other cities include Piotrków Trybunalski, Bochnia, Krasnystaw, Olkusz, Sieradz and Wieluń.

Luca Carlevarijs

Luca Carlevarijs or Carlevaris (20 January 1663 – 12 February 1730) was an Italian painter and engraver working mainly in Venice. He pioneered the genre of the cityscapes (vedute) of Venice, a genre that was later widely followed by artists such as Canaletto and Francesco Guardi.

Miodowa Street (Warsaw)

Miodowa (lit. Honey Street) is a street in Warsaw's Old Town. More precisely, it links the Krakowskie Street in [with the Krasiński Square. It is also the name of a street in the Kazimierz district in Kraków.

Old Walton Bridge

Old Walton Bridge is the name given to the first Walton Bridge built across the River Thames between Walton-on-Thames and Shepperton in Surrey, England (the latter then in Middlesex). The wooden bridge was completed in 1750, was painted by Canaletto and stood until 1783 when, in decay, it was dismantled to make way for a stone-clad brickwork replacement, later painted by Turner.

Slavi Trifonov

Stanislav Todorov Trifonov (Bulgarian: Станислав Тодоров Трифонов) (born 18 October 1966), known as Slavi Trifonov (Bulgarian: Слави Трифонов), is a Bulgarian showman, actor, singer, and viola player, born in Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен), Bulgaria. Trifonov is active mainly in the folk music (pop-folk) genres but he has experimented with other genres such as hip-hop collaborating with the Australian based producer Yasen Subev, pop-rock and punk as a part of Ku-Ku Band (Bulgarian: Ку-Ку Бенд). His name is associated mainly with the Slavi's Show, Exiles, Canaletto and KU-KU

The Doge on the Bucintoro near the Riva di Sant'Elena

The Doge on the Bucintoro near the Riva di Sant'Elena (also known as The Departure of the Bucentaur for the Ascension Day Ceremony, and other similar titles) is an oil on canvas by Venetian painter Francesco Guardi, a member of the Venetian School. It was painted between 1766 and 1770, and is now in the Louvre in Paris.

This work is one of a series of twelve paintings representing the Solennità dogali (The Doge's Solemnities), in which the artist has faithfully copied the scenes drawn by Giovanni Antonio Canal and engraved by Giambattista Brustolon to commemorate the festivities at the coronation of the Doge Alvise Giovanni Mocenigo, in 1763. This has led to some confusion, and the canvases were formerly attributed to Canaletto, though their style was quite unmistakably that of Guardi.

The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola

The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola is a painting by Canaletto in the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California. Painted around 1738, it may have been commissioned by the English merchant and art collector Joseph Smith (1682–1770).

The Stonemason's Yard

The Stonemason's Yard (formally known as Campo S. Vidal and Santa Maria della Carità) is an early oil painting by Giovanni Antonio Canal, better known as Canaletto. It depicts an informal scene in Venice, looking over a temporary stonemason's yard in the Campo San Vidal and across the Grand Canal towards the church of Santa Maria della Carità. Painted in the mid to late 1720s, it is considered one of Canaletto's finest works.

Uki-e

Uki-e (浮絵, "floating picture", implying "perspective picture") refers to a genre of ukiyo-e pictures that employs western conventions of linear perspective. Although they never constituted more than a minor genre, pictures in perspective were drawn and printed by Japanese artists from their introduction in the late 1730s through to the mid-nineteenth century.Around 1739, Okumura Masanobu studied European engravings to learn the rules of perspective. His engravings found their way to Japan either through Dejima or China. Masanobu was the first to apply the term Uki-e to perspective images, and Utagawa Toyoharu fully developed the form in the late 1750s when he produced colored woodblock copies of engravings after Canaletto and Guardi. Toyoharu was also the first to adapt these techniques to Japanese subjects.

The interior of Kabuki theaters was a common subject in Uki-e prints. Interior scenes tend to be favored as it is easier to accurately apply one point perspective to architecture than to landscape.

Veduta

A veduta (Italian for "view"; plural vedute) is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting or, more often, print of a cityscape or some other vista. The painters of vedute are referred to as vedutisti.

Ōban Star-Racers

Ōban Star-Racers (オーバン・スターレーサーズ, Ōban Sutā Rēsāzu) is a French-Japanese anime series created by Savin Yeatman-Eiffel of Sav! The World Productions in association with multiple international companies. Originally produced as a short movie titled Molly Star Racer, a television series was developed in cooperation with Jetix Europe, with animation production by HAL Film Maker and Pumpkin 3D, a large portion of which was done in Tokyo, Japan. It aired in more than 100 countries including Japan. In the US, the series aired on ABC Family and Jetix/Toon Disney between June and December 2006.

A potential sequel or spinoff is currently in development.

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