Campania

Campania (Italian pronunciation: [kamˈpaːnja]) is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2018, the region has a population of around 5,820,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy;[2] its total area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) makes it the most densely populated region in the country.[3] Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region.

Campania was colonised by Ancient Greeks and was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture. The capital city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture, especially in regard to gastronomy, music, architecture, archeological and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis, Paestum, Aeclanum, Stabiae and Velia. The name of Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside" or "happy countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it highly important in the tourism industry, especially along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri.[4]

Campania
Flag of Campania
Flag
Coat of arms of Campania
Coat of arms
Campania in Italy
CountryItaly
CapitalNaples
Government
 • PresidentVincenzo De Luca (PD)
Area
 • Total13,590 km2 (5,250 sq mi)
Population
(30 November 2014)
 • Total5,869,029
 • Density430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
GDP/ Nominal€100/ $130[1] billion (2014)
GDP per capita€17,000/ $22,000[1] (2014)
NUTS RegionITF
Websitewww.regione.campania.it

History

Ancient tribes and Samnite Wars

Paestum BW 2013-05-17 15-08-53
Temple of Hera, Paestum, built 550 BC

The original inhabitants of Campania were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language, which is part of the Italic family; their names were the Osci, the Aurunci and the Ausones.[5] During the 8th century BC, people from Euboea in Greece, known as Cumaeans, began to establish colonies in the area roughly around the modern day province of Naples.[6] Another Oscan tribe, the Samnites, moved down from central Italy into Campania.

Aeclanum (Ruins-03)
Ruins of the town Aeclanum.

Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they easily took over the cities of Capua and Cumae, in an area which was one of the most prosperous and fertile in the Italian Peninsula at the time.[7] During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the Romans securing rich pastures of northern Campania during the First Samnite War.[8]

The major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, and when the town was eventually captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans were left with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War.[7] The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas foederata while strongly aligned with Rome.[9] The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania and additional regions further to the south.[8]

Roman period

Campania was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside. Its Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture.[10] During the Pyrrhic War the battle took place in Campania at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious. They renamed the city Beneventum (modern day Benevento), which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua in southern Italy.[11] During the Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality with Rome, allied with Carthage.[12] The rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania, which remained allies of Rome. Naples resisted Hannibal due to the imposing walls.[10] Capua was eventually starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC, and the Romans were victorious.[12]

Karl Brullov - The Last Day of Pompeii - Google Art Project
The Last Day of PompeiiKarl Briullov

The rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin language as official and was Romanised.[13] As part of the Roman Empire, Campania, with Latium, formed the most important region of the Augustan divisions of Italia; Campania was one of the main areas for granary.[13] In ancient times Misenum (modern 'Miseno'), at the extreme northern end of the bay of Naples, was the largest base of the Roman navy, since its port (Portus Julius) was the base of the Classis Misenensis, the most important Roman fleet. It was first established as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the emperor Augustus.Roman Emperors chose Campania as a holiday destination, among them Claudius and Tiberius, the latter of whom is infamously linked to the island of Capri.[10] It was also during this period that Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples, and there were also several martyrs during this time.[14] Unfortunately, the period of relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 which buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.[15] With the Decline of the Roman Empire, its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the Middle Ages and a period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the area.[10]

Feudalism in the Middle Ages

The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages, in the hands of the Byzantine Empire (also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire) and the Lombards. Under the Normans, the smaller independent states were brought together as part of the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the Kingdom of Naples. It was during this period that elements of Spanish, French and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania.

The Kingdom

Norman to Angevin

Napoli Castel Nuovo Maschio Angioino, a seat of medieval kings of Naples and Aragon 2013-05-16 14-05-42
Early kings ruled from Castel Nuovo

After a period as a Norman kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily passed to the Hohenstaufens, who were a powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian origins.[16] The University of Naples Federico II was founded by Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom.[17] Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king.[18] Charles officially moved the capital from Palermo to Naples where he resided at the Castel Nuovo.[19] During this period, much Gothic architecture sprang up around Naples, including the Naples Cathedral, the main church of the city.[20]

In 1281, with the advent of the Sicilian Vespers, the kingdom split in half. The Angevin Kingdom of Naples included the southern part of the Italian peninsula, while the island of Sicily became the Aragonese Kingdom of Sicily.[18] The wars continued until the peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, which saw Frederick III recognised as king of the Isle of Sicily, while Charles II was recognised as the king of Naples by Pope Boniface VIII.[18] Despite the split, Naples grew in importance, attracting Pisan and Genoese merchants,[21] Tuscan bankers, and with them some of the most championed Renaissance artists of the time, such as Boccaccio, Petrarch and Giotto.[22] Alfonso I conquered Naples after his victory against the last Angevin king, René, and Naples was unified for a brief period with Sicily again.[23]

Aragonese to Bourbon

Onofrio Palumbo - Masaniello
Revolutionary Masaniello

Sicily and Naples were separated in 1458 but remained as dependencies of Aragon under Ferrante.[24] The new dynasty enhanced Naples' commerce by establishing relations with the Iberian peninsula. Naples also became a centre of the Renaissance, with artists such as Laurana, da Messina, Sannazzaro and Poliziano arriving in the city.[25] During 1501 Naples came under direct rule from France at the time of Louis XII, as Neapolitan king Frederick was taken as a prisoner to France; this lasted four years.[26] Spain won Naples at the Battle of Garigliano and, as a result, Naples then became part of the Spanish Empire throughout the entire Habsburg Spain period.[26] The Spanish sent viceroys to Naples to directly deal with local issues: the most important of which was Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, who was responsible for considerable social, economic and urban progress in the city; he also supported the Inquisition.[27]

During this period Naples became Europe's second largest city after Paris.[28] During the Baroque era it was home to artists including Caravaggio, Rosa and Bernini; philosophers such as Telesio, Bruno, Campanella and Vico; and writers such as Battista Marino. A revolution led by local fisherman Masaniello saw the creation of a brief independent Neapolitan Republic, though this lasted only a few months before Spanish rule was regained.[26] Finally, by 1714, the Spanish ceased to rule Naples as a result of the War of the Spanish Succession; it was the Austrian Charles VI who ruled from Vienna, similarly, with viceroys.[29] However, the War of the Polish Succession saw the Spanish regain Sicily and Naples as part of a personal union, which in the Treaty of Vienna were recognised as independent under a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons in 1738 under Charles VII.[30]

Ferdinand i twosicilies
Ferdinand, Bourbon king.

During the time of Ferdinand IV, the French Revolution made its way to Naples: Horatio Nelson, an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the city in 1798 to warn against it. However, Ferdinand was forced to retreat and fled to Palermo, where he was protected by a British fleet.[31] Naples' lower classes (the lazzaroni) were pious and Royalist, favouring the Bourbons; in the mêlée that followed, they fought the Neapolitan pro-Republican aristocracy, causing a civil war.[31] The Republicans conquered Castel Sant'Elmo and proclaimed a Parthenopaean Republic, secured by the French Army.[31] A counter-revolutionary religious army of lazzaroni under Fabrizio Ruffo was raised; they had great success and the French surrendered the Neapolitan castles and were allowed to sail back to Toulon.[31]

Ferdinand IV was restored as king; however, after only seven years Napoleon conquered the kingdom and instated Bonapartist kings including his brother Joseph Bonaparte.[32] With the help of the Austrian Empire and allies, the Bonapartists were defeated in the Neapolitan War and Bourbon Ferdinand IV once again regained the throne and the kingdom.[32] The Congress of Vienna in 1815 saw the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily combined to form the Two Sicilies,[32] with Naples as the capital city. Naples became the first city on the Italian peninsula to have a railway in 1839,[33] there were many factories throughout the kingdom making it a highly important trade centre.[34]

World War II, "Salerno Capital"

In September 1943, Salerno was the scene of the Operation Avalanche and suffered a great deal of damage. From February 12 to July 17, 1944, it hosted the Government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio. In those months Salerno was the temporary "Capital of the Kingdom of Italy", and the King Victor Emmanuel III lived in a mansion in its outskirts. Salerno received the first "Tricolore" in an official ceremony on 7 January 2012 from the premier Mario Monti, to celebrate the glorious story of Italy and its old capitals.

Geography

Mt Vesuvius Erupting 1944
Mount Vesuvius erupting in 1944

Campania has an area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) and a coastline of 350 km (217 mi) on the Tyrrhenian Sea. Campania is famous for its gulfs (Naples, Salerno and Policastro) as well as for three islands (Capri, Ischia and Procida).

Four other regions border Campania; Lazio to the northwest, Molise to the north, Apulia (Puglia) to the northeast and Basilicata to the east.

The mountainous interior is fragmented into several massifs, rarely reaching 2,000 metres (Miletto of 2,050 m), whereas close to the coast there are volcanic massifs: Vesuvio (1,277 m) and Campi Flegrei.

The climate is typically Mediterranean along the coast, whereas in the inner zones it is more continental, with low temperatures in winter. 51% of the total area is hilly, 34% mountainous and the remaining 15% is made up of plains. There is a high seismic risk in the area of the region.

Economy

The agro-food industry is one of the main pillars of industry of Campania. The organisation of the sector is improving and leading to higher levels of quality and salaries. Campania mainly produces fruit and vegetables, but has also expanded its production of flowers grown in greenhouses, becoming one of the leading regions of the sector in Italy. The value added of this sector represents around 6.5% of the total value added of the region, equalling €213.7 million. Campania produces over 50% of Italy's nuts and is also the leader in the production of tomatoes, which reaches 1.5 million tonnes a year. A weak point, however, for the region's agriculture is the very reduced size of farms, equal to 3.53 hectares. Animal breeding is widespread (it was done in 70,278 farms in 2000) and the milk produced is used to process typical products, such as mozzarella.

Olive trees, mainly of the varieties Carpellese (PDO designated),[35] Cornia (Val di Cornia DOC), Frantoio, Leccino, Ogliarola Barese, Olivella, Ortice, Pisciottana (Also Ogliastrina or Olivo dell'Ascea),[36] Ravece (also known as Rotondello),[37] and Salella,[38] covers over 74,604 hectares (184,350 acres) of the agricultural land, together with the production of fruit, contributing €620.6 million to the economy. Wine production has increased as well as the quality of the wine.[39]

The region has a dense network of road and motorways, a system of maritime connections and an airport (Naples Airport), which connect it rapidly to the rest of the Country. Campania has a series of historical problems and internal contrasts, although they are improving. The regional capital, Naples, one of the most populated and interesting cities in Italy, rich in history and natural beauty, both artistic and archaeological, still represents the centre of regional life. The port connects the region with the whole Mediterranean basin, and brings tourists to the archaeological sites, the cities of art (Naples and Caserta), to the beautiful coastal areas and to the islands. The services sector makes up for 78% of the region's gross domestic product.[39]

The GDP per capita of Campania is the highest among the regions of South Italy, yet it is only 66.7% of the Italian average, which highlights the steep economic gap between the North and the South of Italy. The situation of Campania's economy is considered "anomalous", as it is believed to have a large potential not properly exploited, as well as high rates of unemployment and of submerged economy. It was speculated that one factor could have been a failure of Campania to connect with the economy of the unitary Italian state, while another factor is its peripheral position too distant from the developed central areas of Europe.[40]

Heavy industry used to be concentrated in the Naples metropolitan area, in which the largest industrial area was Bagnoli, a suburb located North of the city. Bagnoli enjoyed a favourable logistic position due its proximity to the sea and to an industrial harbour, and included Steel factories that were among the largest in Europe. The steel factories operated since 1905 for about 80 years, but by the end of the sixties, all industries of Bagnoli area gradually started to lose competitiveness, and the steel factories were definitively closed in 1991. At the beginning of the 70s, plans for the de-industrialization of the area were presented, as it was perceived that the causes of competitiveness loss were impossible to remove. In 1970 the City Council decided that 30% of space of the industrial should be dismantled and turned into public parks. In 1976, a definitive report concluded that the lack of competitiveness was due to "impossibility to expand the facilities because of lack of space".[41][42] The metropolitan area of Naples is limited by two dangerous areas, the Mount Vesuvius on the South, and supervolcano Campi Flegrei on the North, leaving little space in proximity of the sea.

Some factors may contribute in keeping the economy less competitive or less flexible compared to Northern Italian and European regions, among them, a larger public administration sector (which accounted for 20.4% of the whole economy in 2013, while in Italy the figure is 13.6) suggesting a too large number of public employees or white collars.[43] The number of lawyers is 5.7 every 1000, by comparison in Northern region Trentino-Alto Adige the number is 1.7.[44] Because of a less developed economy, Campania may have suffered less the negative effects of recent economic cycles.[45]

Sea-based activity accounts about 3.9% of the economy, that includes port movements of goods and passengers and sea transportation, as well as a sizable seaside tourism economy. There is a massive automotive industrial production, focused on high-quality models of brands Alfa Romeo, in facilities located in Pomigliano d'Arco in the Naples metropolitan area and in Cassino. There is also a significant aerospace industry. A Mars mission named ExoMars in 2016 had a major part of its technology designed in Naples.[46]

The unemployment rate stood at 20.9% in 2017 and was one of the highest in Italy.[47]

Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
unemployment rate
(in %)
12.8% 11.2% 12.5% 12.9% 13.9% 15.4% 19.2% 21.5% 21.7% 19.8% 20.4% 20.9%

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1861 2,402,000—    
1871 2,520,000+4.9%
1881 2,660,000+5.6%
1901 2,914,000+9.5%
1911 3,102,000+6.5%
1921 3,343,000+7.8%
1931 3,509,000+5.0%
1936 3,697,000+5.4%
1951 4,346,000+17.6%
1961 4,761,000+9.5%
1971 5,059,000+6.3%
1981 5,463,000+8.0%
1991 5,630,000+3.1%
2001 5,702,000+1.3%
2011 5,834,000+2.3%
2017 5,839,084+0.1%
Source: ISTAT 2001, 2011, 2014

The region, with a population of over 5.8 million inhabitants, is divided into five provinces: Naples, Benevento, Avellino, Caserta and Salerno. Over half of the population is resident in the province of Naples, where there is a population density of 2,626 inhabitants per km2. Within the province, the highest density can be found along the coast, where it reaches 13,000 inhabitants per km2 in the city of Portici. The region, which was characterised until recently by an acute economic contrast between internal and coastal areas, has shown an improvement in the last decade thanks to the development of the provinces of Benevento and Avellino. At the same time, the provinces of Naples, Caserta and in part Salerno, have developed a variety of activities connected to advanced types of services.[48]

Unlike central and northern Italy, in the last decade the region of Campania has not attracted large numbers of immigrants. The Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated in January 2007 that 98,052 foreign-born immigrants live in Campania, equal to 1.7% of the total regional population.[49] Part of the reason for this is in recent times, there have been more employment opportunities in northern regions than in the Southern Italian regions.

Government and politics

The Politics of Campania, takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council.

The Regional Council of Campania (Consiglio Regionale della Campania) is composed of 60 members, of which 47 are elected in provincial constituencies with proportional representation, 12 from the so-called "regional list" of the elected President and the last one is for the candidate for President who comes second, who usually becomes the leader of the opposition in the Council. If a coalition wins more than 55% of the vote, only 6 candidates from the "regional list" will be elected and the number of those elected in provincial constituencies will be 53.[50]

Provinces in Campania.

Administrative divisions

Campania is divided into four provinces and one metropolitan city:

Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)
Province of Avellino 2,792 427,310 153
Province of Benevento 2,071 283,393 136.83
Province of Caserta 2,639 906,596 343.54
Province of Salerno 4,923 1,092,349 222.11
Metropolitan City of Naples 1,171 3,052,763 2,606.97

Culture

Cuisine

Eq it-na pizza-margherita sep2005 sml
An authentic Neapolitan pizza

Campanian cuisine varies within the region. While Neapolitan dishes centre on seafood, Casertan and Aversan ones rely more on fresh vegetables and cheeses. The cuisine from Sorrento combines the culinary traditions from both Naples and Salerno.

Pizza was conceived in Naples.[51]

Spaghetti is also a well-known dish from southern Italy and Campania.

Pasta Puttanesca by koishikawagirl
Spaghetti alla puttanesca, a spicy pasta dish topped with a sauce made of tomatoes, olives, anchovies and capers

Campania produces wines including Lacryma Christi, Fiano, Aglianico, Greco di Tufo, Pere 'e palomma, Ischitano, Taburno, Solopaca, and Taurasi. The cheeses of Campania consist of Mozzarella di Bufala (buffalo mozzarella) (mozzarella made from buffalo milk), fiordilatte ("flower of milk") a mozzarella made from cow's milk, ricotta from sheep or buffalo milk, provolone from cow milk, and caciotta made from goat milk. Buffalo are bred in Salerno and Caserta.

Several different cakes and pies are made in Campania. Pastiera pie is made during Easter. Casatiello and tortano are Easter bread-cakes made by adding lard or oil and various types of cheese to bread dough and garnishing it with slices of salami. Babà cake is a well known Neapolitan delicacy, best served with Rum or limoncello (a liqueur invented in the Sorrento peninsula). It is an old Austrian cake, which arrived in Campania during the Austrian domination of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and was modified there to become a "walking cake" for citizens always in a hurry for work and other pursuits. Sfogliatella is another cake from the Amalfi Coast, as is Zeppole, traditionally eaten on Saint Joseph's day. Struffoli, little balls fried dough dipped in honey, are enjoyed during the Christmas holidays.

Amalfi - limoni e peperoncini - "lemons and red dried pepppers"
Dried red peppers and lemons hanging from a shop in Amalfi.

Another Campanian dish is the so-called Russian salad (which is based on similar dishes from France), made of potatoes in mayonnaise garnished with shrimp and vegetables in vinegar. Russians call this same dish Olivier Salad, and Germans call it Italian salad. Another French-derived dish is "gattò" or "gâteau di patate" (oven-baked pie made of boiled potatoes). As with the Russian salad, Campania is home to popular seafood-based dishes, such as "insalata di mare" (seafood salad), "zuppa di polpo" (octopus soup), and "zuppa di cozze" (mussel soup). Other regional seafood dishes include "frittelle di mare" (fritters with seaweed), made with edible poseidonia algae, "triglie al cartoccio" (red mullet in the bag), and "alici marinate" (fresh anchovies in olive oil). The island of Ischia is famous for its fish dishes, as well as for cooked rabbit. Campania is also home to the lemons of Sorrento. Rapini (or Broccoli rabe), known locally as friarielli, are often used in the regional cooking. Campania also produces many nuts, especially in the area of Avellino, Salerno and Benevento. Hazelnut production is especially relevant in the province of Avellino – in Spanish, in Portuguese and in Occitan the hazelnut is respectively called avellana, avelã and avelano, after the city of Avella. That is also the case of ancient Italian avellana, which is however not in use anymore.

Ancient, medieval, and early arts

Reggia Caserta parco 03-09-08 f01
The grand gardens of the baroque Palace of Caserta

The region of Campania is rich with a vast array of culture and history. Since the Greek colony of Elea, now Velia, Campania was home to philosophers of the Pre-Socratic philosophy school, such as Parmenides and Zeno of Elea, who came to prominence around 490–480 BC. The Latin poet Vergil (70 BC–19 BC) settled in Naples in his late life: parts of his epic poem Aeneid are located in Campania. The ancient scientist Pliny the Elder studied Mount Vesuvius, and died after being poisoned and killed by gas emitted from the volcano during the 79 AD eruption.

Romulus Augustus, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, died as a prisoner of the German general Odoacer at Naples around 500. In the Middle Ages, the artist Giotto made some frescoes in Castel Nuovo. These works of art were subsequently destroyed by an earthquake.

By the end of the Middle Ages, the medical school of Salerno, which combined ancient Roman and Greek medicine with Arab medicine, was known throughout Europe and its methods were adopted across the continent. Some have suggested that this may have been one of the first universities in Europe. Boccaccio, the Tuscan poet, visited Naples on various occasions, and in the Decameron described it as a dissolute city. He also wrote a love story involving a noble woman close to the King of Naples.

PulcinellaGuitar
Pulcinella with a guitar

In 1570, the Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes, who wrote the romance novel Don Quixote, served as a Spanish soldier for a period in Naples. Poet Torquato Tasso was born in Sorrento in 1575. Years earlier in 1558, the first modern description and studies of the "camera obscura" ("dark chamber"), were established in Italy by Giovanni Battista della Porta in his Magiae Naturalis.

Philosopher Giordano Bruno was born in Nola. He was the first to theorize infinite suns and infinite worlds in the universe. He was burnt in Rome by the Spanish Inquisition in 1600. Later, in c. 1606, the Baroque painter Caravaggio established his studio in Naples. Italian Baroque architect Cosimo Fanzago from Bergamo also decided to move to Naples.

In the 18th century, Naples was the last city to be visited by philosophers who created the "Grand Tour" which was the big touring voyage to visit all the important cultural sites of the European continent. Italian architect Luigi Vanvitelli son of Dutch architect Kaspar van Wittel built the Kingdom Palace in Caserta in c. 1750. He contributed to the construction of many neoclassic-style palaces in which the nobles of Naples spent their holidays. These palaces are now known worldwide as "Ville Vesuviane".

Overlooking Capri harbour from the rotunda in Villa San Michele Anacapri BW 2013-05-14 13-55-21
The island of Capri, often seen as a cultural symbol of Campania.

Raimondo di Sangro, prince of Sansevero, was a scientist and one of the last alchemists. Around this time, in 1786, German writer Goethe visited Campania and Naples. German archaeologist Johann Joachim Winckelmann also visited Naples, Paestum, Herculaneum and Pompeii in 1748 and later, studying how archaeological surveys were conducted in the kingdom of Naples. He was one of the first to study drawings, statues, stones, and ancient burned scrolls made of papyrus found in the excavations of the city of Herculaneum. Archaeological excavations in Pompeii were initiated by King Charles III of Naples in 1748. He issued the first modern laws in Europe to protect, defend and preserve archaeological sites. Neapolitan musicians of that period include Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli and Giovanni Paisiello.

Musician Gioachino Rossini lived for several years in Naples, where he wrote numerous compositions. Italian poet and writer Giacomo Leopardi established his home in Naples and Torre del Greco, remaining there at the end of his brief young life. He died at Naples in 1837. The first volcano observatory, the Vesuvius Observatory, was founded in Naples in 1841. Geologist Giuseppe Mercalli, born in Milan in 1850, was a director of the Vesuvius Observatory.

In February 1851, British statesman William Ewart Gladstone was allowed to visit the prison where Giacomo Lacaita, legal adviser to the British embassy, was imprisoned by the Neapolitan government, along with other political dissidents.[52] He deplored their condition, and in April and July published two Letters to the Earl of Aberdeen against the Neapolitan government, followed by An Examination of the Official Reply of the Neapolitan Government in 1852.[53] His pamphlets may have contributed to the cause of the unification of Italy in 1861.

French writer Alexandre Dumas, père was directly involved in the process of the Unification of Italy, and sojourned two or three years in Naples, where he wrote several historical novels regarding that city. He was also a known newspaper correspondent. Francesco de Sanctis, writer, politician and twice Minister of Instruction after the re-unification of Italy in 1861, was born in Morra De Sanctis near Avellino.

German scientist Anton Dohrn founded in Naples the first public aquarium in the world and laboratory for the study of the sea, known as Maritime Zoological Station. The Astronomic Observatory of Capodimonte was founded by King Joachim Murat, in 1816. The observatory now hosts the Italian Laboratory of Astrophysics. Doctors and surgeons Antonio Cardarelli and Giuseppe Moscati were representatives of medical studies in Naples.

Contemporary and modern arts

The so-called "School of Posillipo" and "School of Resina", dating from the late 19th to early 20th centuries, included painters such as Giacinto Gigante, Federico Cortese, Domenico Morelli, Saverio Altamura, Giuseppe De Nittis, Vincenzo Gemito, Antonio Mancini, Raffaello Pagliaccetti.

Amongst the painters who inspired directly these schools, are Salvator Rosa, Pierre Jacques-Antoine Volaire, Anton Sminck van Pitloo who spent his last years in Naples. Opera singer Enrico Caruso was also a native of Naples. Russian revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin lived for a period in Capri. In the 20th century, the music genre called Neapolitan song became popular worldwide, with songs such as "O sole mio", "Funiculì, funiculà", "O surdato nnamurato", "Torna a Surriento", "Guapparia, "Santa Lucia", "Reginella", "Marechiaro", "Spingule Francese".

Mathematician Renato Caccioppoli, nephew of the Russian anarchic revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin, was born in Naples. The first President of the Italian Republic in 1946 (with a pro-tempore mandate of six months) was Enrico De Nicola from Torre del Greco. Campania is also home to the former Prime Minister and 6th President of the Republic Giovanni Leone, as well as the 11th President, Giorgio Napolitano.

Caserta-reggia-15-4-05 063
Late Baroque art inside the Palace of Caserta.

The 20th century's best known philosopher and literate in Naples was Benedetto Croce, famous for his studies in aesthetics, ethics, logic, economy, history, politics.

Famous Neapolitan artists, actors, playwrights, and showmen were Eduardo De Filippo and Peppino De Filippo, and their sister Titina De Filippo. Totò (byname of Antonio de Curtis) was one of the most important comedians in Naples in the 20th century. He is also known for the song "Malafemmena".

Pop artist Andy Warhol created two famous paintings of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake: Fate presto and Vesuvius. Both originals are hosted in the exhibit Terrae Motus in the Palace of Caserta.

Oscar–winning actress Sophia Loren grew up in Pozzuoli.

Oscar and David-winning[54] film producer Dino De Laurentiis was born in Torre Annunziata. One of his grandchildren is Food Network personality Giada De Laurentiis.

Contemporary Campanian writers include Curzio Malaparte and Domenico Rea.

20th- and 21st-century Campanian actors and directors include Francesco Rosi, Iaia Forte, Pappi Corsicato, Teresa De Sio, Lello Arena, Massimo Troisi and director Gabriele Salvatores.

Modern Italian singers and musicians from Campania include Peppino di Capri, Renato Carosone, Edoardo Bennato, Eugenio Bennato, Mario Merola, Sergio Bruni, Aurelio Fierro, Roberto Murolo, Tony Tammaro, Teresa De Sio, Eduardo De Crescenzo, Alan Sorrenti, Toni Esposito, Tullio De Piscopo, Massimo Ranieri, Pino Daniele, James Senese and his group Napoli Centrale, Enzo Avitabile, Enzo Gragnaniello, Nino D'Angelo, Gigi D'Alessio, 99 Posse, Almamegretta, Bisca, 24 Grana.

Artists who directed movies about Naples or actors who played in movies in Campania, or interpreted Neapolitans on-screen, include Vittorio De Sica, Nanni Loi, Domenico Modugno, Renzo Arbore, Lina Wertmüller, Mario Lanza as Caruso, Clark Gable in "It Started in Naples", Jack Lemmon in the movies "Maccheroni" (which co-starred Marcello Mastroianni) and "Avanti!".

The international Giffoni Film Festival, established in 1971, is the first and most important festival for a young public.

Sports

Trofeo Birra Moretti Napoli
The Stadio San Paolo is the home ground of SSC Napoli of Serie A

Campania is home to several national football, water polo, volleyball, basketball and tennis clubs.

The fencing school in Naples is the oldest in the country and the only school in Italy in which a swordsman can acquire the title "master of swords", which allows him or her to teach the art of fencing.

The "Circolo Savoia" and "Canottieri Napoli" sailing clubs are among the oldest in Italy and are famous for their regattas. These are also home of the main water polo teams in the city. Many sailors from Naples and Campania participate as crew in the America's Cup sailing competition.

Rowers Giuseppe Abbagnale and Carmine Abbagnale were born in Castellammare di Stabia: they were four times rowing world champions and Olympic gold medalists.

The football teams in Campania include:

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External links

Coordinates: 40°49′34″N 14°15′23″E / 40.82611°N 14.25639°E

Amalfi Coast

The Amalfi Coast (Italian: Costiera Amalfitana) is a stretch of coastline on the northern coast of the Salerno Gulf on the Tyrrhenian Sea, located in the Province of Salerno of southern Italy.

The Amalfi Coast is a popular tourist destination for the region and Italy as a whole, attracting thousands of tourists annually. In 1997, the Amalfi Coast was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Capri

Capri (usually pronounced by English speakers; Italian: [ˈkaːpri], Neapolitan: [ˈkɑːpri]) is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town Capri that is located on the island shares the name. It has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic.

Some of the main features of the island include the Marina Piccola (the little harbour), the Belvedere of Tragara (a high panoramic promenade lined with villas), the limestone crags called sea stacks that project above the sea (the faraglioni), the town of Anacapri, the Blue Grotto (Grotta Azzurra),the ruins of the Imperial Roman villas, and the various towns surrounding the Island of Capri including Positano, Amalfi, Ravello, Sorrento, Nerano, and Naples.

Capri is part of the region of Campania, Metropolitan City of Naples. The town of Capri is a comune and the island's main population centre. The island has two harbours, Marina Piccola and Marina Grande (the main port of the island). The separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west.

Capri, Campania

Capri is a municipality, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, situated on the island of Capri in Italy. It comprises the centre and East of the island, while the West belongs to Anacapri.

Capua

Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, in the region of Campania, southern Italy, situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.

Castellammare di Stabia

Castellammare di Stabia [kaˌstɛllamˈmaːre di ˈstaːbja] (Neapolitan: Castiellammare 'e Stabia) is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Campania region, in Italy. It is situated on the Bay of Naples about 30 kilometres (19 miles) southeast of Naples, on the route to Sorrento.

Cumae

Cumae (Ancient Greek: Κύμη, translit. (Kumē) or Κύμαι (Kumai) or Κύμα (Kuma); Italian: Cuma) was the first ancient Greek colony on the mainland of Italy, founded by settlers from Euboea in the 8th century BC and soon becoming one of the strongest colonies. It later became a rich Roman city, the remains of which lie near the modern village of Cuma, a frazione of the comune Bacoli in the Province of Naples, Campania, Italy.

The archaeological museum of the Campi Flegri in the Aragonese castle contains many finds from Cumae.

Grotta delle Felci

The Grotta delle Felci (Italian for "Fern Grotto") is a cave located on the island of Capri, in Campania, Italy.

The cave housed Neolithic men; 549 archaeological findings and fossils have been found internally.

List of cities in Italy

The following is a list of Italian comuni (municipalities) with a population over 50,000. The table below contains the cities populations as of December 31, 2017, as estimated by the Italian Italian National Institute of Statistics, and the cities census population from the 2011 Italian Census.

List of railway stations in Campania

This is the list of the railway stations in Campania owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato.

Mount Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius ( ; Italian: Monte Vesuvio [ˈmonte veˈzuːvjo]; Neapolitan: Vesuvio; Latin: Mons Vesuvius [mõːs wɛˈsʊwɪ.ʊs]; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure.

Mount Vesuvius is best known for its eruption in AD 79 that led to the burying and destruction of the Roman cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis and Stabiae, as well as several other settlements. The eruption ejected a cloud of stones, ashes and volcanic gases to a height of 33 km (21 mi), spewing molten rock and pulverized pumice at the rate of 6×105 cubic metres (7.8×105 cu yd) per second, ultimately releasing a hundred thousand times the thermal energy released by the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombings. More than 1,000 people died in the eruption, but exact numbers are unknown. The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger to the historian Tacitus.Vesuvius has erupted many times since and is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years. Today, it is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3,000,000 people living nearby, making it the most densely populated volcanic region in the world, as well as its tendency towards violent, explosive eruptions of the Plinian type.

Naples

Naples (; Italian: Napoli [ˈnaːpoli] (listen); Neapolitan: Napule [ˈnɑːpələ] or [ˈnɑːpulə]; Latin: Neapolis; Ancient Greek: Νεάπολις, lit. 'new city') is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Naples) is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.

First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride, later refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC. The city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples (661–1139), then of the Kingdom of Naples (1282–1816) and finally of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.

Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Milan and Rome. The Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East.Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and historically significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is also known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields, Nisida, and Vesuvius.Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it also includes many lesser-known dishes; Naples has the greatest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide of any Italian city.The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S.S.C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter.

Paestum

Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia (southern Italy). The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three ancient Greek temples in the Doric order, dating from about 600 to 450 BC, which are in a very good state of preservation. The city walls and amphitheatre are largely intact, and the bottom of the walls of many other structures remain, as well as paved roads. The site is open to the public, and there is a modern national museum within it, which also contains the finds from the associated Greek site of Foce del Sele.

After its foundation by Greek colonists under the name of Poseidonia (Ancient Greek: Ποσειδωνία) it was eventually conquered by the local Lucanians and later the Romans. The Lucanians renamed it to Paistos and the Romans gave the city its current name. As Pesto or Paestum, the town became a bishopric (now only titular), but it was abandoned in the Early Middle Ages, and left undisturbed and largely forgotten until the eighteenth century.

Today the remains of the city are found in the modern frazione of Paestum, which is part of the comune of Capaccio in the Province of Salerno, Campania, Italy. The modern settlement, directly to the south of the archaeological site, is a popular seaside resort, with long sandy beaches.

Pompeii

Pompeii () was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area (e.g. at Boscoreale, Stabiae), was buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Many of the inhabitants were also buried before they could escape.

Largely preserved under the ash, the excavated city offers a unique snapshot of Roman life, frozen at the moment it was buried and providing an extraordinarily detailed insight into the everyday life of its inhabitants. Organic remains, including wooden objects and human bodies, were entombed in the ash and decayed away, making natural molds; and excavators used these to make plaster casts, unique and often gruesome figures from the last minutes of the catastrophe. The numerous graffiti carved on the walls and inside rooms provides a wealth of examples of the largely lost Vulgar Latin spoken colloquially, contrasting with the formal language of the classical writers.

Pompeii is a UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors every year.Excavations recommenced in several unexplored areas of the city, and in 2018 new discoveries were reported.

Positano

Positano (Campanian: Pasitano) is a village and comune on the Amalfi Coast (Naples metropolitan area), in Campania, Italy, mainly in an enclave in the hills leading down to the coast.

Pozzuoli

Pozzuoli (Italian pronunciation: [potˈtswɔːli]; Neapolitan: Pezzulo [pətˈtsuːlə]; Latin: Puteoli) is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania. It is the main city of the Phlegrean Peninsula.

Royal Palace of Caserta

The Royal Palace of Caserta (Italian: Reggia di Caserta [ˈrɛddʒa di kaˈzɛrta; kaˈsɛrta]; Neapolitan: Reggia 'e Caserta [ˈrɛdːʒ(ə) e kaˈsertə]) is a former royal residence in Caserta, southern Italy, constructed by the Spanish royal family as their main residence as kings of Naples. It is one of the largest palaces erected in Europe during the 18th century. In 1997, the palace was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site; its nomination described it as "the swan song of the spectacular art of the Baroque, from which it adopted all the features needed to create the illusions of multidirectional space". In terms of volume, the Royal Palace of Caserta is the largest royal residence in the world with over 2 million m³ and covering an area of about 235,000 m².

Salerno

Salerno (Italian: [saˈlɛrno] (listen); Salernitano: Salierne, IPA: [saˈljərnə]) is an ancient city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea. The city is divided into three distinct zones: the medieval sector, the 19th century sector and the more densely populated post-war area, with its several apartment blocks.Human settlement at Salerno has a rich and vibrant past, dating back to pre-historic times. The site has been one of the most important and strategic ports on the Mediterranean sea, yielding a rich Greco-Roman heritage. It was an independent Lombard principality, Principality of Salerno, in the early Middle Ages. During this time, the Schola Medica Salernitana, the first medical school in the world, was founded. In the 16th century, under the Sanseverino family, among the most powerful feudal lords in southern Italy, the city became a great centre of learning, culture and the arts, and the family hired several of the greatest intellectuals of the time. Later, in 1694, the city was struck by several catastrophic earthquakes and plagues. After a period of Spanish rule which would last until the 18th century, Salerno became part of the Parthenopean Republic.In recent history the city hosted Victor Emmanuel III, the King of Italy, who moved from Rome in 1943 after Italy negotiated a peace with the Allies in World War II, making Salerno the home of the "government of the South" (Regno del Sud) and therefore provisional government seat for six months. Some of the Allied landings during Operation Avalanche (the invasion of Italy) occurred near Salerno. Today Salerno is an important cultural centre in Campania and Italy.

A patron saint of Salerno is Saint Matthew, the Apostle, whose relics are kept here at the crypt of Salerno Cathedral.

Sfogliatella

A sfogliatella (Italian pronunciation: [sfoʎʎaˈtɛlla], plural: sfogliatelle), sometimes called a lobster tail in English, is a shell-shaped filled Italian pastry native to Campania. Sfogliatella means "small, thin leaf/layer", as the pastry's texture resembles stacked leaves. There is a distinction to be made between lobster tail and sfogliatella, as they do not refer to the same pastry.

Sorrento

Sorrento (pronounced [sorˈrɛnto]; Neapolitan: Surriento [surˈrjendə]) is a town overlooking the Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination due to its variety of small antique shops and location on the Amalfi Coast, it can be reached easily from Naples and Pompeii as it is at the south-eastern end of the Circumvesuviana rail line. The town is most commonly known for its small shops selling an arrangement of ceramics, lacework and marquetry (woodwork).The Sorrentine Peninsula has views of Naples, Vesuvius and the Isle of Capri. The Amalfi Drive, connecting Sorrento and Amalfi, is a narrow road that threads along the high cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Ferries and hydrofoils connect the town to Naples, Amalfi, Positano, Capri and Ischia. Sorrento's sea cliffs and luxury hotels have attracted celebrities including Enrico Caruso and Luciano Pavarotti.

Limoncello, a digestif made from lemon rinds, alcohol, water and sugar, is produced in Sorrento. Other agricultural production includes citrus fruit, wine, nuts and olives.

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