Canada Post Corporation (French: Société canadienne des postes), known more simply as Canada Post (French: Postes Canada), is a Crown corporation which functions as the primary postal operator in Canada. Originally known as Royal Mail Canada (the operating name of the Post Office Department of the Canadian government founded in 1867), rebranding was done to the "Canada Post" name in the late 1960s, even though it had not yet been separated from the government. On October 16, 1981, the Canada Post Corporation Act came into effect. This abolished the Post Office Department and created the present day Crown corporation which provides postal service. The act aimed to set a new direction for the postal service by ensuring the postal service's financial security and independence.
Canada Post provided service to more than 16 million addresses and delivered nearly 8.4 billion items in 2016 and consolidated revenue from operations reached $7.88 billion. Delivery takes place via traditional "to the door" service and centralized delivery by 25,000 letter carriers, through a 13,000 vehicle fleet. There are more than 6,200 post offices across the country, a combination of corporate offices and private franchises that are operated by retailers, such as drugstores. In terms of area serviced, Canada Post delivers to a larger area than the postal service of any other nation, including Russia (where service in Siberia is limited largely to communities along the railway). As of 2004, nearly 843,000 rural Canadian customers received residential mail delivery services.
Canada Post operates as a group of companies called The Canada Post Group. It employs approximately 64,000 full and part-time employees. The Corporation holds an interest in Purolator Courier, Innovapost, Progistix-Solutions and Canada Post International Limited. In 2000, Canada Post created a company called Epost, allowed customers to receive their bill online for free. In 2007, Epost was absorbed into Canada Post.
Canada Post (French: Postes Canada) is the Federal Identity Programme name. The legal name is Canada Post Corporation in English and Société canadienne des postes in French. During the late 1980s and much of the 1990s, the short forms used in the corporation's logo were "Mail" (English) and "Poste" (French), rendered as "Mail Poste" in English Canada, and "Poste Mail" in Québec, although English-language advertising also still referred to the corporation as "Canada Post".
|Canada Post Corporation|
|Industry||Postal Service, Courier|
|Founded||1 July 1867|
|Headquarters||2701 Riverside Drive|
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0B1
|Jessica L. McDonald|
(Interim President & CEO)
Carla Qualtrough (Minister)
Jessica L. McDonald (Chair of the Board)
|Products||Courier express services|
Freight forwarding services
|Revenue||$8.2 billion (2017)|
|$144 million (2017)|
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||Purolator Inc. (91%)|
On August 3, 1527 in St. John's, Newfoundland, the first known letter was sent from present day Canada. While in St. John's, John Rut wrote a letter to King Henry VIII about his findings and planned voyage. Mail delivery within Canada first started in 1693 when the Portuguese-born Pedro da Silva was paid to deliver between Québec City and Montréal. Official postal services began in 1775, under the control of the British Government up to 1851. The first postage stamp (designed by Sir Sandford Fleming) went into circulation in Canada that same year. It was not until 1867 when the newly formed Dominion of Canada created the Post Office Department as a federal government department (The Act for the Regulation of the Postal Service) headed by a Cabinet minister, the Postmaster General of Canada. The Act took effect April 1, 1868, providing uniform postal service throughout the newly established dominion. The Canadian post office was designed around the British service as created by Sir Rowland Hill, who introduced the concept of charging mail by weight and not destination along with creating the concept of the postage stamp. The new service traded under the name The Royal Mail Canada.
Prior to rural mail delivery, many Canadians living outside major cities and towns had little communication with the outside world. On 10 October 1908, the first free rural mail delivery service was instituted in Canada. The extension of residential mail delivery services to all rural Canadian residents was a major achievement for the Post Office Department.
The Post Office Department was an early pioneer of airmail delivery, with the first airmail flight taking place on June 24, 1918, carrying mail from Montreal to Toronto. A modern plaque at the site of Leaside Aerodrome reads: "At 10:12 a.m. on June 24, 1918, Captain Brian Peck of the Royal Air Force (RAF) and mechanic Corporal C.W. Mathers took off from the Bois Franc Polo Grounds in Montreal in a JN-4 Curtiss two-seater airplane. They had with them the first bag of mail to be delivered by air in Canada. Wind and rain buffetted the small plane and forced it to make refuelling stops at Kingston and Deseronto. Finally, at 4:55 p.m., Peck and Mathers landed at the Leaside Aerodrome (immediately southwest of here). The flight had been arranged by a civilian organization, the Aerial League of the British Empire, to demonstrate that aviation was the way of the future." A regular air express service began in 1928.
The 1970s was a tough decade for the Post Office, with major strikes combined with annual deficits that had hit $600 million by 1981. This state of affairs made politicians want to rethink their strategy for the federal department. It resulted in two years of public debate and input into the future of mail delivery in Canada. The government sought to give the post office more autonomy, in order to make it more commercially viable and to compete against the new threat of private courier services. On October 16, 1981, the Federal Parliament passed the "Canada Post Corporation Act", which transformed Canada Post into a Crown corporation to create the Canada Post Corporation (CPC). The legislation also includes a measure that legally guarantees basic postal service to all Canadians. It stipulates that all Canadians have the right to expect mail delivery, regardless of where they live.
Several historical sites related to the history of the Post Office Department of Canada can be visited today. In Ontario, the first Toronto Post Office is still in operation. The site of the Air Canada Centre was once the Canada Post Delivery Building. Also notable are the Vancouver Main Post Office and the Dawson, Yukon, Post Office, a National Historic Site of Canada. In Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia, a nineteenth-century lighthouse acts as a seasonal post office for the tiny coastal community.
|1693||First paid mail delivery within Canada|
|1775||British Government begins offering mail service in Canada|
|1851||British provincial governments in Canada take control of mail delivery|
|1867||Following Confederation, federal Post Office Department created|
|1878||Post Office Department joins Universal Postal Union|
|1927||Contract air-mail service begins in Manitoba, air-mail between Rimouski and Quebec-Montreal-Ottawa begins|
|1937||Canada Post helps to finance Trans-Canada Airlines with air-mail contract|
|1939||Daily air-mail service begins between Montreal and Vancouver|
|1955||2500 locals are the minimum number needed to initiate door-to-door delivery service.|
|1957||Dr. Maurice Levy invents the automatic postal sorter, which could handle 200,000 letters per hour.|
|1971||Initial implementation of the postal code|
|1981||Canada Post Corporation Act is passed by Parliament|
|1981||Canada Post is turned into a Crown Corporation|
|1985||Canada Post begins phasing in community mailboxes instead of door-to-door delivery in new subdivisions |
|1993||Canada Post purchases a majority stake in Purolator Courier|
|2006||Introduction of the Permanent Stamp, a stamp that is always worth the basic domestic mailing rate. Canada Post announces plans to review whether or not to continue rural individual mail delivery services to 843,000 Canadian customers.|
|2013||Canada Post announces the phase-out of door-to-door mail delivery in urban centres, and announces an increase in the price of a stamp from $0.63 to $1 ($0.85 in bulk). Sales of the Permanent Stamp were suspended until after the March 2014 rate increase.|
The Ombudsman is the final appeal authority in resolving postal service complaints. If a complaint is not resolved to the customer's satisfaction by Canada Post, the customer can appeal to the Ombudsman. Although the Ombudsman has no legislative power over the Corporation, the recommendations that the office makes to Canada Post can help improve company processes, amend policies and reinforce compliance with procedures.
The Ombudsman is independent of Canada Post staff and management, reporting directly to the Chairman of the Board of Directors. Mrs. Francine Conn was appointed on July 11, 2011, as the fourth and current Ombudsman at Canada Post. The services offered by the Office of the Ombudsman are free of charge.
Any letter sent within Canada has the destination address on the centre of its envelope, with a stamp, postal indicia, meter label, or frank mark on the top-right corner of the envelope to acknowledge payment of postage. A return address, although it is not required, can be put on the top-left corner or the back of the envelope in smaller type than the destination address.
Official addressing protocol is for the address to be in block letters, using a fixed-pitch typeface (such as Courier). The first line(s) of the address contain(s) the personal name and internal address of the recipient. The second-to-last line is the post office box, general delivery indicator, or street address, using the shortened name of the street type and no punctuation. The last line consists of the legal place name, a single space, the two-letter province abbreviation, two full spaces, and then the postal code. The country designation is unnecessary if mailed within Canada.
10-321½ RUE CHARLES OUEST
MONTRÉAL QC H3Z 2Y7
1234 FRANKLIN AVE
PO BOX 4001 STN A
YELLOWKNIFE NT X1A 2B5
1234 7TH CONCESSION
SITE 6 COMP 10
RR 8 STN MAIN
MILLARVILLE AB T0L 1K0
GD STN MAIN
WALKERTON ON N0G 2V0
The Corporation has a directory of all its products and services called the Postal Guide and has divided its range of services into three main categories: Transaction Mail, Parcels and Direct Marketing.
The lettermail service allows the transmission of virtually any paper document. The 2015 to 2018 rate was 85 cents for a standard letter (30 g or less) and $1.20 for a letter between 30 g and 50 g. Proposed change for 2019 is 90 cents and $1.27 for these rates. Rates usually increase in mid-January of each year; for ordinary letters (30 g or less). The rate was regulated by a price-cap formula, linked to the inflation rate. The Corporation now has a "permanent" stamp that is valued at the domestic rate forever, eliminating the need to buy 1 cent stamps after a rate increase. The rates for lettermail are based on weight and size and determine whether the article falls into the aforementioned standard format or in the oversize one.
The Canada Post website documents standards for delivery within Canada:
Daily cross-country airmail services were introduced in 1939. Canadian municipal delivery service standards are two days, as seen on the Lettermail Delivery Standards Grid.
Mail sent internationally is known as letter-post. It can only contain paper documents (See Small Packet below). From 2015 to 2018 the rate for a standard letter is $1.20 if sent to the United States and $2.50 if sent to any other destination.
Canada Post offers four domestic parcel services. The rates are based on distance, weight, and size. The maximum acceptable weight is 30 kg.
|Regular Parcel||Expected delivery time ranges from 2 to 13 business days, depending on the destination.|
|Expedited Parcel||Available only to business customers.|
|Delivery time ranges from 1 to 13 business days, depending on the destination.|
|Xpresspost||Is a service for parcels and documents.|
|Delivery time ranges from 1 to 2 business days between major centres, and up to 7 business days to more remote areas.|
|Priority||Is a service for parcels and documents.|
|Provides next business day service between major centres, and service within 7 business days to more remote locations.|
On September 22, 2014, Canada Post unveiled Snap Admail™, an all-in-one online tool that is aimed to support small businesses in the creation and execution of direct-marketing campaigns.
Canada Post operates a store front that sells a variety of stamps, and postal supplies to the public. The personal shop is focused on nominal postage, shipping supplies, and prepaid envelopes while the collectors shop has a selection of limited edition definitive and commemorative stamps as well as coins.
On October 26, 2010, Canada Post launched a comparison shopping service for Canadians. This service, Canada Post Comparison Shopper, allowed shoppers to find and compare product available to Canadians from over 500 stores across the USA and Canada. Notable features included price comparison, store policy information, cross-border shipping, duties and fees estimation, price history charts, reviews and color search ability. As of October 2012 the Comparison Shopper service is no longer available.
For a century, the agency operated the Post Office Savings Bank system, created by the April 1868 Post Office Act, phased out in 1968-69. Discussion and even studies of reviving the system have periodically made news since at least the early 2010s, with support mainly coming from unions.
Although Canada Post is responsible for stamp design and production, the corporation does not actually choose the subjects or the final designs that appear on stamps. That task falls under the jurisdiction of the Stamp Advisory Committee. Their objective is to recommend a stamp program that will have broad-based appeal, regionally and culturally, reflecting Canadian history, heritage, and tradition.
Before Canada Post calls a meeting of the committee, it also welcomes suggestions for stamp subjects from Canadian citizens. Ideas for subjects that have recently appeared on a stamp are declined. The committee works two years in advance and can approve approximately 20 subjects for each year.
Once a stamp subject is selected, Canada Post's Stamp Products group conducts research. Designs are commissioned from two firms, both chosen for their expertise. The designs are presented anonymously to the committee. The committee's process and selection policy have changed little in the thirty years since it was introduced.
Canada Post has a history of troubled labour relations with its trade unions, particularly the Canadian Union of Postal Workers (CUPW) and the Letter Carriers Union of Canada (which merged with CUPW in 1989), culminating in periodic strike action that has halted mail service in Canada on different occasions. There have been at least 19 strikes, lockouts, and walkouts between 1965 and 1997, including several wildcat strikes. A number of these strikes since the 1970s have seen the corporation employ strikebreakers, resulting in back-to-work legislation being passed by the Canadian parliament.
In 2007, Canada Post was able to sign a 4-year agreement with CUPW without any labour disruptions. For 2007, 2008, and 2009 the corporation was named one of Canada's Top 100 Employers, as published in Maclean's magazine. In 2008, however, it endured a long strike by its administrative worker union — Public Service Alliance of Canada (PSAC) - which compromised customer service.
Nearly all Canada Post employees who are not in the CUPW belong to one of three smaller trade unions. The Canadian Postmasters and Assistants Association covers 12,000 rural workers, the Association of Postal Officials of Canada has 3,400 supervisors and the Union of Postal Communications Employees represents 2,600 technical workers.
On June 2, 2011, a labour action involving rotating strikes (the first strike to affect Canada Post in 14 years) commenced with CUPW members striking in Winnipeg, Manitoba and in Hamilton, Ontario on June 3. On June 14, 2011, Canada Post management locked out CUPW members, marking the 20th work stoppage in the 46-year relationship between CUPW and Canada Post. Back to work legislation was passed in the Canadian Legislature which also mandated arbitration by a government-appointed arbitrator. This back to work legislation was challenged in court by CUPW for violating their constitutional right to strike. CUPW won this case in 2016  and the back to work legislation was ruled in violation of the constitution by the Superior Court of Ontario. However, following the legislation, a new collective agreement was signed in 2012 which included major concessions by the employees, such as a $4 per hour reduction in starting wages and the complete elimination of bankable sick days  Since this agreement was signed and agreed to by the membership of CUPW, the court ruling on the back to work legislation was of no effect.
In 2016, Canada Post and CUPW negotiated a two-year agreement without a labour disruption. This agreement expired January 31, 2018.
Starting October 22, 2018, Canada Post workers have organized rotating strikes nationwide, the major friction points being major processing centers, including Toronto and Richmond. In mid-November, annual Black Friday and Cyber Monday online purchases, and even Christmas holiday deliveries, appeared at risk. With a 30-day backlog of mail stored in 600 trailers at distribution centers, CP appealed to the 190 Universal Postal Union (UPU) countries to hold Canada-bound mail.
Safety of rural mobile delivery personnel on busy roads has been an ongoing concern. Canada Post launched the Rural Mail Safety Review as rural and suburban mail carriers across the country, supported by their union, raised complaints about workplace safety. As of March 2008, there have been more than 1,400 such complaints. In some cases, the union staged protests in delivering mail, even after Canada Post tests showed there was no undue traffic safety risk at a particular mail box. Such cases were referred to Labour Canada, who in several instances asked Canada Post to cease delivery to mailboxes. In December 2006, the Canadian government ordered that Canada Post maintain rural delivery wherever possible. On January 1, 2004 rural route contractors became employees of Canada Post and joined the Canadian Union of Postal Workers.
Moya Greene, former Canada Post CEO, was quoted as saying that years of under-investment to improve the company had hurt its efficiency and its financial performance. In September 2007, she estimated that modernizing the corporation would cost $2.7 billion over five to seven years for new buildings, equipment, technology and training.
The initiative, called Postal Transformation, has been rolled out across the country from 2010-2017. This transformation saw a fundamental change in the work duties of letter carriers. Previously, the delivery of parcels, clearance and transfers to retail postal outlets and collection of mail from street letter boxes was carried out by the separate position of a mail service courier, while letter carriers delivered the mail through walking routes, utilizing public transit and taxis to travel to their work locations. Today, many letter carrier routes are motorized and they are responsible for delivering parcels, mail, clearing and transfers at retail postal outlets, and collection of mail from street letter boxes. The additional duties have led to increased overtime, work stress, and injuries to employees who are facing greater fatigue and delivering mail in the dark; with many complaining that regular routes can no longer be completed in 8 hours, resulting in forced overtime and undelivered mail.
In 2014, Canada Post began to phase out door-to-door service in urban centres, in favour of community mailboxes—a process that was estimated to affect 32% of Canadian addresses (subdivisions built after 1985 already use community mailboxes, and customers using rural mailboxes would not be affected). This change was instituted by Stephen Harper's Conservative government, and was meant to be a cost-cutting measure in the face of financial losses, due primarily to the decreased use of traditional mail in favour of electronic alternatives.
The plan proved controversial; the CUPW criticized the move, which was expected to result in the loss of at least 8,000 jobs, by arguing that Canada Post should have attempted to expand its services to include new offerings, such as postal banking, rather than cutting jobs and reducing services. In 2015, the CUPW filed a federal lawsuit demanding that the roll-out be suspended—an action endorsed by Mayor of Montreal Denis Coderre. Concerns were also raised about the effect of this change on seniors and people with disabilities. During the 2015 Canadian federal election campaign, Liberal leader Justin Trudeau promised to halt the cutbacks at Canada Post and the shift to community mailboxes.
On October 26, 2015 following Trudeau's victory in the election, Canada Post announced that it would place the discontinuation of door-to-door delivery "on hold in an orderly fashion", and that it would collaborate with the government on evaluating the future of the mail system in Canada. On January 24, 2018, the Liberal government announced that it had officially halted the future deployment of community mailboxes, and will focus on finding other methods of expanding Canada Post's services in the future. Canada Post will not reintroduce door-to-door delivery in areas where it was discontinued prior to April 15, 2016, but stated that an advisory panel would assist in addressing accessibility issues related to them.
For 16 years up until 2011, Canada Post realized an annual profit, and it has since had several profitable years. In 2011, Canada Post posted a pretax loss of $253 million, due in part to a 25-day employee lockout, and a $150 million pay equity class action lawsuit. In 2012, Canada Post rebounded to post a profit of $98 million before tax. In 2013, Canada Post lost $37 million overall. The Canada Post group's gross profit in 2014 was $269 million. In 2015, the corporation continued to remain profitable, posting a $136 million profit before tax. In 2016, Canada Post recorded its 3rd consecutive profitable year, making $114 million before tax ($81 million after taxes). In total, Canada Post has made a net profit of $266 million since 2012. In 2017, the Corporation posted $144 million after tax profit.
Canada Post receives millions of letters addressed to Santa Claus each year, with a special dedicated postal code, H0H 0H0. About 15,000 current and retired CUPW unionized employees respond to each letter received pretending to be Santa in many languages. Over the past 27 years, more than 15 million letters were written by CUPW volunteers.
In 2001, Canada Post started accepting e-mail messages to Santa. In 2006, more than 44,000 email messages were responded to.
In 1974, three Canada Post employees started to respond to mail addressed to Santa in Montreal, Quebec. In 1982, Canada Post rolled out the initiative across Canada and pledged that every letter sent in would receive a reply. It is not required to put on a stamp when sending a letter to Santa Claus. Canada Post also receives letters to God and on occasion, the Easter Bunny.
In 1981, Canada Post became a Crown Corporation with a CEO and President:
1981-1985  - appointed by Pierre Trudeau
1986-1992 - Chair 1993-?  - appointed by Mulroney and business executive; deceased (2010)
1993-1998 - appointed by Campbell; now CEO of International Post
1999–2004 - appointed by Jean Chretien and former Minister in charge of Canada Post (as Postmaster General); Chair 1996-2004
2004–2010 - appointed by Paul Martin and now Chief Executive of Royal Mail
2010 - appointed interim CEO by Stephen Harper following Greene's departure
2011–2018  - appointed by Stephen Harper
Effective April 2, 2018  - Interim appointment by the Canada Post Board of Directors
Alexandre Boulerice (born June 18, 1973 in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec) is a Canadian politician, who was elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 2011 election. He represents the electoral district of Rosemont—La Petite-Patrie as a member of the New Democratic Party. He is currently the NDP's Quebec lieutenant and Ethics critic.André Ouellet
André Ouellet, (born April 6, 1939) is a former longtime Liberal federal politician and Cabinet member in Canada. Following his political career, he served as chairman of Canada Post.
First elected to the House of Commons of Canada in a 1967 by-election, Ouellet served in a number of different positions in the cabinets of Prime Ministers Pierre Trudeau and Jean Chrétien. In his capacity as Registrar General of Canada, he was one of the four signatories of the Proclamation of the Constitution Act of 1982 (along with Queen Elizabeth II, Prime Minister Trudeau, and Justice Minister Jean Chrétien). Ouellet represented the safe Liberal seat of Papineau in Montreal for almost thirty years. His hold on the seat was only seriously threatened when the Liberals were crushed by the Progressive Conservative Party in the election of 1984, when he retained his seat by only 500 votes. In opposition, Ouellet became the Liberal's leading figure in the constitutional negotiations that led to the Charlottetown Accord, and was a strong advocate for the constitutional reform proposal, which was rejected in a 1992 referendum.
With the return to power of the Liberals after the 1993 election, Ouellet was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs by the new prime minister, Jean Chrétien. Despite his experience, Ouellet was not popular in Quebec, and the lasting legacy of the Charlottetown Accord hurt him. After the close result of the 1995 Quebec referendum, Chrétien wanted to present a new face of his government in Quebec. In 1996, Chrétien appointed Ouellet to head the Canada Post Corporation. Ouellet's seat in the House of Commons of Canada was taken by Pierre Pettigrew in a by-election later that year.
As cabinet minister, Ouellet had served as Postmaster General. As chairman of Canada Post, he implemented reform that led to record profits in the corporation. In 2004, controversy surrounded Ouellet as Canada Post was one of the organizations embroiled in the Sponsorship Scandal. As a result, Ouellet was suspended from his position at Canada Post in February 2004 by Prime Minister Paul Martin. He resigned as chairman of Canada Post on August 12, 2004, after it was revealed that he failed to provide invoices for hundreds of thousands of dollars of personal expenses, and that he handed out untendered contracts.Canadian Postmasters and Assistants Association
The Canadian Postmasters and Assistants Association or CPAA represents rural postal workers for the Canada Post Corporation. The trade union belongs to the Canadian Labour Congress as the federation's smallest National Union.
The organization publishes The Canadian Postmaster and hosts a Triennial Convention.Canadian Union of Postal Workers
The Canadian Union of Postal Workers (CUPW; French: Syndicat des travailleurs et travailleuses des postes) is a public sector trade union representing postal workers including letter carriers, rural and suburban mail carriers, postal clerks, mail handlers and dispatchers, technicians, mechanics and electricians employed at Canada Post as well as private sector workers outside Canada Post. Currently comprising upwards of 50,000 members, the Canadian Union of Postal Workers has historically been labeled as militant because of some of the actions undertaken since its inception in 1965 to help guarantee rights to all postal workers. According to former president Jean-Claude Parrot, "We succeeded to get the support of the membership because we earned our credibility with them...we got that reputation [of militancy] because we earned it."Canadian postal abbreviations for provinces and territories
Canadian provincial and territorial postal abbreviations are used by Canada Post in a code system consisting of two capital letters, to represent the 13 provinces and territories on addressed mail. These abbreviations allow automated sorting.
ISO 3166-2:CA identifiers' second elements are all the same as these; ISO adopted the existing Canada Post abbreviations.These abbreviations are not the source of letters in Canadian postal codes, which are assigned by Canada Post on a different basis than these abbreviations. While postal codes are also used for sorting, they allow extensive regional sorting. In addition, several provinces have postal codes that begin with different letters.
The codes replaced the inconsistent traditional system used by Canadians until the 1990s. Apart from the postal abbreviations, there are no officially designated traditional (or standard) abbreviations for the provinces. Natural Resources Canada, however, maintains a list of such abbreviations which are recommended for "general purpose use" and are also used in other official contexts, such as the census conducted by Statistics Canada. Some of the French versions included a hyphen. Nunavut (created in 1999) does not have a designated abbreviation because it did not exist when these codes were phased out, though some can be found in other official works.Group of Seven (artists)
The Group of Seven, also sometimes known as the Algonquin School, was a group of Canadian landscape painters from 1920 to 1933, originally consisting of Franklin Carmichael (1890–1945), Lawren Harris (1885–1970), A. Y. Jackson (1882–1974), Frank Johnston (1888–1949), Arthur Lismer (1885–1969), J. E. H. MacDonald (1873–1932), and Frederick Varley (1881–1969). Later, A. J. Casson (1898–1992) was invited to join in 1926, Edwin Holgate (1892–1977) became a member in 1930, and LeMoine FitzGerald (1890–1956) joined in 1932.
Two artists commonly associated with the group are Tom Thomson (1877–1917) and Emily Carr (1871–1945). Although he died before its official formation, Thomson had a significant influence on the group. In his essay "The Story of the Group of Seven", Harris wrote that Thomson was "a part of the movement before we pinned a label on it"; Thomson's paintings The West Wind and The Jack Pine are two of the group's most iconic pieces. Emily Carr was also closely associated with the Group of Seven, though never an official member.
Believing that a distinct Canadian art could be developed through direct contact with nature, the Group of Seven is best known for its paintings inspired by the Canadian landscape, and initiated the first major Canadian national art movement. The Group was succeeded by the Canadian Group of Painters in 1933, which included members from the Beaver Hall Group who had a history of showing with the Group of Seven internationally.Grumman LLV
The Grumman Long Life Vehicle (LLV) is an American light transport truck. The Grumman LLV was designed as a mail truck for the United States Postal Service, which is its primary user. It is also used by Canada Post.Kyle, Saskatchewan
Kyle is a town in Lacadena Rural Municipality No. 228, Saskatchewan, Canada. The town had a population of 423 in the 2006 Census. The village was named for its original settler, Jeremiah Kyle in 1923. Kyle is 45 miles (72 kilometers) north of Swift Current, 125 miles (201 kilometers) southwest of Saskatoon, 200 miles (320 kilometers) west of Regina and 20 miles (32 km) north of Saskatchewan Landing Provincial Park on Highway 4. The Canada Post postal code for Kyle is S0L 1T0.Postal code
A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
In February 2005, 117 of the 190 member countries of the Universal Postal Union had postal code systems.
Although postal codes are usually assigned to geographical areas, special codes are sometimes assigned to individual addresses or to institutions that receive large volumes of mail, such as government agencies and large commercial companies. One example is the French CEDEX system.Postal codes in Canada
A Canadian postal code is a six-character string that forms part of a postal address in Canada. Like British, Irish and Dutch postcodes, Canada's postal codes are alphanumeric. They are in the format A1A 1A1, where A is a letter and 1 is a digit, with a space separating the third and fourth characters. As of September 2014, there were 855,815 postal codes using Forward Sortation Areas from A0A in Newfoundland to Y1A in the Yukon.
Canada Post provides a free postal code look-up tool on its website, via its mobile application, and sells hard-copy directories and CD-ROMs. Many vendors also sell validation tools, which allow customers to properly match addresses and postal codes. Hard-copy directories can also be consulted in all post offices, and some libraries.
When writing out the postal address for a location within Canada, the postal code follows the abbreviation for the province or territory.Queen Elizabeth II domestic rate stamp (Canada)
The Queen Elizabeth II domestic rate stamp is a definitive stamp issued by Canada Post, and bearing the image of Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada. Seven versions of the stamp have been issued since 2003.Scotiabank Arena
Scotiabank Arena, formerly the Air Canada Centre, is a multi-purpose arena located on Bay Street in the South Core district of Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is the home of the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League (NHL), the Toronto Raptors of the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the Toronto Rock of the National Lacrosse League (NLL). In addition, the minor league Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League (AHL) and the Raptors 905 of the NBA G League play occasional games at the arena. The area was previously home to the Toronto Phantoms of the Arena Football League (AFL) during their brief existence.
The arena is owned and operated by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd. (MLSE), the same group that owns both the Leafs and Raptors, as well as their respective development teams, and is 61,780.5 square metres (665,000 sq ft) in size. In 2008, the Scotiabank Arena was the fifth busiest arena in the world and the busiest in Canada. It is also the most photographed location in Canada on Instagram according to BuzzFeed. Scotiabank Arena is connected to Toronto Union railway station, subway station and bus terminal via the PATH.
Scotiabank Arena has, from its initial design to completion, revolutionized many concepts included in new arenas and stadiums built since then. These features include luxury suites accessible on the ground floor, splitting the main scoreboard into several sections, rotating all sponsor signage in the bowl at once (to allow dominant messaging or "neutralization" for events that disallow commercial advertising), and multiple restaurants in and out of the main arena bowl view.
Scotiabank Arena also hosts other events, such as concerts, political conventions and video game competitions.The Sex Party
The Sex Party was a political party based in British Columbia, Canada. The party was guided by the philosophy of the sex-positive movement. Among other points, the party advocated for reform of sex education in schools so that sexual issues are taught more gradually over time and included a more comprehensive coverage of them. They advocated for the repeal of laws that promote antisexualism, such as prostitution laws and censorship. They also supported making Valentine's Day a statutory holiday and renaming Victoria Day to Eros Day.
The Sex Party was active for nearly eight years, between March 2005 and December 2012 when it de-registered with Elections BC. Its leader was John Ince, a Vancouver lawyer, author of The Politics of Lust and small business owner. He was one of three candidates representing The Sex Party in the May 2005 provincial election and one of the party's three candidates in the 2009 provincial election. None of its candidates won an election. The party attempted to become active in the 2006 federal election but encountered resistance from Canada Post, which refused to distribute its election material. The Sex Party challenged the Canada Post decision in federal court. The judgement found that Canada Post was within its rights to reasonably restrict (within that specific ad-mail program) material that was sexually explicit but that its application to the party's election material was improper. The court then ordered Canada Post to re-write its policy regarding sexually explicit material in that program.