Camogie

Camogie (/kɑːmɔːɡiː/; Irish: camógaíocht) is an Irish stick-and-ball team sport played by women; it is almost identical to the game of hurling played by men. Camogie is played by 100,000 women in Ireland and worldwide, largely among Irish communities.[1][2] It is organised by the Dublin-based Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta.[3][4] UNESCO lists Camogie as an element of Intangible Cultural Heritage.[5]

Camogie
Camogie
A junior camogie match being played in Croke Park, Dublin
Highest governing bodyCamogie Association
First playedIreland
Registered playersOver 100,000
Clubs536
Characteristics
ContactContact
Team members15 players per side,
substitutes are permitted
Mixed genderHurling There is no mixed gender/sex version of Camogie. Hurling is the male variant of Camogie
EquipmentSliotar (ball)
Hurley/camán (stick)

Helmet

Shin guards

The game

Scoring in Gaelic games - H shaped posts
Goalposts and scoring system used in camogie

The game consists of two thirty-minute halves. There is a half-time interval of 10 minutes. In event of extra time, halves must consist of 10 minutes each. Each team has 15 players on the field. Within the 15 players the team must consist of one goalkeeper, three full back players, three half back players, two centre-field players, three half forward players and three full forward players. There is a minimum requirement of 12 players on the pitch at all times.[6]

Field

The field is not of a fixed size, but must be between 130m long by 80m wide, and 145m long by 90m wide.

Goals and scoring

H-shaped goals are used. A team achieves a score by making the ball go between the posts. If the ball goes over the bar for a "point", the team earns 1-point. If the ball goes under the bar for a "goal", the team earns a 3-points.[7]

Profile of camogie

The annual All Ireland Camogie Championship has a record attendance of 33,154[8] while average attendances in recent years are in the region of 15,000 to 18,000. The final is televised live, with a TV audience of over 300,000 being claimed.[9]

Rules

The rules are almost identical to hurling, with a few exceptions.[10]

  • Goalkeepers wear the same colours as outfield players. This is because no special rules apply to the goalkeeper and so there is no need for officials to differentiate between goalkeeper and outfielders.
  • A camogie player can handpass any score from play (handpassing a goal is forbidden in hurling since 1980).
  • Camogie games last 60 minutes, two 30-minute halves (senior inter-county hurling games last 70, which is two 35-minute halves). Ties are resolved by multiple 2×10-minute sudden death extra time periods; in these, the first team to score wins.
  • Dropping the camogie stick to handpass the ball is permitted.
  • A smaller sliotar (ball) is used in camogie – commonly known as a size 4 sliotar – whereas hurlers play with a size 5 sliotar.
  • If a defending player hits the sliotar wide, a 45-metre puck is awarded to the opposition (in hurling, it is a 65-metre puck).
  • After a score, the goalkeeper pucks out from the 13-metre line (in hurling, he must puck from the end line).
  • The metal band on the camogie stick must be covered with tape (not necessary in hurling).
  • Side-to-side charges are forbidden (permitted in hurling).
  • Two points are awarded for a score direct from a sideline cut (since March 2012).[11]

Camogie players must wear skirts or skorts rather than shorts.

Foundation

Experimental rules were drawn up in 1903 for a female stick-and-ball game by Máire Ní Chinnéide, Seán (Sceilg) Ó Ceallaigh, Tadhg Ó Donnchadha and Séamus Ó Braonáin. The Official Launch of Camogie took place with the first public match between Craobh an Chéitinnigh (Keatings branch of the Gaelic League) and Cúchulainns on 17 July at a Feis in Navan. The sport's governing body, the Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta was founded in 1905 and re-constituted in 1911, 1923 and 1939. Until June 2010 it was known as Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael.

Máire Ní Chinnéide and Cáit Ní Dhonnchadha, two prominent Irish-language enthusiasts and cultural nationalists, were credited with having created the sport, with the assistance of Ní Dhonnchadha's scholarly brother Tadhg Ó Donnchadha, who drew up its rules. Thus, although camogie was founded by women, and independently run (although closely linked to the GAA), there was, from the outset, a small yet powerful male presence within its administrative ranks. It was no surprise that camogie emanated from the Gaelic League, nor that it would be dependent upon the structures and networks provided by that organisation during the initial expansion of the sport. Of all the cultural nationalist organisations for adults that emerged during the fin de siècle, the Gaelic League was the only one to accept female and male members on an equal footing.[12]

Camogie Team, Waterford, 17 October 1915
A camogie team pictured in Waterford in October 1915

Historic rules

Under Séamus Ó Braonáin's original 1903 camogie rules both the match and the field were shorter than their hurling equivalents. Matches were 40 minutes, increased to 50 minutes in 1934, and playing fields 125–130 yards (114-119m) long and 65–70 yards (59-64m) wide. From 1929 until 1979 a second crossbar, a "points bar" was also used, meaning that a point would not be allowed if it travelled over this bar, a somewhat contentious rule through the 75 years it was in use. Teams were regulated at 12 a side, using an elliptical formation,although it was more a "squeezed lemon" formation with the three midfield players grouped more closely together than their counterpart on the half back and half-forward lines. In 1999 camogie moved to the GAA field-size and 15-a-side, adopting the standard GAA butterfly formation.

Nomenclature

The name was invented by Tadhg Ua Donnchadha (Tórna) at meetings in 1903 in advance of the first matches in 1904. [13] Men play using a curved stick called in Irish a camán. Women would use a shorter stick, at one stage described by the diminutive form camóg. The suffix -aíocht (originally "uidheacht") was added to both words to give names for the sports: camánaíocht (which became iománaíocht) and camógaíocht. When the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in 1884 the English-origin name "hurling" was given to the men's game. When an organisation for women was set up in 1904, it was decided to anglicise the Irish name camógaíocht to camogie.[1]

Structure

An Cumann Camógaíochta has a similar structure to the Gaelic Athletic Association, with an Annual Congress every spring which decides on policy and major issues such as rule changes, and an executive council, the Árd Chómhairle which deals with short-term issues and governance. The game is administered from a headquarters in Croke Park in Dublin. Each of 28 county boards takes control of its own affairs (all of the Irish counties except Fermanagh, Leitrim and Sligo), with the number of clubs ranging from 58 in Cork to one in Leitrim. There are four provincial councils and affiliates in Asia, Australia, Britain, Europe, New York, New Zealand and North America.

Camogie clubs

There are 537 camogie clubs, of which 513 (95.5%) are based on the island of Ireland, 47 in Connacht (8.8%), 195 in Leinster (36.4%), 160 in Munster (29.8%), and 110 in Ulster (20.5%).

Competitions

All-Ireland Championship

The county is the unit of structure in elite competition, responsible for organising club competitions within the county unit and for fielding inter-county teams in the various grades of the All-Ireland championships and National Camogie League.

National League

The National League is staged during the winter-spring months, with four divisions of team graded by ability.

Provincial championships

Provincial championships take place at all levels, independent of the All Ireland series which has been run on an open draw basis since 1973.

International and inter-provincial

Ireland plays a camogie-shinty international against Scotland each year. The Gael Linn Cup is an inter-provincial competition played at senior and junior level. The sport is closely associated with the Celtic Congress. Two former Camogie Association presidents Máire Ní Chinnéide and Agnes O'Farrelly were also presidents of Celtic Congress and exhibition matches have been held at the Celtic Congress since 1938. The first such exhibition match, on the Isle of Man in 1938, marked the first appearance of Kathleen Cody, who became one of the stars of the 1940s.

Inter-collegiate

The Ashbourne and Purcell Cups and Father Meachair seven-a-side are the principal inter-collegiate competitions.

Schools

There is also a programme of provincial and All Ireland championships at secondary schools senior and junior levels, differentiated by the years of secondary school cycle, with years 4–6 competing in the senior competition, and years 1–3 competing at junior level. Cumann na mBunscoil organises competitions at primary school level.

Féile na nGael

Camogie competitions for club teams featuring under-14 players are played in four divisions as part of the annual Féile na nGael festival. The county that is selected for a particular year, all their clubs host teams from all around the country representing their county. Host clubs get families to take in two or three children for a couple of days.

Records

Cork have won the most Camogie All-Ireland titles with 27, the last being in 2017. See All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship.

Cork have won the most National Camogie League titles with 16. See National Camogie League

Wexford having won three in a row from 2010 to 2012

Awards

Camogie All Stars Awards are awarded annually to the elite players who have performed best in each of the 15 positions on a traditional camogie team. Player of the year and other achievement awards have also been awarded to leading players for several decades.

Team of the Century

Picked in 2004[14]

  1. Eileen Duffy-O'Mahony (Dublin)
  2. Liz Neary (Kilkenny)
  3. Marie Costine-O'Donovan (Cork)
  4. Mary Sinnott-Dinan (Wexford)
  5. Bridie Martin-McGarry (Kilkenny)
  6. Sandie Fitzgibbon (Cork)
  7. Margaret O'Leary-Leacy (Wexford)
  8. Mairéad McAtamney-Magill (Antrim)
  9. Linda Mellerick (Cork)
  10. Sophie Brack (Dublin)
  11. Kathleen Mills-Hill (Dublin)
  12. Joni Traynor (Kilkenny)
  13. Úna O'Connor (Dublin)
  14. Pat Moloney-Lenihan (Cork)
  15. Deirdre Hughes (Tipperary)
  16. Angela Downey-Browne (Kilkenny)

Literary references

A reference to camogie features in one of Lucky's speeches in Waiting for Godot by Irish playwright Samuel Beckett.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Moran, Mary (2011). A Game of Our Own: The History of Camogie. Dublin, Ireland: Cumann Camógaíochta. p. 460.
  2. ^ Arlott, John (1977). Oxford Companion to Sports and Games. London, England: Flamingo. p. 1024.
  3. ^ Vuepoint.ie. "The Camogie Association : About Camogie". Camogie.ie. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  4. ^ "GAA.ie". Gaa.ie. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  5. ^ "Hurling - intangible heritage - Culture Sector - UNESCO". ich.unesco.org. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Rules of Camogie on Camogie.ie website". Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  8. ^ a b 2007 All Ireland final reports in Irish Examiner, Irish Independent, Irish Times and Gorey Guardian Archived 19 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). Illustrated History of the GAA. Dublin, Ireland: Gill & MacMillan. p. 250.
  10. ^ "Rule Differences on Camogie.ie website". Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Ladies sticking with skirts as O'Flynn backs rules makeover - Independent.ie". Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  12. ^ Ríona Nic Congáil “'Looking on for centuries from the side-line': Gaelic Feminism and the rise of Camogie", Éire-Ireland (Spring / Summer 2013): 168–192.Gaelic Feminism and the rise of Camogie
  13. ^ Puirséil, Pádraig (1984). Scéal na Camógaíochta. Dublin, Ireland: Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael. p. 64.
  14. ^ "Team of the century". Camogie.ie. Retrieved 15 January 2018.

External links

1949 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship Final

For more detail & team line-outs see separate entry for 1949 Senior Camogie Championship.The 1949 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship Final was the eighteenth All-Ireland Final and the deciding match of the 1949 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship, an inter-county camogie tournament for the top teams in Ireland.

Dublin led 7-4 to 1-1 at half-time, and although Tipperary made a slight comeback, Dublin still won easily. Kathleen Cody scored 6-7 of Dublin's total.

1965 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship

The 1965 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship was the high point of the 1965 season in Camogie. The championship was won by Dublin who defeated Tipperary by a 13-point margin in the final.

2008 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship

The 2008 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship—known as the Gala All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship for sponsorship reasons—was the high point of the 2008 season. The championship was won by Cork who defeated Galway by a five-point margin in the final. The championship was played between June 1 and September 14, 2008. The format was as follows: seven county teams entered. Each team played all of the others once, earning 2 points for a win and 1 for a draw. The top four teams qualified for the semi-finals.

2017 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship

The 2017 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship – known as the Liberty Insurance All-Ireland Camogie Championship for sponsorship reasons – was 2017's premier inter-county camogie competition.

The winners receive the O'Duffy Cup.

The championship began on 10 June 2017 and ended on 10 September with a Cork victory.

All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship

The All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship is a competition for inter-county teams in the women's field sport of game of camogie played in Ireland. The series of games are organised by the Camogie Association and are played during the summer months with the All-Ireland Camogie Final being played on the second Sunday in September in Croke Park, Dublin. The prize for the winning team is the O'Duffy Cup. The current champions are Cork, who claimed their twenty-eighth title following a victory over Kilkenny in Croke Park, Dublin.

Antrim GAA

For more details on Antrim GAA see Antrim Senior Football Championship or Antrim Senior Hurling Championship.The Antrim County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael Coiste Chontae Aontroma) or Antrim GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Antrim. The county board is also responsible for the Antrim inter-county teams.

Camogie All Stars Awards

The Camogie All Stars Awards are awarded each November to 15 players who have made outstanding contributions to the Irish stick and ball team sport of camogie in the 15 traditional positions on the field: goalkeeper, three full backs, three half-backs, two midfields, three half-forwards and three full-forwards. They were awarded for the first time in 2003 as an independent initiative sponsored by a hotel group and accorded official status by the Camogie Association in 2004.In 2004 a team of the century was also chosen to commemorate the centenary of the sport. O'Neill's are the present title sponsors of the awards. The leading awards winner is Gemma O'Connor of Cork with eleven awards.

Camogie Association

The Camogie Association (Irish: An Cumann Camógaíochta, formerly Irish: Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael) organises and promotes the sport of camogie in Ireland and across the world. The association has close ties with the Gaelic Athletic Association.

Derry GAA

The Derry County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael Coiste Chontae Dhoire) or Derry GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland. It is responsible for gaelic games in County Londonderry in Northern Ireland (the GAA refers to the county as Derry). The county board is also responsible for the Derry inter-county teams.

Gaelic football is the most popular of the county board's Gaelic games. The senior football team won an All-Ireland Senior Football Championship in 1993, and has also won six National League titles and seven Ulster Championships.

Dublin GAA

The Dublin County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) (Irish: Cumann Luthchleas Gael Coiste Contae Átha Cliath) or Dublin GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in the Dublin Region and the Dublin inter-county teams.

The Dublin Gaelic football team is the Best GAA team in terms of attendance which is made up of 286 clubs (2015 GAA affiliation statistics). The team and its fans are known as "The Dubs" or “Boys in Blue”. The fans have a special affiliation with the Hill 16 end of Croke Park.

Gaelic football, hurling and camogie positions

The following are the positions in the Gaelic sports of Gaelic football, hurling and camogie.

Each team consists of one goalkeeper (who wears a different colour jersey), six backs, two mid fielders, and six forwards: fifteen players in all. Some under-age games are played 13-a-side (in which case the full back and full forward positions are removed) or 11-a-side (in which case the full back, centre back, centre forward and full forward positions are removed).

The positions are listed below, with the jersey number usually worn by players in that position given.

Gaelic games

Gaelic games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). Gaelic football and hurling are the two main games. Other games organised by the GAA include Gaelic handball (also referred to as GAA Handball or Wallball) and rounders.

Women's versions of hurling and football are also played: camogie, organised by the Camogie Association of Ireland, and ladies' Gaelic football, organised by the Ladies' Gaelic Football Association. While women's versions are not organised by the GAA, they are closely associated with it.Almost a million people (977,723) attended 45 GAA senior championships games in 2017 (up 29% in hurling and 22% in football on 2016 figures) combined with attendances at other championship and league games generating Gate receipts of €34,391,635.

Leinster GAA

The Leinster Council is a Provincial council of the Gaelic Athletic Association sports of hurling, Gaelic football, camogie, rounders and handball in the province of Leinster. The Leinster Council has been partnered with the European County Board to help develop Gaelic Games in Europe. Leinster Council's main contribution to this goal is the provision of referees.

Limerick GAA

The Limerick County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael, Coiste Chontae Luimneach) or Limerick GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Limerick. The county board is also responsible for the Limerick inter-county teams.

Mary Moran (camogie)

Mary Moran (Máire Ní Mhóráin) was the 18th president of the Camogie Association, elected at the 1973 Congress in the Blarney Hotel in a run-off against Mary Lynch of Monaghan.

Munster GAA

The Munster Council is a Provincial Council of the Gaelic Athletic Association sports of hurling, Gaelic football, camogie, rounders and handball in the province of Munster.

National Camogie League

The National Camogie League, known for sponsorship reasons as the Littlewoods Ireland Camogie Leagues, is the second most important competition in the Irish team sport of camogie, played exclusively by women. The competition is held in three divisions graded by ability.

It was first played in 1976 for a trophy donated by Allied Irish Banks when Tipperary beat Wexford in a replayed final. Division Two (originally the National Junior League) was inaugurated in 1979 and won by Kildare.The first two National League competitions started in the autumn and finished in the spring of 1976–77 and 1977–78 respectively. Since then the competition has been completed within the calendar year. The 2001 final was not played until October because of the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak earlier in the year. From 1980 to 2005 the National League was divided into two sections – Senior and Junior. Reserve teams from the leading counties were allowed enter the Junior League after 1982. The current structure with Divisions 1, 2, 3, 4 was introduced in 2006. A one-day blitz competition for fifth tier counties, Division 5, was organised in 2008 and 2009. The second division was known for a period as Division 1B and the third Division was Division 2, they have been reallocated for reasons of consistency in the records below.

The current holders are Kilkenny who defeated Cork in the 2018 final.

Offaly GAA

For more details of Offaly GAA see Offaly Senior Football Championship or Offaly Senior Hurling Championship.The Offaly County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) (Irish: Cumann Luthchleas Gael Coiste Uíbh Fhailí) or Offaly GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Offaly. Separate county boards are also responsible for the Offaly inter-county teams.

Tipperary GAA

For a list of honours won by Tipperary in hurling, football, camogie and handball competitions see Tipperary GAA honours.

For a history of GAA in Tipperary in see History of Tipperary inter county teams.The Tipperary County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael Coiste Chontae Thiobraid Árann) or Tipperary GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in County Tipperary and the Tipperary inter-county teams.

County Tipperary holds an honoured place in the history of the GAA as the organisation was founded in Hayes' Hotel, Thurles, on 1 November 1884.

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