Canadian Union of Fascists

The Canadian Fascist Party was a fascist political party based in the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada in the 1930s. The formative core of the party was a splinter group from the Canadian Nationalist Party that found the principles of corporativism to be more important than the largely racial motivations of the Nationalist Party. This disposition is highlighted in one official statement that "anti-semitism was a symptom of Germany not of Fascism".[1] The party was founded as the British Empire Union of Fascists and was affiliated with the British Union of Fascists. It later became known as the Canadian Union of Fascists and Canadian Union. It published its own newspaper, The Thunderbolt.

The party was led by "Chuck" Crate, who became leader at the age of 17. He had contacted the British Union of Fascists, who put him in touch with the party. John Ross Taylor of Toronto became the party's secretary and organizer.[2][3]

The party had a hard time attracting supporters because most Canadians who supported fascism leaned towards the racist brand espoused by Adrien Arcand and others. At the party's first meeting, there was an attendance of roughly 200 people.[1]

This disparity between the party and Arcand's would continue throughout its existence. Before the government took action against Canadian fascist parties, the Canadian Union of Fascists and Arcand's group held simultaneous fascist congresses in Toronto. While Arcand's group, dubbed the "National Union" drew a crowd of around 4,000, the Canadian Union managed to draw only some 30 local residents to its cause.[4]

The party was dissolved when the Second World War began. The party told its members to obey the law but to work for a negotiated peace. Crate escaped a treason charge and ended up in the Royal Canadian Navy.

The party, though not officially racist or anti-semitic, had strong connections to Adrien Arcand's National Unity Party.

Canadian Union
LeaderChuck Crate
IdeologyFascism (Canadian)
Political positionFar-right


  1. ^ a b Betcherman, Lita-Rose (1975). The Swastika and the Maple Leaf: Fascist Movements In Canada In the Thirties. Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-8890-2122-8.
  2. ^ "Now Socred Splinter Party is Splintered". Toronto Daily Star. September 25, 1963.
  3. ^ "Three Police Bodies to Act Against Outlawed Groups". Toronto Daily Star. June 6, 1940.
  4. ^ Betcherman (1978), p. 144.

See also

Chuck Crate

Charles Brandle "Chuck" Crate (1916–1992) was a Canadian fascist who was the leader of the Canadian Union of Fascists. He later served in the Navy and was a teacher.

Crate was born and grew up in northern Ontario, moving into a working-class district of Toronto in 1927. The poverty and unemployment brought by the Great Depression turned the young Crate into a radical, in his youth sympathizing with the then populist fascist movement of Europe. Crate was editor of The Thunderbolt in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in which he blamed the conditions of the time on Jews, the Roman Catholic Church and the Masonic Order.During the war, Chuck Crate joined the Royal Canadian Navy where he worked in Postal Service and as a gunner. He was based in Scotland where he met his future wife. Crate worked for many years after the World War II as a gold miner and Mine Mill and Smelter Worker shop steward and union organizer where he secured equal pay for Native Indian workers in the mines. During this time he met Charles Lovell and began a lifelong interest in Canadian English lexicography and Canadiana literature which later led to the publication of A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles. A lifelong advocate for workers rights, Crate worked in and for numerous unions until he retired and became a member of the CCF party (Co-operative Commonwealth Federation) party.

In Yellowknife, he was instrumental in starting the (Indian) Friendship Center as well a public library and started a local newspaper called the Northern Star. He was supportive of Canadian Indigenous peoples and worked personally and legally to support their rights. He represented the hereditary Dogrib chief Michel Siki in a groundbreaking case in support of Aboriginal Hunting Rights, until the level of the Supreme Court.

Mr. Crate later became a teacher and taught and lived in numerous small Canadian towns and on reserves (Blackfoot). He taught mainly Business English, Literature and Socials Studies, which he augmented by his research and teaching of Native (Indian) history. He donated some of his collection of old Canadiana literature and Dictionaries to the libraries in each small town he lived in.

A defender of the right to free speech, Chuck Crate defended most who exercised this right despite the unpopularity of their view. Among the more controversial aspect of this was speaking out in defense of Eastern European immigrants who either expressed views of World War II that ran counter to the history books or possibly had been accused of regarding World War II war crimes.

He died in 1992 at the age of 76 and is survived by two daughters and a son born to his second wife which he willed to be named Hitler.

Crate (disambiguation)

A crate is a large strong container, often made of wood.

Crate may also refer to:

Crate Township, Chippewa County, Minnesota, United States

Crate Entertainment, a US video game developer

CrateIO, a fully searchable document oriented data store

Cajón or crate, a percussion instrument in Peru

Modular crate electronics

"The Crate", a 1979 short story by Stephen King

Ilyushin Il-14 (NATO reporting name: Crate), a Soviet aircraft

Chuck Crate (1916–1992), Canadian fascist and leader of the Canadian Union of Fascists

Gabe Crate (born 1977), American cartoonist, writer, and storyboard artist

Defence of Canada Regulations

The Defence of Canada Regulations were a set of emergency measures implemented under the War Measures Act on 3 September 1939, a week before Canada's entry into World War II.

The extreme security measures permitted by the regulations included the waiving of habeas corpus and the right to trial, internment, bans on certain political and cultural groups, restrictions of free speech including the banning of certain publications, and the confiscation of property.

Section 21 of the Regulations allowed the Minister of Justice to detain without charge anyone who might act "in any manner prejudicial to the public safety or the safety of the state."The Regulations were used to intern opponents of World War II, particularly fascists (like Adrien Arcand) and Communists (including Jacob Penner, Bruce Magnuson and Tom McEwen) as well as opponents of conscription such as Quebec nationalist and Montreal mayor Camillien Houde. It was under the regulations that Japanese Canadians were interned and their property confiscated for the duration of the war. German Canadians were required to register with the state and some German and Italian Canadians were detained. The Regulations were also used to ban the Communist Party of Canada in 1940 as well as several of its allied organizations such as the Young Communist League, the League for Peace and Democracy, the Ukrainian Labour Farmer Temple Association, the Finnish Organization of Canada, the Russian Workers and Farmers Clubs, the Polish Peoples Association and the Croatian Cultural Association, the Hungarian Workers Clubs and the Canadian Ukrainian Youth Federation. Various fascist groups were also banned such as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party and the Canadian Union of Fascists. Non-communist labour leaders like Charles Millard were also interned.

A number of prominent Communist Party members were detained until 1942 when the Soviet Union joined the Allies. Fascist leaders such as Adrien Arcand and John Ross Taylor were detained for the duration of the war.

Fascism in Canada

Fascism in Canada (French: Fascisme au Canada) consisted of a variety of movements and political parties in Canada during the 20th century. Largely a fringe ideology, fascism has never commanded a large following amongst the Canadian people, and was most popular during the Great Depression. Most Canadian fascist leaders were interned at the outbreak of World War II under the Defence of Canada Regulations and in the post-war period, fascism never recovered its former small influence.

The Canadian Union of Fascists, based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, was modeled on Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists. Its leader was Chuck Crate.

Parti National Social Chrétien was founded in Quebec in February 1934 by Adrien Arcand. In October 1934, the party merged with the Canadian Nationalist Party, which was based in the prairie provinces. In June 1938, it merged with Nazi groups from Ontario and Quebec (many of which were known as Swastika clubs), to form the National Unity Party.Fascist concepts and policies, such as eugenics, formulated in the US, found a friendly reception in Canada in some provinces, such as Alberta, where, under a Social Credit government, alleged mental defectives and other 'non-producers' were involuntarily sterilized to prevent the birth of more similar people. Social democrat Tommy Douglas, Premier of Saskatchewan, wrote his 1933 master thesis paper endorsing some of the ideas of eugenics, but later abandoned and rejected such notions.

Fascism in North America

Fascism in North America is composed of a set of related political movements in Canada, the United States, Mexico and elsewhere that were variants of fascism. Fascist movements in North America never realized power, unlike their counterparts in Europe. Although the geopolitical definition of North America varies, for the sake of convenience it can be assumed to include Central America and the Caribbean, where fascist variants also flourished.

John Ross Taylor

John Ross Taylor (1913 – November 6, 1994) was a Canadian fascist political activist and party leader prominent in white nationalist circles.

List of fascist movements by country A–F

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

List of federal political parties in Canada

In contrast with the political party systems of many nations, Canadian political parties at the federal level are often only loosely connected with parties at the provincial level, despite having similar names and policy positions. One exception is the New Democratic Party, which is organizationally integrated with most of its provincial counterparts including a shared membership.

Social Credit Party of Ontario

The Social Credit Party of Ontario (SCPO) (also known as the Ontario Social Credit League, Social Credit Association of Ontario and the Union of Electors) was a minor political party at the provincial level in the Canadian province of Ontario from the 1940s to the early 1970s. The party never won any seats in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. It was affiliated with the Social Credit Party of Canada and espoused social credit theories of monetary reform.

Tom MacInnes

Thomas Robert Edward MacInnes (né McInnes) (October 29, 1867 – February 11, 1951) was a Canadian poet and writer whose writings ranged from "vigorous, slangy recollections of the Yukon gold rush" (Lonesome Bar, 1909) to "a translation of and commentary on Lao-tzu’s philosophy" (The Teaching of the Old Boy, 1927). His narrative verse was highly popular in his lifetime.

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