The Canada–United States border (French: frontière Canada–États-Unis), officially known as the International Boundary (French: Frontière Internationale), is the longest international border in the world between two countries. It is shared between Canada and the United States, the second- and fourth/third largest countries by area, respectively. The terrestrial boundary (including portions of maritime boundaries in the Great Lakes, and on the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic coasts) is 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi) long, of which 2,475 kilometres (1,538 mi) is Canada's border with Alaska. Eight Canadian provinces and territories (Yukon, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick), and thirteen U.S. states (Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine) are located along the border.
|Canada–United States border|
|Length||8,891 km (5,525 mi)|
|Established||September 3, 1783|
|Signing of the Treaty of Paris at the end of the American War of Independence|
|Current shape||April 11, 1908|
|Treaty of 1908|
|Treaties||Treaty of Paris, Jay Treaty, Treaty of 1818, Webster–Ashburton Treaty, Oregon Treaty|
|Notes||See list of current disputes|
The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States. In the second article of the Treaty the parties agreed on all of the boundaries of the United States, including but not limited to the boundary with British North America to the north. The agreed boundary included the line from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River, and proceeded down along the middle of the river to the 45th parallel of north latitude.
That parallel had been established in the 1760s as the boundary between the provinces of Quebec and New York (including what later became the state of Vermont). It was surveyed and marked by John Collins and Thomas Valentine from 1771 to 1773.
Northwest of Lake Superior, the boundary followed rivers to the Lake of the Woods. From the Lake of the Woods, the boundary was agreed to go straight west until it met the Mississippi River. In fact that line never meets the river since the river's source is further south.
The Jay Treaty of 1794 (effective 1796) created the International Boundary Commission, which was charged with surveying and mapping the boundary. It also provided for removal of British military and administration from Detroit and other frontier outposts on the U.S. side. It was superseded by the Treaty of Ghent (effective 1815) concluding the War of 1812, which included pre-war boundaries.
The Rush–Bagot Treaty of 1817 provided a plan for demilitarizing the two combatant sides in the War of 1812 and also laid out preliminary principles for drawing a border between British North America (later Canada) and the United States.
Westward expansion of both British North America and the United States saw the boundary extended west along the 49th parallel from the Northwest Angle at Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains under the Treaty of 1818. That treaty extinguished British claims south of that latitude to the Red River Valley, which was part of Rupert's Land. The treaty also extinguished U.S. claims to land north of that line in the watershed of the Missouri River, which was part of the Louisiana Purchase; this amounted to three small areas, consisting of the northern part of the drainages of the Milk River (today in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan), the Poplar River (Saskatchewan), and Big Muddy Creek (Saskatchewan).
Along the 49th parallel, the border vista is theoretically straight but in practice follows the 19th-century surveyed border markers and varies by several hundred feet in spots.
Disputes over the interpretation of the border treaties and mistakes in surveying required additional negotiations resulting in the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842. The treaty resolved the dispute known as the Aroostook War over the boundary between Maine on the one hand, and New Brunswick and the Province of Canada on the other. The treaty redefined the border between New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York on the one hand, and the Province of Canada on the other, resolving the Indian Stream dispute and the Fort Blunder dilemma at the outlet to Lake Champlain.
The part of the 45th parallel that separates Quebec from the U.S. states of Vermont and New York had first been surveyed from 1771 to 1773 after it had been declared the boundary between New York (including what later became Vermont) and Quebec, and it was surveyed again after the War of 1812. The U.S. federal government began to construct fortifications just south of the border at Rouses Point, New York, on Lake Champlain. After a significant portion of the construction was completed, measurements revealed that at that point, the actual 45th parallel was three-quarters of a mile (1.2 km) south of the surveyed line; the fort, which became known as "Fort Blunder", was in Canada. This created a dilemma for the United States that was not resolved until a provision of the treaty left the border on the meandering line as surveyed. The border along the Boundary Waters in present-day Ontario and Minnesota between Lake Superior and the Northwest Angle was also redefined.
An 1844 boundary dispute during U.S. President James K. Polk's administration led to a call for the northern boundary of the U.S. west of the Rockies to be latitude 54° 40' north (related to the southern boundary of Russia's Alaska Territory), but the United Kingdom wanted a border that followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. The dispute was resolved in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, which established the 49th parallel as the boundary through the Rockies.
The Northwest Boundary Survey (1857–1861) laid out the land boundary, but the water boundary was not settled for some time. After the Pig War in 1859, arbitration in 1872 established the border between the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands.
The International Boundary Survey, called the Northern Boundary Survey in the United States, began in 1872. Its mandate was to establish the border as agreed to in the Treaty of 1818. Archibald Campbell led the way for the United States. Donald Cameron headed the British team. This survey focused on the border from the Lake of the Woods to the summit of the Rocky Mountains.
On April 11, 1908, the United Kingdom and the United States agreed, under Article IV of the Treaty of 1908, to survey and delimit the boundary between Canada and the United States through the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes, in accordance with modern surveying techniques, and thus accomplished several changes to the border.
In 1925, the International Boundary Commission (French: Commission de la frontière internationale) was made a permanent organization responsible for surveying and mapping the boundary, maintaining boundary monuments (and buoys where applicable), and keeping the boundary clear of brush and vegetation for 6 metres (20 ft). This "border vista" extends for 3 metres (9.8 ft) on each side of the line.
The Commission is headed by two commissioners, one of whom is Canadian, the other American.
The International Boundary is commonly referred to as the world's longest undefended border, but this is true only in the military sense, as civilian law enforcement is present. It is illegal to cross the border outside border controls. Everyone crossing the border must be checked. The relatively low level of security measures stands in contrast to that of the United States – Mexico border (one-third as long as the Canada–U.S. border), which is actively patrolled by U.S. Customs and Border Protection personnel to prevent illegal migration and drug trafficking.
Parts of the International Boundary cross through mountainous terrain or heavily forested areas, but significant portions also cross remote prairie farmland and the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River, in addition to the maritime components of the boundary at the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic oceans. The border also runs through the middle of the Akwesasne Nation and even divides some buildings found in communities in Vermont and Quebec.[ Some recent editing activity in this paragraph is disputed. – discuss ] Such buildings are sometimes called line houses. The Maine–New Brunswick border divides the Aroostook Valley Country Club.
Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States, security along the border was dramatically tightened by both nations in both populated and rural areas. Both nations are also actively involved in detailed and extensive tactical and strategic intelligence sharing.
As of December 2010, Canada and the United States are negotiating an agreement titled "Beyond the Border: A Shared Vision for Perimeter Security and Competitiveness" which would give the U.S. more influence over Canada's border security and immigration controls, and more information would be shared by Canada with the U.S.
Residents of both nations who own property adjacent to the border are forbidden to build within the six-meter-wide (almost 20 feet) boundary vista without permission from the International Boundary Commission. They are required to report such construction to their respective governments.
Where required, fences or vehicle blockades are used. All persons crossing the border are required to report to the respective customs and immigration agencies in each country. In remote areas where staffed border crossings are not available, there are hidden sensors on roads and also scattered in wooded areas near crossing points and on many trails and railways, but there are not enough border personnel on either side to verify and stop coordinated incursions. There is no border zone; the U.S. Customs and Border Protection routinely sets up checkpoints as far as 100 miles (160 km) into U.S. territory.
In August 2017, the border between Quebec and New York saw an influx of up to 500 illegal crossings each day, by people seeking asylum in Canada. Canada increased border patrol and immigration staffing in the area, and reiterated that crossing the border illegally had no effect on one's asylum status.
Since the beginning of January 2017 and up until the end of March 2018, the RCMP have intercepted 25,645 people crossing the border into Canada illegally. Public Safety Canada estimates another 2,500 came across in April 2018 for a total of just over 28,000.
U.S. and Canadian agents operate separately and together along the border. From 2007 to 2010, 147 people were arrested on the property of one Blaine, Washington bed and breakfast inn, but agents estimate that they catch only about 5% of smugglers. In July 2005, law enforcement personnel arrested three men who had built a 360-foot (110 m) tunnel under the border between British Columbia and Washington that they intended to use for smuggling marijuana, the first such tunnel known on this border.
Cornwall, Ontario, experiences ongoing smuggling —mostly of tobacco and firearms from the United States —because of its location. The neighboring Mohawk territory of Akwesasne straddles the Ontario–Quebec–New York borders, and its First Nations sovereignty prevents Ontario Provincial Police, Sûreté du Québec, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canada Border Services Agency, Canadian Coast Guard, United States Border Patrol, United States Coast Guard, and New York State Police from exercising jurisdiction over exchanges taking place within the territory.
In late 2006, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced a rule regarding new identification requirements for U.S. citizens and international travelers entering the U.S. Implemented on January 23, 2007, this final rule and first phase of the WHTI specifies six forms of identification—one of which is required in order to enter the U.S. by air: a valid passport, a United States Passport Card, a state enhanced driver's license (available in Michigan, New York, Vermont, Washington, British Columbia, Manitoba, Minnesota, Ontario, and Quebec) per the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative, or trusted traveler program card (NEXUS, FAST, or SENTRI); a valid Merchant Mariner Credential when traveling in conjunction with official maritime business; or a valid U.S. military identification card when traveling on official orders.
Since June 2009, every traveller arriving via a land or sea port-of-entry (including ferries) has been required to present one of the above forms of identification to cross the border.
|Rank||State||Length of border with Canada||Rank||Province/Territory||Length of border with the U.S.|
|1||Alaska||2,475 km (1,538 mi)||1||Ontario||2,727 km (1,682 mi)|
|2||Michigan||1,160 km (721 mi)||2||British Columbia||2,168 km (1,347 mi)|
|3||Maine||983 km (611 mi)||3||Yukon||1,244 km (786 mi)|
|4||Minnesota||880 km (547 mi)||4||Quebec||813 km (505 mi)|
|5||Montana||877 km (545 mi)||5||Saskatchewan||632 km (393 mi)|
|6||New York||716 km (445 mi)||6||New Brunswick||513 km (318 mi)|
|7||Washington||687 km (427 mi)||7||Manitoba||497 km (309 mi)|
|8||North Dakota||499 km (310 mi)||8||Alberta||298 km (185 mi)|
|9||Ohio||235 km (146 mi)|
|10||Vermont||145 km (90 mi)|
|11||New Hampshire||93 km (58 mi)|
|12||Idaho||72 km (45 mi)|
|13||Pennsylvania||68 km (42 mi)|
Currently there are 119 legal land border crossings between the United States and Canada. A complete list of crossings can be found here. Of them, two are one-way crossings:
Twenty-six of the crossings take place at a bridge or tunnel.
Ferry crossings: There are 13 international ferries operating between the U.S.and Canada. Two of them carry passengers only and one carries only rail cars. Four of the ferries operate only on a seasonal basis.
Rail crossings: There are 39 railroads that cross the U.S.–Canada border. Nine of these are no longer in use. Eleven of them cross the border at bridges or tunnels. Only four international rail lines currently carry passengers between the U.S.and Canada.
Unstaffed road crossings: There are six roads that do not have border inspection services in one or both directions, where travellers are legally allowed to cross the border.
The U.S. maintains immigration offices, called pre-clearance facilities, in eight Canadian airports with international air service to the United States (Calgary, Edmonton, Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver, and Winnipeg). This expedites travel by allowing flights originating in Canada to land at a U.S. airport without being processed as an international arrival. Canada does not maintain equivalent personnel at U.S. airports due to the sheer number of U.S. departure locations with Canada-bound flights and the limited number of flights compared to the number of U.S.-bound flights that depart major Canadian airports.
Similar arrangements exist at major Canadian seaports that handle sealed direct import shipments into the U.S.
Additionally, at Vancouver's Pacific Central Station, passengers are required to pass through U.S. preclearance facilities, and to pass their baggage through an X-ray machine before being allowed to board the Seattle-bound Amtrak Cascades train, which makes no further stops before crossing the border. Preclearance facilities are not available for the popular New York City to Montreal (Adirondack) or Toronto (Maple Leaf) trains, since these lines have stops between Montreal or Toronto and the border. Instead, passengers must clear customs at a stop located at the actual border.
Ferry services operate between the province of New Brunswick and the state of Maine, as well as between the province of British Columbia and the states of Washington and Alaska. There are also several ferry services in the Great Lakes operating between the province of Ontario and the states of Michigan, New York, and Ohio. The ferry between Maine and Nova Scotia ended its operations in 2009, but resumed them in 2014.
The Boldt Castle on Heart Island in the St. Lawrence River has a border control point on the island, but no specific location on the Canadian side. Canadians must present identification to land on the island.
One curiosity on the Canada–U.S. border is the presence of six airports that straddle the borderline. The airports were built prior to the U.S. entry into World War II as a way to legally transfer U.S.-built aircraft such as the Lockheed Hudson to Canada under the provisions of the Lend-Lease Act. In the interest of maintaining neutrality, U.S. military pilots were forbidden to deliver combat aircraft to Canada. The aircraft were flown to the border, landed, and then at night towed on their wheels over the border by tractors or horses. The next day the planes were crewed by RCAF pilots and flown to other locations, typically airbases in Eastern Canada, from where they were often flown to the United Kingdom and deployed in the Battle of the Atlantic.
Piney Pinecreek Border Airport is located in Manitoba and Minnesota. The northwest/southeast-oriented runway straddles the border, and there are two ramps; one in the U.S. and one in Canada. The airport is jointly owned by the Minnesota Department of Transportation and the local government of Piney, Manitoba. It is assigned U.S. identifier 48Y and Canadian identifier JX2.
International Peace Garden Airport is located in Manitoba and North Dakota adjacent to the International Peace Garden. The runway is entirely within North Dakota, but a ramp extends across the border to allow aircraft to access Canadian customs. While not jointly owned, it is operated as an international facility for customs clearance as part of the International Peace Garden.
Coronach/Scobey Border Station Airport is located in Saskatchewan and Montana. The east-west runway is sited exactly on the border. The airport is jointly owned by the Canadian and U.S. governments and is assigned U.S. identifier 8U3 and Canadian identifier CKK3.
Coutts/Ross International Airport is located in Alberta and Montana. Like Coronach/Scobey, the east–west runway is sited exactly on the border. It is owned entirely by the Montana Aeronautics Division. It is assigned U.S. identifier 7S8 and Canadian identifier CEP4.
Whetstone International Airport or Del Bonita/Whetstone International Airport is located in Alberta and Montana, and similarly has an east-west runway sited exactly on the border. It is assigned U.S. identifier H28 and Canadian identifier CEQ4.
Avey Field State Airport is located in Washington and British Columbia. The privately owned airfield is mostly in the U.S., but several hundred feet of the north-south runway extend into Canada, and both Canadian and U.S. customs are available. It is assigned U.S. identifier 69S but does not have a Canadian identifier.
The Haskell Free Library and Opera House straddles the border in Derby Line, Vermont, and Stanstead, Quebec. Private homes are divided by the International Boundary line between Estcourt Station, Maine, and Pohénégamook, Quebec. Private homes between Beebe Plain, Quebec and Beebe Plain, Vermont; a seasonal home between Alburgh, Vermont, and Noyan, Quebec, at the intersection of Matthias Lane in Alburgh and Chemin au Bord de l'Eau in Noyan; and one house between Richford, Vermont, and Abercorn, Quebec, are also divided by the border.
The Halfway House, a tavern also known as Taillon's International Hotel, straddles the border between Dundee, Quebec, and Fort Covington, New York. It was built in 1820, before the border was surveyed.
To be a true international exclave, all potential paths of travel from the exclave to the home country must cross over only the territory of a different country or countries. Like exclaves, practical exclaves are not contiguous with the land of the home country and have land access only through another country or countries. Unlike exclaves, they are not entirely surrounded by foreign territory. Hence, they are exclaves for practical purposes, without meeting the strict definition.
The term pene-exclave was defined in Robinson (1959) as "parts of the territory of one country that can be approached conveniently — in particular by wheeled traffic — only through the territory of another country.":283 Pene-exclaves are also called functional exclaves or practical exclaves.:31 Thus, a practical exclave has land borders with other territory but is not completely surrounded by the other's land or territorial waters.:60 Catudal (1974):113 and Vinokurov (2007):31–33 further elaborate upon examples, including Point Roberts, Washington. "Although physical connections by water with Point Roberts are entirely within the sovereignty of the United States, land access is only possible through Canada." Practical exclaves can exhibit continuity of state territory across territorial waters but, nevertheless, a discontinuity on land, such as in the case of Point Roberts.:47
Contiguous territories of states which for all regular commercial and administrative purposes can be reached only through the territory of other states are called pene-enclaves (pene-exclaves). These have virtually the same characteristics as complete enclaves (exclaves).
In fact, some of the boat docks for Canadian cabins sit on the U.S. side of the border.
The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49° north of Earth's equator. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.
The city of Paris is about 15 km (9 mi) south of the 49th parallel and is the largest city between the 48th and 49th parallels. Its main airport, Charles de Gaulle Airport, lies on the parallel.
Roughly 3,500 kilometres (2,175 mi) of the Canada–United States border was designated to follow the 49th parallel from British Columbia to Manitoba on the Canada side, and from Washington to Minnesota on the U.S. side, more specifically from the Strait of Georgia to the Lake of the Woods. This international border was specified in the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 and the Oregon Treaty of 1846, though survey markers placed in the 19th century cause the border to deviate from the 49th parallel by up to tens of meters.
From a point on the ground at this latitude, the sun is above the horizon for 16 hours, 12 minutes during the summer solstice and 8 hours, 14 minutes during the winter solstice This latitude also roughly corresponds to the minimum latitude in which astronomical twilight can last all night near the summer solstice. Slightly less than 1/8 of the Earth's surface is north of the 49th parallel.Alaska boundary dispute
The Alaska boundary dispute was a territorial dispute between the United States and the United Kingdom, which then controlled Canada's foreign relations. It was resolved by arbitration in 1903. The dispute existed between the Russian Empire and Britain since 1821, and was inherited by the United States as a consequence of the Alaska Purchase in 1867. The final resolution favored the American position, and Canada did not get an all-Canadian outlet from the Yukon gold fields to the sea. The disappointment and anger in Canada was directed less at the United States, and more at the British government for betraying Canadian interests in favour of healthier Anglo-American relations.Border Lake Provincial Park
Border Lake Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada, located on the right (west) bank of the Unuk River and extending from that river's crossing of the Canada–United States border upstream.Boundary Waters
The Boundary Waters, also called the Quetico-Superior country, is a region of wilderness straddling the Canada–United States border between Ontario and Minnesota, in the region just west of Lake Superior. This region is part of the Superior National Forest in northeastern Minnesota, and in Canada it includes La Verendrye and Quetico Provincial Parks in Ontario. Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota may also be considered part of the Boundary Waters. The name "Boundary Waters" is often used in the U.S. to refer specifically to the U.S. Wilderness Area protecting its southern extent, the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness.
The Boundary Waters region is characterized by a vast network of waterways and bogs within a glacially-carved landscape of Precambrian bedrock covered in thin soils and boreal forests. The Boundary Waters is a popular destination for recreationalists pursuing camping, canoeing, and fishing as well as for those simply looking for natural scenery and relaxation. The area is one of several distinct regions of Minnesota.Caribou Mountain (Franklin County, Maine)
Caribou Mountain is a mountain on the Canada–United States border, the section of which follows the height of land of the Saint Lawrence River watershed. The peak is located about 0.5 mi (0.80 km) inside Franklin County, Maine. The southwest end of Caribou's summit ridge is in Le Granit Regional County Municipality, Québec.
The northwest side of Caribou Mountain drains into the West Branch of the Moose River, thence into the South Branch of the Moose, the Moose River, and the Kennebec River, then into the Gulf of Maine. The southeast side of Caribou Mountain drains into Number Six Brook, then into the South Branch of the Moose River. The southwest end of Caribou Mountain drains into Rivière aux Araignées in Saint-Augustin-de-Woburn, Quebec, then into Lac aux Araignées, Lac Mégantic, the Rivière Chaudière, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.Del Bonita, Alberta
Del Bonita is a hamlet in southern Alberta, Canada within Cardston County. It is located approximately 49 km (30 mi) south of Magrath at the junction of Highway 62 and Highway 501. It serves as a port of entry into the U.S. state of Montana at the nearby Canada – United States border crossing 3 km (1.9 mi) to the south. Del Bonita is a name derived from Spanish meaning "of the pretty".Del Bonita lies at an elevation of 1,305 m (4,281 ft), on Shanks Creek, which flows into Shanks Lake and further east into the Milk River.
Del Bonita/Whetstone International Airport (FAA LID: H28, TC LID: CEQ4) is located 2 nautical miles (4 km; 2 mi) south of the settlement, on the Canada–United States border.Devils Paw
Not to be confused with Devils Thumb, Boundary Peak 71, which is in the same mountain range.Devils Paw (or Devil's Paw, or Boundary Peak 93) is the high point of the Juneau Icefield, on the Alaska-British Columbia border. It is a part of the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains. It is notable for its steep rise above the low local terrain. Its height is sometimes given as 8,507 feet (2,593 m).
Devils Paw is located on the northeast side of the Juneau Icefield, and its north slopes feed Tulsequah Lake and the Tulsequah Glacier. Its south slope forms the head of the picturesquely-named "Hades Highway", which is the eastern extremity of the Icefield.
To illustrate the steepness of the peak: the north face drops 7,000 feet (2133 m) in approximately three miles (4.8 km), and the southeast side drops 8,000 feet (2438 m) in about seven miles (11.3 km).Devils Thumb
Devils Thumb, or Taalkhunaxhkʼu Shaa in Tlingit, is a mountain in the Stikine Icecap region of the Alaska–British Columbia border, near Petersburg. It is named for its projected thumb-like appearance. Its name in the Tlingit language means "the mountain that never flooded" and is said to have been a refuge for people during Aangalakhu ("the Great Flood"). It is one of the peaks that marks the border, and is also listed on maps as Boundary Peak 71.
Devils Thumb is a very challenging climb even for advanced mountain climbers.Halls Stream
Halls Stream or Rivière Hall is a 25.2-mile-long (40.6 km) tributary of the Connecticut River in eastern North America. For most of its length, it forms the Canada–United States border, with the province of Quebec (Canada) to its west and the state of New Hampshire (United States) to its east.International Joint Commission
The International Joint Commission (French: Commission mixte internationale) is a bi-national organization established by the governments of the United States and Canada under the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. Its responsibilities were expanded with the signing of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1978 (later amended 1987 and 2012).List of Canada–United States border crossings
This is a list of border crossings along the International Boundary between Canada and the United States. They are ordered from west to east (crossings with Alaska from north to south). Each port of entry in the table below links to an article about that crossing.
The Land ports of entry list is limited to places where CBSA and/or CBP currently provide border inspection services. Crossings where border inspection services were once provided, but have since been barricaded are listed in the Closed Land Ports of Entry section. Unstaffed crossings are listed in the Unstaffed Road Crossings section. Separate sections are also provided for Rail Crossings and point-to-point Ferry Crossings.Mount Alverstone
Mount Alverstone or Boundary Peak 180, is a high peak in the Saint Elias Mountains, on the border between Alaska and Yukon. It shares a large massif with the higher Mount Hubbard to the south and the slightly lower Mount Kennedy to the east. The summit of Mount Alverstone marks a sharp turn in the Alaska/Canada border; the border goes south from this point toward the Alaska panhandle and west toward Mount Saint Elias.
The mountain was named in 1908 for Lord Richard Everard Webster Alverstone, Lord Chief Justice of England, 1900–13, and U.S. Boundary Commissioner in 1903. He served on various arbitration commissions including the one dealing with the Bering Sea Fur seal controversy. In the Alaska boundary dispute in 1903, his vote was the deciding one against Canadian claims.Mount Augusta
Mount Augusta, also designated Boundary Peak 183, is a high peak of the Saint Elias Mountains on the border between the U.S. state of Alaska and the Canadian territory of Yukon.
Mount Augusta lies about 25 km (16 mi) south of Mount Logan and 25 km east of Mount Saint Elias, respectively the first and second highest mountains in Canada. It forms the eastern end of the long ridge of which Mount Saint Elias is the center and highest point.
The Seward Glacier starts to the north of the peak, separating it from Mount Logan, and then flows around the east side of the peak, forming the gap between Augusta and the peaks surrounding Mount Cook. It then continues south to join the Malaspina Glacier.Mount Cook (Saint Elias Mountains)
Mount Cook (or Boundary Peak 182) is a high peak on the Yukon Territory-Alaska border, in the Saint Elias Mountains of North America. It is approximately 15 miles southwest of Mount Vancouver and 35 miles east-southeast of Mount Saint Elias. It forms one of the corners of the jagged border, which is defined to run in straight lines between the major peaks. The same border also separates Kluane National Park in the Yukon Territory from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in Alaska.
Like many peaks of the Saint Elias Mountains, Mount Cook is a massive peak, with a large rise above local terrain. For example, the southwest face drops 10,000 feet (3,048 m) to the Marvine Glacier in approximately 4 miles (6.4 km). It is also quite close to tidewater: Disenchantment Bay is less than 18 miles (29 km) from the summit.
Mount Cook was first climbed in 1953. It is not often climbed due to its remoteness, the size of the mountain, the typically poor weather (due to its proximity to the ocean), and the fact that it is not one of the highest peaks of the range. In fact there are only four references to the peak in the complete index of the American Alpine Journal.Mount Hubbard
Mount Hubbard is one of the major mountains of the Saint Elias Range. It is located on the Alaska/Yukon border; the Canadian side is within Kluane National Park and Reserve, and the American side is part of Wrangell–St. Elias National Park. The mountain was named in 1890 by U.S. Geological Survey geologist Israel Russell after Gardiner Greene Hubbard, first president of the National Geographic Society, which had co-sponsored Russell's expedition.Hubbard is the highest point of a large massif with three named summits; the other two are Mount Alverstone and Mount Kennedy. Alverstone and Hubbard form a corner of the Canada–United States border: the border extends roughly south from these peaks toward the Alaska panhandle, and roughly west toward Mount Saint Elias, approximately 100 km (62 mi) away. The Hubbard Glacier separates Mount Hubbard from Mount Vancouver to the west, while the Lowell Glacier lies to the east of the peak.
Mount Hubbard is the eighth-highest peak in the United States, and the twelfth-highest peak in Canada. It is also notable for its large rise above local terrain. For example, its west face rises 7,500 feet (2,300 meters) above the Alverstone Glacier in less than 2 miles (3.2 kilometers), and the peak rises 11,000 feet (3,350 m) above the Hubbard Glacier to the southwest in only 7 mi (11.3 km). Mount Hubbard is just over 20 mi (32 km) from tidewater at Disenchantment Bay. However, despite its precipitous drops to the west, the eastern side provides a non-technical (though long) route to the summit.Mount Vancouver
Mount Vancouver is the 15th highest mountain in North America. Its southern side lies in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve at the top of the Alaska panhandle, while its northern side is in Kluane National Park and Reserve in the southwestern corner of Yukon, Canada. Mount Vancouver has three summits: north, middle, and south, with the middle summit being the lowest. The south summit, Good Neighbor Peak at 4,785 m (15,699 ft), straddles the international border while the north summit is slightly higher at 4,812 m (15,787 ft).The mountain was named by William Healey Dall in 1874 after George Vancouver, who explored the southeast coast of Alaska from 1792 to 1794.Parallel 54°40′ north
Parallel 54°40′ north is a line of latitude between the 54th and 55th parallels north that forms the southernmost boundary between the U.S. State of Alaska and the Canadian Province of British Columbia. The boundary was originally established as a result of tripartite negotiations between the Russian Empire, the British Empire and the United States, resulting in parallel treaties in 1824 and 1825.Pigeon River (Minnesota–Ontario)
The Pigeon River forms part of the Canada–United States border between the state of Minnesota and the province of Ontario, west of Lake Superior. In pre-industrial times the river was a waterway of great importance for transportation and the fur trade.Willow Creek Border Crossing
The Willow Creek Border Crossing connects the cities of Havre, Montana and Govenlock, Saskatchewan on the Canada–United States border. It is reached by Montana Secondary Highway 233 on the American side and Saskatchewan Highway 21 on the Canadian side. Canada replaced its 1974 border station at this crossing with a modular unit in 2015. The US replaced its border inspection facilities in 2012. These facilities were originally built in 1962. Prior to that time, people entering the US at this location were expected to travel to Havre to report for inspection. The last 10 miles of the road between Havre and the Canada–US border were unpaved as recently as 2000.
United States articles
Relevant colonial era,
United States and
|Visas and policies|
|Supreme Court cases|
and points of entry