The League was founded in 1930 in order to lobby for the implementation of the 1929 Report of the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting (Aird Commission) recommending the creation of a Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (the forerunner of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.) Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King had delayed implementation of the Aird Commission's report until after the 1930 federal election. However, with the defeat of King's government and the election of a Conservative government led by R.B. Bennett, the future of public broadcasting become uncertain.
Spry and Plaunt founded the League and used it to influence public opinion in support of public broadcasting making their case to trade unions, farm groups, business associations, churches, the Royal Canadian Legion, the Canadian Club of Toronto, newspapers, university presidents and other influential public figures.
The Canadian parliament held public hearings into the future of broadcasting in Canada at which the League testified urging the creation of a national public broadcasting system that would reflect Canadians' identity and be free from the influence of private American interests. "The choice before the committee is clear," Spry affirmed during the hearings. "It is a choice between commercial interests and the people's interest. It is a choice between the state and the United States."
Largely as a result of the CRL's efforts, the Bennett government introduced the Canadian Broadcasting Act of 1932 creating the CRBC.
In 1968 Spry revived the CRL as the 'Canadian Broadcasting League when the creation of a new Broadcast Act threatened the future of the CBC. For the next two decades it was active lobbying on the issue of public broadcasting and the cable television industry profits, funding for the CBC, educational broadcasting and legislation. It remained active until the late 1980s.
Alan Butterworth Plaunt (March 25, 1904 - September 12, 1941) was a Canadian broadcasting pioneer, journalist and activist.
The son of a wealthy lumber family, Plaunt attended the University of Toronto and University of Oxford and was a keen observer of the fledgling British Broadcasting Corporation while in Britain becoming a believer in John Reith's approach to public broadcasting.With Graham Spry, he founded the Canadian Radio League in 1930 to mobilize political support for the creation of a public broadcasting system, first in the form of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission in 1932 and then with the creation of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in 1936. Plaunt sat on the original CBC Board of Governors from 1936 until 1941, when he resigned to protest what he saw as increasing government direction of the CBC during the war.He was also an active socialist as a member of the League for Social Reconstruction and helped write the Regina Manifesto which was the original program of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation.Plaunt founded the New Canada Movement in 1933, an agrarian youth movement that advocated a "new deal" for farmers and promoted its views in the Farmer's Sun, (renamed New Commonwealth) the former journal of the United Farmers movement which he and Spry owned from 1932 until 1935.In the last years of his life, Plaunt helped organize the Neutrality League, a pacifist organization that opposed Canadian participation in the looming conflict in Europe.He died of cancer at the age of 37.CNR Radio
CNR Radio or CN Radio (officially the Canadian National Railways Radio Department) was the first national radio network in North America. It was developed, owned and operated by the Canadian National Railway between 1923 and 1932 to provide en route entertainment and information for its train passengers. As broadcasts could be received by anyone living in the coverage area of station transmitters, the network provided radio programming to Canadians from the Pacific coast (at Vancouver) to the Atlantic coast (at Halifax).
During its nine-year existence, CNR Radio provided music, sports, information and drama programming to Canadians. Programming was produced in English, French and occasionally in some First Nations languages, and distributed nationwide through the railway's own telegraph lines and through rented airtime on other private radio stations. However, political and competitive pressure forced CNR Radio to close, with many of its assets and personnel migrating to a new government-operated agency, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC), which ultimately led to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years
During the World Wars and Interwar Years Canada experienced economic gain, more freedom for women and new technological advancements.Canada–United States trade relations
The trade relationship of the United States with Canada was the second largest in the world after China and the United States. In 2016, the goods and services trade between the two countries totaled $627.8 billion. U.S. exports were $320.1 billion, while imports were $307.6 billion. The United States had a $12.5 billion trade surplus with Canada in 2016. Canada has historically held a trade deficit with the United States in every year since 1985 in net trade of goods, excluding services. The trade relationship between the two countries crosses all industries and is vitally important to both nations' success as each country is one of the largest trade partners of the other.
The trade across Ambassador Bridge, between Windsor, Ontario and Detroit, Michigan, alone is equal to all trade between the United States and Japan.Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (French: Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are commonly known as CBC and Radio-Canada respectively, and both short-form names are also commonly used in the applicable language to refer to the corporation as a whole.
Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Music, Ici Radio-Canada Première, and Ici Musique. (International radio service Radio Canada International historically transmitted via shortwave radio, but since 2012 its content is only available as podcasts on its website.) Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel (part ownership), and Ici ARTV. The CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC North and Radio-Canada Nord. The CBC also operates digital services including CBC.ca/Ici.Radio-Canada.ca, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ICI.mu and Ici.TOU.TV, and owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels.
CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English, French and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, and in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International (RCI). However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition.
CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts. The radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission
The Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC) was Canada's first public broadcaster and the immediate precursor to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.Folk music
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century, but folk music extends beyond that.
Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the (second) folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has typically not been applied to the new music created during those revivals. This type of folk music also includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, and others. While contemporary folk music is a genre generally distinct from traditional folk music, in U.S. English it shares the same name, and it often shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music.Friends of Canadian Broadcasting
Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, commonly shortened to FRIENDS, is a Canadian advocacy group that monitors developments in the Canadian television and radio broadcasting industries. The group promotes expansion of public broadcasting, investment in Canadian content, and production of local news while opposing concentration of media ownership and foreign ownership of Canadian broadcasters.
FRIENDS also presents the Dalton Camp Award, named in honour of journalist and political commentator Dalton Camp. The $10,000 award is presented to the winner of an essay competition on the link between Canadian media and democracy.
The group is non-partisan.Graham Spry
Graham Spry, CC (February 20, 1900 - November 24, 1983) was a Canadian broadcasting pioneer, business executive, diplomat and socialist. He was the husband of Irene Spry and father of Robin Spry, Richard Spry and Lib Spry.History of broadcasting in Canada
The active history of broadcasting in Canada begins in 1921, as Canadians were swept up in the radio craze and built radio sets to listen to American stations.
Main themes in the history include the development of the engineering technology; the construction of stations and the building of networks; the widespread purchase and use of radio and television sets by the public; debates regarding state versus private ownership of stations; financing of the broadcast media through the government, licence fees, and advertising; the changing content of the programming; the impact of the programming on Canadian identity; the media's influence on shaping audience responses to music, sports and politics; the role of the Québec government; Francophone versus Anglophone cultural tastes; the role of other ethnic groups and First Nations; fears of American cultural imperialism via the airwaves; and the impact of the Internet and smartphones on traditional broadcasting media.Left-wing nationalism
Left-wing nationalism or leftist nationalism, also known as socialist nationalism, describes a form of nationalism based upon social equality (though not necessarily political equality), popular sovereignty and national self-determination. Left-wing nationalism can also include anti-imperialism and national liberation movements. It stands in contrast to right-wing nationalism and often rejects ethno-nationalism to this same end, although some forms of left-wing nationalism have included a platform of racialism, favoring a homogeneous society, a rejection of minorities and opposition to immigration.Notable left-wing nationalist movements in history have included Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army, which promoted independence of India from Britain; Quebec nationalism and the Parti Québécois; the Mukti Bahini; Sinn Féin, an Irish republican party; Basque nationalism and the political party Bildu; the National Bolshevik Party and its successor The Other Russia; the Catalan independence movement; the League of Communists of Yugoslavia; the Black Front of Germany; Malay Nationalist Party of Malaysia; and the African National Congress of South Africa under Nelson Mandela.Media reform
Media reform refers to proposed attempts to reform mass media towards an agenda which is more in tune with public needs and away from a perceived bias toward corporate, government or political biases. Media reform advocates also place a strong emphasis upon enabling those who are marginalized or semi-marginalized by their individual incomes, immutable characteristics or desperate conditions to possess access to means of publication and dissemination of information. They do not come from a concern with policy, or with a desire to democratize federal bureaucracies and regulations.A related concept, media justice, refers to an analytical framework and a regional, grassroots movement led by historically disenfranchised communities to transform media and cultural production, rights and policy in the service of social justice. The Media Justice Framework offers a new way to understand and redistribute media power to achieve a fair and accessible information and cultural apparatus that fulfils its promise to inform the public, watchdog power, and serve all segments of the public equally. The Movement for Media Justice believes that media production and distribution must be under the control of communities, not companies; and that achieving social justice victories requires a secondary strategy for media policy change.Public broadcasting
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. In much of the world, funding comes from the government, especially via annual fees charged on receivers. In the United States, public broadcasters may receive some funding from both federal and state sources, but generally most financial support comes from underwriting by foundations and businesses ranging from small shops to corporations, along with audience contributions via pledge drives. The great majority are operated as private not-for-profit corporations.Public broadcasting may be nationally or locally operated, depending on the country and the station. In some countries, public broadcasting is run by a single organization. Other countries have multiple public broadcasting organizations operating regionally or in different languages. Historically, public broadcasting was once the dominant or only form of broadcasting in many countries (with the notable exception of the United States). Commercial broadcasting now also exists in most of these countries; the number of countries with only public broadcasting declined substantially during the latter part of the 20th century.Timeline of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
This is a timeline of the history of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.