Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is the national day of Canada. A federal statutory holiday, it celebrates the anniversary of July 1, 1867, the effective date of the Constitution Act, 1867 (then called the British North America Act, 1867), which united the three separate colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick into a single Dominion within the British Empire called Canada. Originally called Dominion Day (French: Le Jour de la Confédération), the holiday was renamed in 1982, the year the Canada Act was passed. Canada Day celebrations take place throughout the country, as well as in various locations around the world, attended by Canadians living abroad.
Children watch the Canada Day parade in Montreal, 2004
|Also called||Fête du Canada;|
previously named Dominion Day
|Observed by||Canadian citizens (Canada)|
|Type||Historical, cultural, national|
|Celebrations||Fireworks, parades, barbecues, concerts, carnivals, fairs, picnics|
Although Canada existed prior to 1867, within both the French and British empires, Canada Day is often informally referred to as "Canada's birthday", particularly in the popular press. However, the term "birthday" can be seen as an oversimplification, as Canada Day is the anniversary of only one important national milestone on the way to the country's full independence, namely the joining on July 1, 1867, of the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick into a wider British federation of four provinces (the colony of Canada being divided into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec upon Confederation). Canada became a "kingdom in its own right" within the British Empire commonly known as the Dominion of Canada.[n 1] Although still a British colony, Canada gained an increased level of political control and governance over its own affairs, the British parliament and Cabinet maintaining political control over certain areas, such as foreign affairs, national defence, and constitutional changes. Canada gradually gained increasing independence over the years, notably with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, until finally becoming completely independent with the passing of the Constitution Act, 1982 which served to fully patriate the Canadian constitution.
Under the federal Holidays Act, Canada Day is observed on July 1, unless that date falls on a Sunday, in which case July 2 is the statutory holiday. Celebratory events will generally still take place on July 1, even though it is not the legal holiday. If it falls on a weekend, businesses normally closed that day usually dedicate the following Monday as a day off.
The enactment of the British North America Act, 1867 (today called the Constitution Act, 1867), which confederated Canada, was celebrated on July 1, 1867, with the ringing of the bells at the Cathedral Church of St. James in Toronto and "bonfires, fireworks and illuminations, excursions, military displays and musical and other entertainments", as described in contemporary accounts. On June 20 of the following year, Governor General the Viscount Monck issued a royal proclamation asking for Canadians to celebrate the anniversary of Confederation, However, the holiday was not established statutorily until May 15, 1879, when it was designated as Dominion Day, alluding to the reference in the British North America Act to the country as a dominion. The holiday was initially not dominant in the national calendar; any celebrations were mounted by local communities and the governor general hosted a party at Rideau Hall. No larger celebrations were held until 1917 and then none again for a further decade—the golden and diamond anniversaries of Confederation, respectively.
In 1946, Philéas Côté, a Quebec member of the House of Commons, introduced a private member's bill to rename Dominion Day as Canada Day. The bill was passed quickly by the lower chamber but was stalled by the Senate, which returned it to the Commons with the recommendation that the holiday be renamed The National Holiday of Canada, an amendment that effectively killed the bill.
Beginning in 1958, the Canadian government began to orchestrate Dominion Day celebrations. That year, then Prime Minister John Diefenbaker requested that Secretary of State Ellen Fairclough put together appropriate events, with a budget of $14,000. Parliament was traditionally in session on July 1, but Fairclough persuaded Diefenbaker and the rest of the federal Cabinet to attend. Official celebrations thereafter consisted usually of Trooping the Colour ceremonies on Parliament Hill in the afternoon and evening, followed by a mass band concert and fireworks display. Fairclough, who became Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, later expanded the bills to include performing folk and ethnic groups. The day also became more casual and family oriented. Canada's centennial in 1967 is often seen as an important milestone in the history of Canadian nationalism and in Canada's maturing as a distinct, independent country, after which Dominion Day became more popular with average Canadians. Into the late 1960s, nationally televised, multi-cultural concerts held in Ottawa were added and the fête became known as Festival Canada. After 1980, the Canadian government began to promote celebrating Dominion Day beyond the national capital, giving grants and aid to cities across the country to help fund local activities.
Some Canadians were, by the early 1980s, informally referring to the holiday as Canada Day,[n 2] a practice that caused some controversy: Proponents argued that the name Dominion Day was a holdover from the colonial era, an argument given some impetus by the patriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982, and others asserted that an alternative was needed as the term does not translate well into French. Conversely, numerous politicians, journalists, and authors, such as Robertson Davies, decried the change at the time and some continue to maintain that it was illegitimate and an unnecessary break with tradition. Others claimed Dominion was widely misunderstood and conservatively inclined commenters saw the change as part of a much larger attempt by Liberals to "re-brand" or re-define Canadian history. Columnist Andrew Cohen called Canada Day a term of "crushing banality" and criticized it as "a renunciation of the past [and] a misreading of history, laden with political correctness and historical ignorance".
The holiday was officially renamed as a result of a private member's bill that was passed through the House of Commons on July 9, 1982, two years after its first reading. Only 12 Members of Parliament were present when the bill was taken up again, eight fewer than the necessary quorum; however, according to parliamentary rules, the quorum is enforceable only at the start of a sitting or when a member calls attention to it. The group passed the bill in five minutes, without debate, inspiring "grumblings about the underhandedness of the process". It met with stronger resistance in the Senate. Ernest Manning argued that the rationale for the change was based on a misperception of the name and George McIlraith did not agree with the manner in which the bill was passed, urging the government to proceed in a more "dignified way". However, the Senate did eventually pass the bill, regardless. With the granting of Royal Assent, the holiday's name was officially changed to Canada Day on October 27, 1982.
As the anniversary of Confederation, Dominion Day, and later Canada Day, was the date set for a number of important events, such as the first national radio network hookup by the Canadian National Railway (1927); the inauguration of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's cross-country television broadcast, with Governor General Vincent Massey's Dominion Day speech from Parliament Hill (1958); the flooding of the Saint Lawrence Seaway (1958); the first colour television transmission in Canada (1966); the inauguration of the Order of Canada (1967); and the establishment of "O Canada" as the country's national anthem (1980). Other events fell on the same day coincidentally, such as the first day of the Battle of the Somme in 1916—shortly after which Newfoundland recognized July 1 as Memorial Day to commemorate the Newfoundland Regiment's heavy losses during the battle—and the enactment of the Chinese Immigration Act in 1923—leading Chinese-Canadians to refer to July 1 as Humiliation Day and boycott Dominion Day celebrations until the act was repealed in 1947.
Most communities across the country will host organized celebrations for Canada Day, typically outdoor public events, such as parades, carnivals, festivals, barbecues, air and maritime shows, fireworks, and free musical concerts, as well as citizenship ceremonies. There is no standard mode of celebration for Canada Day; Jennifer Welsh, a professor of International Relations at the University of Oxford, said about this: "Canada Day, like the country, is endlessly decentralized. There doesn't seem to be a central recipe for how to celebrate it—chalk it up to the nature of the federation." However, the locus of the celebrations is the national capital, Ottawa, Ontario, where large concerts and cultural displays are held on Parliament Hill, with the governor general and prime minister typically officiating, though the monarch or another member of the Royal Family may also attend or take the governor general's place.[n 3] Smaller events are mounted in other parks around the city and in neighbouring Gatineau, Quebec.
Given the federal nature of the anniversary, celebrating Canada Day can be a cause of friction in the province of Quebec, where the holiday is overshadowed by Quebec's National Holiday, on June 24. For example, the federal government funds Canada Day events at the Old Port of Montreal—an area run by a federal Crown corporation—while the National Holiday parade is a grassroots effort that has been met with pressure to cease, even from federal officials. The nature of the event has also been met with criticism outside of Quebec, such as that given by Ottawa Citizen columnist David Warren, who said in 2007: "The Canada of the government-funded paper flag-waving and painted faces—the 'new' Canada that is celebrated each year on what is now called 'Canada Day'—has nothing controversially Canadian about it. You could wave a different flag, and choose another face paint, and nothing would be lost."
Canada Day also coincides with Quebec's Moving Day, when many fixed-lease apartment rental terms expire. The bill changing the province's moving day from May 1 to July 1 was introduced by a federalist member of the Quebec National Assembly, Jérôme Choquette, in 1973, in order not to affect children still in school in the month of May.
Canadian expatriates will often organize Canada Day activities in their local area on or near the date of the holiday. Examples include Canada D'eh, an annual celebration that takes place on June 30 in Hong Kong, at Lan Kwai Fong, where an estimated attendance of 12,000 was reported in 2008; Canadian Forces' events on bases in Afghanistan; and in Mexico, at the Royal Canadian Legion in Chapala, and at the Canadian Club in Ajijic. In China, Canada Day celebrations are held at the Bund Beach by the Canadian Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai and at Canadian International School in Beijing by Canada China Business Council.
The 1991 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 62nd playing of the midsummer classic between the all-stars of the American League (AL) and National League (NL), the two leagues comprising Major League Baseball. The game was held on July 9, 1991, at SkyDome in Toronto, the home of the Toronto Blue Jays of the American League. It was only the second time that the game was played outside the United States, as the National League's Montreal Expos hosted the 1982 Midsummer Classic at Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Quebec. The game resulted in the American League defeating the National League 4-2. Both the winning and losing pitchers represented the Canadian teams; the Blue Jays' Jimmy Key earned the win while the Expos' Dennis Martínez was given the loss. This was also the only All-Star Game to be awarded by Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti, who awarded the game to the Blue Jays on Canada Day 1989.2009 CFL season
The 2009 Canadian Football League season was the 56th season of modern professional Canadian football. Officially, it was the 52nd season of the league. The Montreal Alouettes won the 97th Grey Cup on November 29 with a last second 28–27 win over the Saskatchewan Roughriders. The 19-week regular schedule, issued February 3, 2009, began on July 1, which was only the second time in league history that a CFL season started on Canada Day, with the first occurring in 1998. The playoffs started on November 15 and two weeks of pre-season games began June 17.CJJR-FM
CJJR-FM is a radio station in the Greater Vancouver region of British Columbia. It broadcasts at 93.7 MHz on the FM band with an effective radiated power of 75,000 watts from a transmitter on Mount Seymour in the District of North Vancouver. Studios are located at suite #300-1401 W. 8th Ave. Vancouver.
The station received approval by the CRTC on March 20, 1986, and launched on Canada Day of that year.Canadian Football League Canada Day Games
Canada Day games in the Canadian Football League are an occasional part of the league's schedule and occur only when the league schedule begins on or before July 1. The games are not an annual occurrence, unlike the Labour Day or Thanksgiving Day games. As of the 2019 CFL season, there will have been 20 Canada Day games played.Collingwood Cove
Collingwood Cove is a hamlet in Alberta, Canada within Strathcona County. It is located at the terminus of Highway 629, approximately 17 kilometres (11 mi) southeast of Sherwood Park.
Commonly referred to as The Cove, Collingwood Cove started growing in the early 1950s as a popular summer lakeside resort. It was popular due to its proximity to Edmonton and its location on Cooking Lake, which was, at that time, one of the best lakes for recreational activities in the region.
Since 1990, there have been several new developments in the hamlet, such as new homes, a modern playground with basketball hoops and a seasonal ice surface. There has also been an active community association that hosts Canada Day celebrations, sleigh rides, skating parties and regular nature walks for the children.Dominion Day
Dominion Day was a day commemorating the granting of dominion status in certain countries. It was an official public holiday in Canada from 1879 to 1982, where it was celebrated on 1 July. That date is now known as Canada Day. There was also a Dominion Day public holiday in the Dominion of Newfoundland from 1907 to 1949, celebrated on 26 September.Edgefest
Edgefest was an annual outdoor rock festival in Canada. It was founded by staff members of Toronto radio station CFNY-FM. From 1987 to 2015, the festival was held every year in the summer (except for 2007). The festival was most frequently held on Canada Day at Molson Park in Barrie, Ontario or in Toronto. The festival primarily featured Canadian rock bands. During its 29-year operation, the festival featured more than 300 bands. As of 2015, it was the longest running rock festival in Canada.Flag of Canada
The flag of Canada (French: le drapeau du Canada), often referred to as the Canadian flag, or unofficially as the Maple Leaf and l'Unifolié (French for "the one-leafed"), is a national flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its centre in the ratio of 1:2:1, in the middle of which is featured a stylized, red, 11-pointed maple leaf charged in the centre. It is the first flag approved by Parliament for use as the country's national flag.
In 1964, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson formed a committee to resolve the ongoing issue of the lack of an official Canadian flag, sparking a serious debate about a flag change to replace the Union Flag. Out of three choices, the maple leaf design by George Stanley, based on the flag of the Royal Military College of Canada, was selected. The flag made its first official appearance on February 15, 1965; the date is now celebrated annually as National Flag of Canada Day.
The Canadian Red Ensign was unofficially used since the 1890s and approved by a 1945 Order in Council for use "wherever place or occasion may make it desirable to fly a distinctive Canadian flag". Also, the Royal Union Flag remains an official flag in Canada. There is no law dictating how the national flag is to be treated, but there are conventions and protocols to guide how it is to be displayed and its place in the order of precedence of flags, which gives it primacy over the aforementioned and most other flags.
Many different flags created for use by Canadian officials, government bodies, and military forces contain the maple leaf motif in some fashion, either by having the Canadian flag charged in the canton, or by including maple leaves in the design.Independence Day (United States)
Independence Day (colloquial: the Fourth of July) is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the Declaration of Independence of the United States on July 4, 1776. The Continental Congress declared that the thirteen American colonies were no longer subject (and subordinate) to the monarch of Britain and were now united, free, and independent states. The Congress had voted to declare independence two days earlier, on July 2, but it was not declared until July 4.Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, fairs, picnics, concerts, baseball games, family reunions, and political speeches and ceremonies, in addition to various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States. Independence Day is the National Day of the United States.List of NHL Entry Draft broadcasters
The following is a list of broadcasters of the NHL Entry Draft.Mill Woods Park
Mill Woods Park or Mill Woods Sport Park is a large multi-recreational park located in the centre of Mill Woods, Edmonton, just to the west of Mill Woods Town Centre. It serves as the school fields for both Holy Trinity and J Percy Page High Schools.
The park features picnic sites, water playground, small lake, paved walkways, sports field, and a skate park. It is also home to the Mill Woods Canada Day events with various musical performances, petting zoos, hay rides and other activities, with about 50,000 people in attendance each year. During the winter it becomes a popular spot for skiing and sledding.
The Mill Woods Recreation Centre, which is in between the two schools, has an indoor swimming pool, an exercise room, and two NHL-sized hockey rinks.Montreal West, Quebec
Montreal West (French: Montréal-Ouest) is an on-island suburb in southwestern Quebec, Canada on the Island of Montreal.
Montreal West is a small, close-knit community made up primarily of single-family dwellings. The town is largely composed of young families, and has a population of 5,085, as of the 2011 census. The town's area is 1.6 km². About 66% of the population of Montreal West speak English as their first language.
The core business area of Montreal West is located on Westminster Avenue between Milner and Curzon. Until 2010, it consisted exclusively of small, non-franchised businesses, but in a controversial decision, the Pharmaprix drugstore chain was allowed to open a large outlet on the corner of Westminster and Sherbrooke Street.
On January 1, 2002, as part of the 2002–2006 municipal reorganization in Montreal, Montreal West and the neighbouring suburbs of Côte-Saint-Luc and Hampstead were merged into the City of Montreal and became the borough of Côte-Saint-Luc–Hampstead–Montreal West. Following a change of government and a 2004 referendum in which the population voted to de-merge by a wide margin, Montreal West was reconstituted as an independent city on January 1, 2006.National Flag of Canada Day
National Flag of Canada Day (French: Jour du drapeau national du Canada), commonly shortened to Flag Day, is observed annually on February 15 to commemorate the inauguration of the Flag of Canada on that date in 1965. The day is marked by flying the flag, occasional public ceremonies, and educational programs in schools. It is not a public holiday, although there has been discussion about creating one.O Canada
"O Canada" (French: Ô Canada) is the national anthem of Canada. The song was originally commissioned by Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Théodore Robitaille for the 1880 Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony; Calixa Lavallée composed the music, after which, words were written by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The original lyrics were in French; an English translation was published in 1906. Multiple English versions ensued, with Robert Stanley Weir's version in 1908 gaining the most popularity, eventually serving as the basis for the official lyrics enacted by Parliament. Weir's lyrics have been revised three times, most recently when An Act to amend the National Anthem Act (gender) was enacted in 2018. The French lyrics remain unaltered. "O Canada" had served as a de facto national anthem since 1939, officially becoming the country's national anthem in 1980 when Canada's National Anthem Act received royal assent and became effective on July 1 as part of that year's Dominion Day (now known as Canada Day) celebrations.Quarter (Canadian coin)
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a Canadian coin worth 25 cents or one-fourth of a Canadian dollar. It is a small, circular coin of silver colour. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official name for the coin is the 25-cent piece, but in practice it is usually called a "quarter", much like its American counterpart. The coin is produced at the Royal Canadian Mint's facility in Winnipeg, Manitoba.Quidditch Canada
Quidditch Canada is the governing body that oversees quidditch within Canada under its mother organization, the International Quidditch Association.Roger Aldag
Roger Aldag (born October 6, 1953) is a former Canadian football offensive lineman who played for the Saskatchewan Roughriders from 1976 through 1992. He was part of the Grey Cup championship-winning Saskatchewan Roughriders in 1989. Aldag currently holds the Roughrider record for games played with 271 regular season games and 5 play-off games.
Aldag played for the Regina Rams in the Canadian Junior Football League from 1972–1975, during which time the Rams won two National Junior Football Championships (1973 and 1975). He was twice named the Rams Most Valuable Player.During Aldag's time as a member of the Saskatchewan Roughriders, he was named to the CFL's Western All-Star team 8 times. He twice received the Schenley Award as the CFL's Outstanding Offensive Lineman. He was also awarded the Mack Truck "Bulldog" award four times. The Mack Truck "Bulldog" award is voted on by opposing players.
Aldag was inducted into the Roughrider Plaza of Honour in 1993. He is a member of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame. His jersey #44 was retired by the team, making him one of only eight players so honoured. He was inducted into the Saskatchewan Sports Hall of Fame in 2006. Aldag was voted one of the CFL's top 50 players (#32) in a poll conducted by Canadian sports network TSN.
Aldag was mentioned in the May 9, 2008 "Get Fuzzy" cartoon by Darby Conley. Satchel notices that Bucky is wearing a CFL hat. (Although not mentioned specifically in the strip, Bucky is wearing a Hamilton Tiger-Cats toque.) Bucky replies that all sports in Canada are puck based. Satchel informs him that football is huge in Canada, and then asks Bucky if he had ever heard of Roger Aldag, since Aldag can't walk down the street in Saskatchewan. Bucky replies that nobody can walk down the street in Saskatchewan since it is covered in ice.
On July 1, 2008 Aldag accompanied the Grey Cup to Kandahar, Afghanistan for the Canada Day celebrations. Members of the Canadian Forces were reportedly thrilled to meet Aldag.
Roger Aldag now works for SaskEnergy in Regina as head of the Land Services department to the delight and humour of his coworkers, who often see his bobblehead figurine around the office.Steveston, British Columbia
Steveston was originally a small town founded in the 1880s by William Herbert Steves near Vancouver, British Columbia. It is located in the city of Richmond, British Columbia.
Steveston village is a historic salmon canning centre at the mouth of the South Arm of the Fraser River, on the southwest tip of Lulu Island in Richmond, British Columbia. Since 1945, it has hosted an annual Steveston Salmon Festival on July 1, Canada Day.
The extreme southwestern tip of this southwestern suburb contains Garry Point Park, the site of the Steveston Fisherman's Memorial.Sutton, Ontario
Sutton is a suburban community located nearly 2 km south of Lake Simcoe in Ontario, Canada. The community was formerly a village but is now part of the Town of Georgina after amalgamation with it and North Gwillimbury in 1971. The black river runs on the north end of the downtown. Highway 48 goes just south of the downtown. Sutton has a population of just over 6,000 people. Sutton is located about 1 hour north of Toronto.
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