Campeche City

San Francisco de Campeche[1] (pronounced [sam fɾanˈsisko ðe kamˈpe.tʃe]; Yucatec Maya: Ahk'ìin Pech, pronounced [aχkʼiːn˥˧ pʰetʃ]), 19th c. English also Campeachy,[2] is a city in Campeche Municipality in the state of Campeche, Mexico on the shore of the Bay of Campeche of the Gulf of Mexico—and its municipal seat also serves as the state's capital city. The city's population at the 2010 census was 220,389,[3] and the municipality for which it serves as municipal seat had a population of 259,005.[3]

The city was founded in 1540 by Spanish conquistadores as San Francisco de Campeche atop the pre-existing Maya city of Can Pech. The Pre-Columbian city was described as having 3,000 houses and various monuments, of which little trace remains.

The city retains many of the old colonial Spanish city walls and fortifications which protected the city (not always successfully) from pirates and buccaneers. The state of preservation and quality of its architecture earned it the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999. Originally, the Spaniards lived inside the walled city, while the natives lived in the surrounding barrios of San Francisco, Guadalupe and San Román. These barrios still retain their original churches; the one in Guadalupe is almost 500 years old.

San Francisco de Campeche
City
Downtown Campeche
Cathedral
Campeche's seawall
Panoramic of the city
San José el Alto Fortress
Photomontage of Campeche City
Official seal of San Francisco de Campeche

Seal
Location of Campeche within the state
Location of Campeche within the state
Location of the state within Mexico
Location of the state within Mexico
Coordinates: 19°51′0″N 90°31′50″W / 19.85000°N 90.53056°WCoordinates: 19°51′0″N 90°31′50″W / 19.85000°N 90.53056°W
CountryMexico
StateCampeche
MunicipalityCampeche
City FoundedOctober 4, 1540 (479 years ago)
Government
 • MayorEliseo Fernández Montufar (2018–2021)
Elevation
10 m (33 ft)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total220,389
Demonym(s)Campechano
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central (US Central))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (Central)
Area code(s)981
Major AirportIng. Alberto Acuña Ongay International Airport
IATA CodeCPE
ICAO CodeMMCP
WebsiteOfficial Campeche Website
Official nameHistoric Fortified Town of Campeche
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iv
Designated1999 (23rd session)
Reference no.895
State Party Mexico
RegionLatin America and the Caribbean

History

Facades in Old City with Cathedral at Rear - Campeche - Mexico
Facades of Colonial buildings with the city's cathedral visible.

Founded in 1540 by Francisco Montejo, Campeche was terrorized by pirates and marauders until the city started fortification in 1686.[4]

San Francisco de Campeche was originally an indigenous village, Ah Kim Pech, where the Spanish first landed in Mexico in 1517. The city of Campeche was founded in 1540 and fortified against pirates during the 17th century. It still has the appearance of a fortress. Historical monuments and buildings, such as the Franciscan cathedral, old Maya ruins, and the old city walls and forts, attract many tourists.

The fortifications system of Campeche, an eminent example of the military architecture of the 17th and 18th centuries, is part of an overall defensive system set up by the Spanish to protect the ports on the Caribbean Sea from pirate attacks like the 1663 Sack of Campeche.

The state of preservation and quality of its architecture earned it the status of a World Heritage Site in 1999.[5][6]

City fortifications

Fort of San Miguel - Campeche - Mexico - 03
Vigia y cañon
The Fort of San Miguel was built to defend the town against the attack of pirates during the 17th and 18th centuries.

The city of Campeche is an example of urbanism in a baroque colonial city, with a reticular and regular plan, its urban trace, a model of colonial port cities, reflects the main role that it played as a commercial, religious and military connection point characterized by its high level of integrity and homogeneity. More than one thousand buildings with a historic value have survived as witnesses of space and temporal superimposition of several significant historic periods of Mexico.

Due to the constant attacks of both English and Dutch buccaneers and pirates such as Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Laurens de Graaf, Cornelis Jol, Jacobo Jackson, Jean Lafitte, Francisco de Grammont, Bartolomé Portugués, William Parker, Francisco Nau, Edward Mansvelt, Henry Morgan, Lewis Scot, Roche Braziliano and Michel de Grammont for almost 160 years, in 1686 the government started to fortify the city.[4]

The French engineer Louis Bouchard de Becour was commissioned to unify all the defensive works that surrounded the city with a wall. At its completion, the wall surrounding the city of Campeche was 2,560 meters in length, forming an irregular hexagon around the main part of the city, with eight defensive bastions on the corners. These bulwarks now serve different functions:

  • Santiago: Used as the Botanical Garden 'Xmuch´haltún'. Reconstructed.
  • San Pedro: Former prison.
  • San Francisco: Protects the Land Gate. Houses the library of the INAH.
  • San Juan: Protects the Land Gate.
  • Nuestra Señora de la Soledad: Also protects the Sea Gate. It is the largest one and holds the Museum of City History.
  • San Carlos: Holds the City Museum. This fort was the first one built. Protects the Sea Gate.
  • Santa Rosa.

It also contained four gates to allow access to the main quarters. The main entrances are the Puerta de la tierra ("Land Gate"), built in 1732, and the Puerta del mar ("Sea Gate"). The Land Gate is kept as a tourist attraction, having a light and sound show three nights each week and keeping original supplies and items from the 17th century. The other gates were Guadalupe and San Román, connecting to the outside neighborhoods.

Additionally, two main forts protected the city from two nearby hills on each side, the forts of San José el Alto (built in 1762) and San Miguel. These forts gave long-range artillery coverage and served also as look-outs. They were built before the walls of the city. The fort of San Miguel is used as a museum and houses a collection of pre-Hispanic items. The fort of San José houses a collection of boats and weapons of the period.

Demographics

Campeche001
Independence Park

As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 259,005.[3]

The municipal seat, and largest settlement, is the city of San Francisco de Campeche (often shortened to Campeche). As of 2010, the city had a population of 220,389.[3]

Aside from the municipal seat, the municipality has 564 localities.

The largest localities are, (with 2010 populations in parentheses): Lerma (8,281), Chiná (5,194), classified as urban, and Los Laureles (2,251), Alfredo V. Bonfil (2,060), Pich (1,756), Tikinmul (1,663), Imí (1,227), Hampolol (1,123), Castamay (1,101), and San Francisco Kobén (1,045), classified as rural.[3]

Sister cities

San Francisco de Campeche
View of San Francisco de Campeche

Climate

Campeche has a tropical savanna climate, with most rain falling in the wet season from June to October.

Gallery

Panoramic Edzná

Archaeological zone of Edzná.

Campeche 001

Colonial Spanish houses in Campeche.

CampecheStreetColoredHouses

Buildings along a street in central Campeche with typical colors

San Francisco Temple and Convent

The church and convent of San Francisco, 1540, one of the oldest in the Americas, was built on the site where officiate the first church on the mainland in 1517.

CampecheFishermen

Campeche fishermen cutting up the catch on the Gulf of Mexico

CampecheMagicStore

Shop in central Campeche selling magical adjuncts and elixirs

Campeche - Teatro San Pablo

Francisco de Paula Toro Theatre, (1832 - 1834).

Stela of Mayan Warrior - Archaeological Museum - Fort of San Miguel - Campeche - Mexico

Maya stela at the Fort of San Miguel Museum.

15-07-14-Campeche-Kathedrale-RalfR-WMA 0735

Cathedral of the city.

15-07-15-Centro histórico de San Francisco de Campeche-RalfR-WMA 0851

Jardín Botánico Xmuch' Haltun

15-07-15-Centro histórico de San Francisco de Campeche-RalfR-WMA 0789

City of Campeche

Notes

Notes

  1. ^ Station ID for Campeche, CAMP. is 76695 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

References

  1. ^ "Constitucion Politica del Estado de Campeche (chapter 10, article 24)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  2. ^ https://www.google.com/search?q=campeachy&source=lnms&tbm=bks
  3. ^ a b c d e "Campeche". Catálogo de Localidades. Secretaría de Desarrollo Social (SEDESOL). Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  4. ^ a b Marley, David (2005) Historic cities of the Americas: an illustrated encyclopedia, Volume 1 p.223. ABC-CLIO, 2005
  5. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Historic Fortified Town of Campeche". whc.unesco.org.
  6. ^ World Heritage Site - Campeche Archived 2010-08-21 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-10. Retrieved 2008-09-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Sister Cities". www.ci.laredo.tx.us.
  9. ^ a b "Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores - Gobierno - gob.mx". www.sre.gob.mx.
  10. ^ El Municipio y Ciudad de Veracruz, Veracruz: Ciudades hermanadas. Archived 2012-07-31 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Engineering Timelines - Copenhagen key facts". www.engineering-timelines.com.
  12. ^ "Estado de Campeche–Estacion: Campeche (DGE)". NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951–2010 (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  13. ^ "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981–2000" (PDF) (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  14. ^ "Station 76695 Campeche, CAMP". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 7 May 2015.

Bibliography

See also: Bibliography of the history of Campeche City

External links

Alejandro Moreno Cárdenas

Rafael Alejandro Moreno Cárdenas (born 25 April 1975) is a Mexican politician current Governor of Campeche, who is affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). As of 2013 he served as Deputy of both the LIX and LXII Legislatures of the Mexican Congress representing Campeche. He also served as Senator during the LX and LXI.

Bay of Campeche

The Bay of Campeche (Spanish: Bahía de Campeche), or Campeche Sound, is a bight in the southern area of the Gulf of Mexico. It is surrounded on three sides by the Mexican states of Campeche, Tabasco and Veracruz. The area of the bay is 6,000 square miles (16,000 km2) and maximum depth of the bay is approximately 180 feet (55 m). It was named by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba and Antón de Alaminos during their expedition in 1517.

Campeche International Airport

Ing. Alberto Acuña Ongay International Airport (IATA: CPE, ICAO: MMCP), also known as Campeche International Airport, is an international airport located in Campeche, Campeche, Mexico. It handles national and international air traffic of the city of Campeche. It's operated by Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares, a federal government-owned corporation.

In 2017, the airport handled 178,675 passengers, and in 2018 it handled 165,185 passengers.

Francisco S. Carvajal

Francisco Sebastián Carvajal y Gual (December 9, 1870 – September 20, 1932) was a Mexican lawyer and politician who served briefly as president in 1914. In his role as foreign minister, he succeeded Victoriano Huerta as president upon the latter's resignation.

Jesús Enrique Rejón Aguilar

Jesús Enrique Rejón Aguilar (a.k.a. Z-7, El Mamito) is a former leader of the Mexican criminal organization known as Los Zetas. He was wanted by the governments of Mexico and USA until his capture on July 4, 2011 in Atizapán de Zaragoza, a Mexico City suburb.

Jorge Luis Lavalle Maury

Jorge Luis Lavalle Maury (born July 16, 1975 in Campeche) Senator of the Republic by the National Action Party, presided over the First Committee of the Interior, Constitutional Points and Justice, is currently secretary of the Commission of Finance and Public Credit Secretary Administration Commission, Member of the Committees on Communications and Transport Energy.

Graduated from the Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey. He has a degree in Finance at the University of Lincolnshire and Humberside in England, and a Master in Senior Management and International Business at the Universidad del Mayab. It has been developed in the private sector as a certified SAP consultant, Vice President of Finance Karims Group Consulting and Executive Vice President John Broderick-Mac.

Justo Sierra

Justo Sierra Méndez (January 26, 1848 – September 13, 1912), was a prominent liberal Mexican writer, historian, journalist, poet and political figure during the Porfiriato, in the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. He was a leading voice of the Científicos, "the scientists" who were the intellectual leaders during the regime of Porfirio Díaz.

Layda Elena Sansores

Layda Elena Sansores San Román (born 7 August 1945) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Citizens' Movement. She currently serves as senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Campeche. She also served as senator during the LVI and LVII legislatures and as deputy of the Chamber of Deputies during the LV and LX legislatures.

Mexican Federal Highway 180D

Federal Highway 180D is the toll highways paralleling Highway 180 in seven separate segments of highway. Three are in Veracruz:, the Libramiento de Cardel, the highway from Cardel to Veracruz, and the Nuevo Teapa-Cosoleacaque highway. Four segments exist beyond Veracruz: one between Agua Dulce and Cárdenas, Tabasco, facilitating a connection from the city of Coatzacoalcos in Veracruz; a bypass of Villahermosa; one connecting Champotón to Campeche City, Campeche; and another connecting the cities of Mérida, Yucatán, and Cancún, Quintana Roo. An additional segment, connecting the latter highway to Playa del Carmen, is officially part of Highway 180D, but is signaged as Highway 305D.

Mexican Federal Highway 261

Federal Highway 261 (Carretera Federal 261) is a Federal Highway of Mexico. It connects Campeche City with Umán in Yucatán (230.83 kilometres (143.43 mi)) and Mérida with Progreso (35.04 kilometres (21.77 mi)); it also serves as a bypass of the latter city (6.5 kilometres (4.0 mi)).

Miguel Barbachano

Miguel Barbachano y Tarrazo (29 September 1807 – 17 December 1859) (Baqueiro 1896) was a liberal Yucatecan politician, who was 5 times governor of Yucatán between 1841 and 1853.

Miguel Barbachano y Tarrazo was born in the city of Campeche, a son of Manuel Barbachano and his wife, the former Maria Josefa Tarrazo.

He was one of the staunchest advocates for the independence of Yucatán from Mexico, but historical circumstances led to Yucatán twice declaring its independence while Barbachano was out of power, and twice Barbachano arranged for Yucatán's reunification with Mexico.

He generally alternated in power with the centrist Santiago Méndez, who was more in favor of union with Mexico but was driven to declare independence by the excesses of Mexican dictator Antonio López de Santa Anna.

The final reunification was due to the crisis of the Caste War of Yucatán.

Olga Dondé

Olga Dondé (May 23, 1937 – November 16, 2004) was a Mexican artist involved in various fields but best known her still life pieces. She was a self-taught painter, who worked for two years until she decided to enter works in a show in 1968. From then she had about 100 showings of her work, including more than forty individual exhibitions in Mexico, the United States, South Americana and Europe. She also founded artistic organizations, an art gallery and a publishing house. Dondé’s work was recognized by admission in the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana, among other honors and her work continues to be shown and honored after her death.

XHAC-FM (Campeche)

XHAC-FM is a regional Mexican radio station that serves the state of Campeche.

XHCAM-FM

XHCAM-FM is a radio station in Campeche, Campeche. It currently airs a pop music format as Kiss 101.9 FM.

XHCUA-FM

XHCUA-FM is a Mexican college radio station owned by the Universidad Autónoma de Campeche.

XHIC-FM

XHIC-FM is a Mexican college radio station owned by the Instituto Campechano and located in Campeche, Campeche.

It formerly broadcast on AM as XEIC-AM 810, which came to air in September 1997 running test transmissions on 1580 kHz and then received its permit and moved to 810 in 1998. In 2010, the station received its authorization to move to FM. The FM station launched in 2015.

XHIC does not appear in the most recent IFT table release, dated March 31, 2016, likely because it failed to apply to transition to a public or social use concession.

XHMI-FM

XHMI-FM is a Spanish & English Top 40 (CHR) radio station in Campeche, Campeche. It is affiliated with MVS Radio's Exa FM.

XHRAC-FM

XHRAC-FM is a radio station in Campeche, Campeche. It carries Radio Fórmula programming.

XHRTC-FM

XHRTC-FM is a future public radio station in Campeche, Campeche. XHRTC will be owned by Televisión y Radio de Campeche, the state broadcaster, and will broadcast on 89.3 MHz.

The station's concession was awarded in September 2015. The station will supplement XESTRC-AM 920, which has a transmitter located in Tenabo.

Climate data for Campeche (1951–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.8
(101.8)
39.0
(102.2)
41.0
(105.8)
44.0
(111.2)
45.0
(113.0)
43.0
(109.4)
40.0
(104.0)
40.0
(104.0)
39.0
(102.2)
40.5
(104.9)
38.0
(100.4)
40.0
(104.0)
45.0
(113.0)
Average high °C (°F) 29.1
(84.4)
30.6
(87.1)
32.7
(90.9)
35.0
(95.0)
35.9
(96.6)
34.9
(94.8)
34.5
(94.1)
34.2
(93.6)
33.4
(92.1)
32.1
(89.8)
30.7
(87.3)
29.4
(84.9)
32.7
(90.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
24.7
(76.5)
26.5
(79.7)
28.5
(83.3)
29.6
(85.3)
29.2
(84.6)
28.7
(83.7)
28.5
(83.3)
28.2
(82.8)
27.0
(80.6)
25.4
(77.7)
24.0
(75.2)
27.0
(80.6)
Average low °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
18.7
(65.7)
20.2
(68.4)
22.1
(71.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.5
(74.3)
22.9
(73.2)
22.7
(72.9)
22.9
(73.2)
21.9
(71.4)
20.0
(68.0)
18.6
(65.5)
21.3
(70.3)
Record low °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
9.0
(48.2)
10.0
(50.0)
13.0
(55.4)
16.0
(60.8)
17.0
(62.6)
18.0
(64.4)
19.0
(66.2)
18.0
(64.4)
15.0
(59.0)
12.0
(53.6)
9.0
(48.2)
8.0
(46.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25.8
(1.02)
15.8
(0.62)
12.4
(0.49)
13.0
(0.51)
53.9
(2.12)
162.0
(6.38)
181.3
(7.14)
188.2
(7.41)
203.1
(8.00)
117.9
(4.64)
41.0
(1.61)
25.0
(0.98)
1,039.4
(40.92)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.9 2.5 2.0 1.3 3.9 11.7 14.8 14.6 14.3 9.3 4.7 3.5 86.5
Average relative humidity (%) 74 71 68 66 64 68 74 76 78 77 77 75 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 216 200 264 267 254 237 241 236 202 208 194 177 2,696
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico National (humidity 1981–2000)[12][13]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)[14][a]
Campeche State of Campeche
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