Canada (New France)

Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France in 1535 during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier.[1][2][3][4] The word "Canada" at this point referred to the territory along the Saint Lawrence River,[5] then known as the Canada river, from Grosse Island in the east to a point between Quebec and Three Rivers,[6] although this territory had greatly expanded by 1600. French explorations continued "unto the Countreys of Canada, Hochelaga, and Saguenay"[7] before any permanent settlements were established. Even though a permanent trading post and habitation was established at Tadoussac in 1600, at the confluence of the Saguenay and Saint Lawrence rivers, it was under a trade monopoly and thus not constituted as an official French colonial settlement.

As a result, the first official settlement was not established within Canada until the founding of Quebec by Samuel de Champlain in 1608.[8][9] The other four colonies within New France were Hudson's Bay to the north, Acadia and Newfoundland to the east, and Louisiana far to the south.[10][11] Canada, the most developed colony of New France, was divided into three districts, Québec, Trois-Rivières, and Montréal, each with its own government. The governor of the District of Quebec was also the governor-general of all New France.[11]

Although the terms "Canada" and "New France" are sometimes used interchangeably, "New France actually represents a much broader portion of North American territory than the Great Lakes-St Lawrence colony of Canada".[12] The Seven Years' War saw Great Britain defeat the French and their allies and take possession of Canada. In the Treaty of Paris of 1763, which formally ended the conflict, France renounced its claim to Canada in exchange for other colonies and the colony became the British colony of Quebec.[13]

Canada

1535–1763
Coat of Arms of Canada
Coat of Arms
In blue: New France in 1750. Canada extended from south of the Great Lakes to the Gulf of St Lawrence
In blue: New France in 1750. Canada extended from south of the Great Lakes to the Gulf of St Lawrence
StatusColony of France within New France
CapitalQuebec
Common languagesFrench
Religion
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
Governor 
History 
• French territorial possession
1535
• Founding of Quebec
1608
• Founding of Trois-Rivieres
1634
• Founding of Montreal
1642
1763
CurrencyNew France livre
ISO 3166 codeCA
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Province of Quebec (1763–1791)
Today part of Canada (part of Ontario, Quebec, Labrador, Manitoba and Saskatchewan)
 United States (part of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota)

Settled country

A 1740 survey of the population of the St. Lawrence River valley counted about 44,000 colonists, the majority born in Canada. Of those, 18,000 lived under the Government of Quebec, 4,000 under the Government of Trois-Rivières and 22,000 under the Government of Montreal. The population was mostly rural; Quebec had 4,600 inhabitants; Trois-Rivières had 378; and Montreal had 4,200 inhabitants. Also, Île Royale had 4,000 inhabitants (of which 1,500 were in Louisbourg), and Île Saint-Jean had 500 inhabitants. Acadia had 8,000 inhabitants.[14]

Pays d'en Haut

La Nouvelle-France
Pays d'en Haut in pink around the Great Lakes in 1748.

Dependent on Canada were the Pays d'en Haut (upper countries), a vast territory north and west of Montreal, covering the whole of the Great Lakes and stretching as far into the North American continent as the French had explored.[11] Before 1717, when it ceded territory to the new colony of Louisiana, it stretched as far south as the Illinois Country. North of the Great Lakes, a mission, Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, was established in 1639. Following the destruction of the Huron homeland in 1649 by the Iroquois, the French destroyed the mission themselves and left the area. In what are today Ontario and the eastern prairies, various trading posts and forts were built such as Fort Kaministiquia (1679), Fort Frontenac (1673), Fort Saint Pierre (1731), Fort Saint Charles (1732) and Fort Rouillé (1750). The mission and trading post at Sault Ste. Marie (1688) would later be split by the Canada–US border.

The French settlements in the Pays d'en Haut among and south of the Great Lakes were Fort Niagara (1678), Fort Crevecoeur (1680), Fort Saint Antoine (1686), Fort St. Joseph (1691), Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit (1701), Fort Michilimackinac (1715), Fort Miami (1715), Fort La Baye (1717), and Fort Beauharnois (1727).

Today, the term Les Pays-d'en-Haut refers to a regional county municipality in the Laurentides region of Quebec, north of Montreal, while the former Pays d'en Haut was part of the District of Montreal.

Legacy

In its civil law, customs, and the cultural aspects of the majority of its population, the successor to the French colony of Canada is the Province of Quebec. The term Canada may also refer to today's Canadian federation created in 1867, or the historical Province of Canada, a British colony comprising southern Ontario and southern Quebec (referred to respectively as Upper Canada and Lower Canada when they were themselves separate British colonies prior to 1841). For Francophone Quebecers, preserving their distinctiveness from English Canada has been historically important, particularly since the rise of contemporary Quebec nationalism dating from the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. Francophone Quebecers will therefore often use the term New France (Nouvelle-France) when referring to Canada (New France), and the term Canadien, at one time used to refer to the French-speaking populations of colonial Canada, was replaced by the term Canadien-Français (French-Canadian), and more recently by Québécois. Descendants of the original French-speaking "Canadien" population of Canada (New France) now living outside of Quebec are now often referred to by reference to their current province of residence, such as Franco-Ontarian. Francophone populations in the Maritime provinces apart from northwestern New Brunswick are, however, more likely to be descended from the settlers of the French colony of Acadia, and therefore still call themselves Acadians.

See also

References

  1. ^ James H. Marsh (1999). The Canadian Encyclopedia. The Canadian Encyclopedia. p. 355. ISBN 978-0-7710-2099-5.
  2. ^ Maeve Conrick; Vera Regan (2007). French in Canada: Language Issues. Peter Lang. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-3-03910-142-9.
  3. ^ Alan Rayburn (2001). Naming Canada: Stories about Canadian Place Names. University of Toronto Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8020-8293-0.
  4. ^ Francis Parkman (1885). Pioneers of France in the New World. U of Nebraska Press. p. 202. ISBN 0-8032-8744-5.
  5. ^ Boswell, Randy (22 April 2013). "Putting Canada on the map". National Post.
  6. ^ Cartier, Jacques (1993). Cook, Ramsay (ed.). "Voyages of Jacques". Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 43.
  7. ^ Cartier, Jacques (1993). Cook, Ramsay (ed.). "Voyages of Jacques". Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 96.
  8. ^ New, William (2002). Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 190.
  9. ^ Kelley, Ninette; Trebilcock, Michael (2010). The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. University of Toronto Press. pp. 27–28.
  10. ^ University of Ottawa (2004). "Canada at the Time of New France". Archived from the original on 2017-03-25. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  11. ^ a b c MCC. "Le territoire", in La Nouvelle-France. Ressources françaises, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication (France), 1998, retrieved 2 August 2008
  12. ^ Germaine Warkentin; Carolyn Podruchny (2001). Decentring the Renaissance: Canada and Europe in Multidisciplinary Perspective, 1500-1700. University of Toronto Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-8020-8149-0.
  13. ^ "His Most Christian Majesty cedes and guaranties to his said Britannick Majesty, in full right, Canada, with all its dependencies, as well as the island of Cape Breton, and all the other islands and coasts in the gulph and river of St. Lawrence, and in general, every thing that depends on the said countries, lands, islands, and coasts" Treaty of Paris, 1763
  14. ^ NRC. "New France c. 1740 Archived 2007-12-10 at the Wayback Machine", in The Atlas of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 2003-10-06, retrieved 13 December 2009
1732 Montreal earthquake

The 1732 Montreal earthquake was a 5.8 magnitude earthquake that struck New France at 11:00 a.m. on September 16. The shaking associated with this earthquake shook the city of Montreal with significant damage, including destroyed chimneys, cracked walls and 300 damaged houses, as well as 185 buildings destroyed by fire following the earthquake. A girl was reported killed from the seismic activity, although Gabriel Leblanc found present information could not substantiate the claim, especially since, if the death was true, it should have been but was not mentioned in the description of the natural disaster by Sister Cuillerier, a staff member of the Hotel Dieu Hospital. The 1732 Montreal earthquake is one of the major earthquakes that occurred in the Western Quebec Seismic Zone.

British Columbia dollar

The dollar was the currency of British Columbia between 1865 and 1871. It replaced the British pound at a rate of 1 pound = 4.866 dollars and was equivalent to the Canadian dollar, which replaced it. The dollar was subdivided into 100 cents. No distinct coins were issued, with Canadian coins circulating.

The dollar was adopted as the currency of the then separated Colony of Vancouver Island in 1863. It therefore became the currency of the united colony formed in 1866.

Colonial militia in Canada

The colonial militias in Canada were made up of various militias prior to Confederation in 1867. During the period of New France and Acadia, and Nova Scotia (1605-1763), these militias were made up of Canadiens, aboriginals, British and Acadians. Traditionally, the Canadian Militia was the name used for the local sedentary militia regiments throughout the Canadas.

However, the term "militia" was also used to refer to the Canadian regular professional land forces, beginning with the passing of the Militia Act of 1855. Passed by the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, the Act created the Active Militia, later referred to as the Permanent Active Militia. After PAM's formation, the remaining sedentary colonial militia regiments were collectively referred to as the Non-Permanent Active Militia (NPAM). The terms PAM and NPAM continued to be used in Canada until 1940, when the Canadian militias was reorganized into the Canadian Army. The term Militia is still used to refer to the Canadian Army's part-time Primary Reserve.

Dummer's War

The Dummer's War (1722–1725, also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War, or the Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725), was a series of battles between New England and the Wabanaki Confederacy (specifically the Miꞌkmaq, Maliseet, and Abenaki) who were allied with New France. The eastern theater of the war was fought primarily along the border between New England and Acadia in Maine, as well as in Nova Scotia; the western theater was fought in northern Massachusetts and Vermont at the border between Canada (New France) and New England. (During this time, Massachusetts included Maine and Vermont.)

The root cause of the conflict on the Maine frontier concerned the border between Acadia and New England, which New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. Mainland Nova Scotia came under British control after the Siege of Port Royal in 1710 and the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 (not including Cape Breton Island), but present-day New Brunswick and Maine remained contested between New England and New France. New France established Catholic missions among the four largest Indian villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River (Norridgewock), one farther north on the Penobscot River (Penobscot Indian Island Reservation), one on the Saint John River (Meductic Indian Village / Fort Meductic), and one at Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia (Saint Anne's Mission). Similarly, New France established three forts along the border of New Brunswick during Father Le Loutre's War to protect it from a British attack from Nova Scotia.

The Treaty of Utrecht ended Queen Anne's War, but it had been signed in Europe and had not involved any member of the Wabanaki Confederacy. The Abenaki signed the 1713 Treaty of Portsmouth, but none had been consulted about British ownership of Nova Scotia, and the Mi'kmaq began to make raids against New England fishermen and settlements. The war began on two fronts as a result of the expansion of New England settlements along the coast of Maine and at Canso, Nova Scotia. The New Englanders were led primarily by Massachusetts Lt. Governor William Dummer, Nova Scotia Lt. Governor John Doucett, and Captain John Lovewell. The Wabanaki Confederacy and other Indian tribes were led primarily by Father Sébastien Rale, Chief Gray Lock, and Chief Paugus.

During the war, Father Rale was killed by the British at Norridgewock. The Indian population retreated from the Kennebec and Penobscot rivers to St. Francis and Becancour, Quebec, and New England took over much of the Maine territory. In New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the treaty that ended Father Rale's war marked a significant shift in European relations with the Mi'kmaq and Maliseet tribes.

Former colonies and territories in Canada

A number of states and polities formerly claimed colonies and territories in Canada prior to the evolution of the current provinces and territories under the federal system. North America prior to colonization was occupied by a variety of indigenous groups consisting of band societies typical of the sparsely populated North, to loose confederacies made up of numerous hunting bands from a variety of ethnic groups (Plains region), to more structured confederacies of sedentary farming villages (Great Lakes region), to stratified hereditary structures centred on a fishing economy (Plateau and Pacific Coast regions). The colonization of Canada by Europeans began in the 10th century, when Norsemen explored and, ultimately unsuccessfully, attempted to settle areas of the northeastern fringes of North America. Early permanent European settlements in what is now Canada included the late 16th and 17th century French colonies of Acadia and Canada (New France), the English colonies of Newfoundland (island) and Rupert's Land, the Scottish colonies of Nova Scotia and Port Royal.France lost nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War to the British Empire. Britain's imperial government over a century later then ceded the land to Canadian control in 1867 after confederation. Since then, Canada's external borders have changed several times, and had grown from four initial provinces to ten provinces and three territories by 1999.

French-Canadian music

French Canadian music is music derived from that brought by the early French settlers to what is now Quebec and other areas throughout Canada, or any music performed by the French Canadian people. Since the arrival of French music in Canada, there has been much intermixing with the Celtic music of Anglo-Canada.

French-Canadian folk music is generally performed to accompany dances such as the jig, jeux dansé, ronde, cotillion, and quadrille. The fiddle is perhaps the most common instrument utilized and is used by virtuosos such as Jean Carignan, Jos Bouchard, and Joseph Allard. Also common is the diatonic button accordion, played by the likes of Philippe Bruneau and Alfred Montmarquette. Spoons, bones, and jaw harps are also played in this music. A distinctive part of the French Canadian sound is podorythmie ("foot rhythm"), which involves using the feet to tap out complex rhythmic patterns, it is quite similar to tap dancing but is done from a seated position, and can be done simultaneously while playing the violin or other small instruments.

French settlers in New France established their musical forms in the nascent colonies of Canada (New France) and (New France) before the British conquest, completed in 1759. Already diverging from the music of France, Canadian and Acadian music were becoming distinct from each other, reinforced by the different experience of the regions under British rule, with Acadians experiencing a mass expulsion and partial return. The French (Quebecois) tradition continued to spread westward, however, in the form of the camp songs and rowing songs of the voyageurs, professional canoemen in the employ of the fur trading companies. In the west this tradition intermingled with others to give birth to Metis music.

There was no scholarly study of French Canadian song until Ernest Gagnon's 1865 collection of 100 folk songs. In 1967, Radio-Canada released The Centennial Collection of Canadian Folk Songs (much of which was focused on French-Canadian music), which helped launch a revival of Quebec folk. Singers like Yves Albert, Edith Butler, and, especially, Félix Leclerc and Gilles Vigneault, helped lead the way. The 1970s saw purists like Le Rêve du Diable and La Bottine Souriante continue the trend. As Quebec folk continued to gain in popularity, artists like Harmonium, Kate & Anna McGarrigle, Jim Corcoran, Bertrand Gosselin, and Paul Piché found a mainstream audience.

Since 1979, Quebec music artists have been recognized with the Felix Award.

In 2017, Universal Music Canada launched Canada 150: A Celebration of Music, a six-disc album to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Canada. It was criticised for not including any French-language song.

French Canadian (disambiguation)

French Canadians are an ethnic group comprising Canadians of French language and descent.

French Canada refers to French Canadians, Canadian people of French descent.

French Canadian or French Canada may also refer to:

French Canadian Americans, French Canadians in the United States

Anyone who speaks the French language in Canada, regardless of descent

Francophone Canada, French-speaking populations of Canada, regardless of descent

Colonists of New France in present-day Canada

Canada (New France), a French colony in present-day Canada that developed into Quebec

More broadly, the Canadian areas of New France

French Settlement (disambiguation)

French Settlement may mean:

For description of French colonization in French Empire

French colonial empires

French colonization of the Americas - French settlement in the New WorldNew France - French colonyLouisiana (New France)

Canada, New France

Acadia

Illinois CountryFor the town in Louisiana:

French Settlement, Louisiana - French settlement in Louisiana

History of Michigan

The history of human activity in Michigan, a U.S. stat in the Great Lakes, began with settlement of the western Great Lakes region by Native Americans perhaps as early as 11,000 BCE. The first European to explore Michigan, Étienne Brûlé, came in about 1620. The area was part of Canada (New France) from 1668 to 1763. In 1701, the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with fifty-one additional French-Canadians, founded a settlement called Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, now the city of Detroit. When New France was defeated in the French and Indian War, it ceded the region to Britain in 1763. After the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War, the Treaty of Paris (1783) expanded the United States' boundaries to include nearly all land east of the Mississippi River and south of Canada. Michigan was then part of the "Old Northwest". From 1787 to 1800, it was part of the Northwest Territory. In 1800, the Indiana Territory was created, and most of the current state Michigan lay within it, with only the easternmost parts of the state remaining in the Northwest Territory. In 1802, when Ohio was admitted to the Union, the whole of Michigan was attached to the Territory of Indiana, and so remained until 1805, when the Territory of Michigan was established.The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and New York City, and brought large numbers of people to Michigan and provided an inexpensive way to ship crops to market. In 1835 the people approved the Constitution of 1835, thereby forming a state government, although Congressional recognition was delayed pending resolution of a boundary dispute with Ohio known as the Toledo War. Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio. Michigan received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession and formally entered the Union as a state on January 26, 1837.

When iron and copper were discovered in the Upper Peninsula, impetus was created for the construction of the Soo Locks, completed in 1855. Along with mining, agriculture and logging became important industries. In 1899 Henry Ford built his first automobile factory in Highland Park, an independent city that is now surrounded by Detroit. General Motors was founded in Flint in 1908. Automobile assembly and associated manufacturing soon dominated Detroit, and the economy of Michigan.

The Great Depression of the 1930s affected Michigan more severely than many other places because of its industrial base. However, the state recovered in the post World War II years. The Mackinac Bridge connecting the Upper and Lower Peninsulas was completed and opened in 1957. By the 1960s, racial tensions produced unrest through the nation, and Detroit experienced a dramatic instance with the 12th Street Riot in 1967. By the 1980s, the state saw a decline in automobile sales and unemployment climbed. Michigan continues to diversify its economy away from its dependence on the automobile industry.

History of Quebec

Quebec has played a special role in French history; the modern province occupies much of the land where French settlers founded the colony of Canada (New France) in the 17th and 18th centuries. The population is predominantly French-speaking and Roman Catholic, with a large Anglophone minority, augmented in recent years by immigrants from Asia. The political alienation of the Francophones from the Anglophones has been a persistent theme since the late 19th century. Tensions were especially high during the First World War. Historically, British merchants and financiers controlled the economy and dominated Montreal. The Catholic Church, in close cooperation with the landowners, led a highly traditional social structure in rural and small town Quebec. Much of that changed during the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. Quebec's separatists, calling for an independent nation, gained strength but were narrowly defeated in two referenda. Quebec imposed increasingly stringent laws favouring the French language; many Anglophones left, as did many of the national and international corporations that had been based in Montreal.

Hélène Desportes

Hélène Desportes is often cited as the first white child born in Canada (New France) 1620 - Jun. 24, 1675. There is considerable disagreement about when she was born and, in particular, if she was born in Quebec or just before she arrived on the continent.

List of epidemics

This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease. Widespread and chronic complaints such as heart disease and allergy are not included if they are not thought to be infectious.

New Brunswick dollar

The dollar was the currency of New Brunswick between 1860 and 1867. It replaced the pound at a rate of 4 dollars = 1 pound (5 shillings = 1 dollar) and was equal to the Canadian dollar. The New Brunswick dollar was replaced by the Canadian dollar at par when New Brunswick entered the Canadian Confederation.

New France livre

The livre was the currency of New France, the French colony in modern-day Canada. It was subdivided into 20 sols, each of 12 deniers. The New France livre was a French colonial currency, distinguished by the use of paper money.

Nova Scotian dollar

The dollar was the currency of Nova Scotia between 1860 and 1871. It replaced the Nova Scotian pound at a rate of 5 dollars = 1 pound (1 dollar = 4 shillings) and was consequently worth less than the Canadian dollar (worth 4s 1.3d). The Nova Scotian dollar was replaced by the Canadian dollar at a rate of 73 Canadian cents = 75 Nova Scotian cents, thus maintaining the difference between the two currencies established in 1860.

Pierre de Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnial

Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial, marquis de Vaudreuil (22 November 1698 – 4 August 1778) was a Canadian-born colonial governor of Canada (New France) in North America. He was governor of French Louisiana (1743–1753) and in 1755 became the last Governor-General of New France. In 1759 and 1760 the British conquered the colony in the Seven Years' War (known in the United States as the French and Indian War).

Province

A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman provincia, which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries. In some countries with no actual provinces, "the provinces" is a metaphorical term meaning "outside the capital city".

While some provinces were produced artificially by colonial powers, others were formed around local groups with their own ethnic identities. Many have their own powers independent of central or federal authority, especially in Canada. In other countries, like China or France, provinces are the creation of central government, with very little autonomy.

Raid on York (1692)

The Raid on York (also known as the Candlemas Massacre) took place on 24 January 1692 during King William's War, when Chief Madockawando and Father Louis-Pierre Thury led 200-300 natives into the town of York (then in the District of Maine and part of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, now in the state of Maine), killing about 100 of the English settlers and burning down buildings, taking another estimated 80 villagers hostage. The villagers were forced to walk to Canada, New France, where they were ransomed by Capt. John Alden Jr. of Boston (son of John Alden and Priscilla Mullins of the Plymouth Colony). One of those taken Captive was a young Jeremiah Moulton, who would later gain notoriety during the Father Rale's War.Capt. Floyd wrote that "the houses are all burned and rifled except the half dozen or thereabout"...later in the same letter he adds: "there is about seventeen or eighteen houses burned". Forty-eight people were buried by Capt. Floyd, and the remaining number were young children whose names never appeared on the existing town records.

Amongst those killed was Reverend Shubael Dummer, the Congregational church minister; Dummer was shot at his own front door, while Dummer's wife, Lydia and their son, were carried away captive where "through snows and hardships among those dragons of the desert she also quickly died"; nothing further was heard of the boy. The Indians set fire to all undefended houses on the north side of the York River, the principal route for trade and around which the town had grown. After the settlement was reduced to ashes, however, it was rebuilt on higher ground at what is today York Village.

Capt. John Flood, who had come with the militia from Portsmouth, found on his arrival that "the greatest part of the whole town was burned and robbed," with nearly 50 killed and another 100 captured. He reported that Rev. Dummer was "barbarously murthered, stript naked, cut and mangled by these sons of Beliall."Today the event is commemorated annually in York, with historical re-enactments and lectures, events presented by the Old York Historical Society and sponsored in part by the Maine Humanities Council.

There is a memorial plaque in York on a large stone where, according to the plaque, Abenaki Indians left their snowshoes before creeping into York and attacking the settlers.

Slavery in New France

Slavery in New France was practiced by many of the indigenous populations and predates the arrival of Europeans to the continent, however it was not until the colonization and commencement of trade with England's southern colonies that commercial chattel slavery became common place in New France.This institution, which endured for almost two centuries, affected thousands of men, women, and children descended from Indigenous and African peoples.

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