The Camillians or Clerics Regular, Ministers to the Sick (Latin: Clerci Regulari Ministeri Infirmaribus) are a Roman Catholic religious order, founded in 1582 by St. Camillus de Lellis (1550-1614). A large red cross was chosen by the founder as the distinguishing badge for the members of the Order to wear upon their black cassocks, which was later adopted as the international symbol of medical care. As of 2018, 1080 Camillians serve in 35 countries. They use the postnominal initials of M.I. (Ministri degli Infermi).
De Lellis lived much of his early life as a soldier, following his father's path. When his regiment was disbanded, he happened to find work as a laborer for a Capuchin friary. One of the friars led him to a religious conversion, after which he sought admission to the Capuchin Order. The Capuchins were willing to accept de Lellis as a candidate. He had sustained a leg wound, however, in the course of his military career, which would not heal. After examination, it was declared incurable by physicians. He then moved to Rome, where he took up residence in a hospital dedicated to the care of the incurably ill, the San Giacomo degli Incurabili. As he progressed in his spiritual life, he noticed the poor care given the patients by the attendants of the hospital.
De Lellis invited some young men he had come to know through his religious circles to care for the patients for a more concrete expression of their faith. They began to work at the Ospedale di Santo Spirito in Sassia in Rome, and demonstrated a level of commitment, which caused him to consider forming a religious community to provide this care for the sick. He received Holy Orders to this end, and both he and his disciples took religious vows. De Lellis thereby established the Order of Clerics Regular, Ministers to the Sick.
His experience in wars led him to establish a group of health care workers who would assist soldiers on the battlefield. In response to a request of the Pope, Camillus sent religious to Hungary to care for wounded or sick soldiers. The large, red cross on their religious habits, which they adopted as a sign of their vocation to medical care, remains a symbol of the Order. Camillians today continue to identify themselves with this emblem on their habits, a symbol universally recognized today as the sign of charity and service. This was the original Red Cross, hundreds of years before the International Red Cross was formed. In 1586 the group obtained the approval of Pope Sixtus V and in 1591 Pope Gregory XIV gave them the status of an Order with the name of ‘Order of the Ministers of the Sick’.
During the Battle of Canizza in 1601, while Camillians were busily occupied with the wounded, the tent in which they were tending to the sick and in which they had all of their equipment and supplies was completely destroyed and burned to the ground. Everything in the tent was destroyed, except for the red cross of the habit belonging to one of the Camillians who was ministering to the wounded on the battlefield. This event was taken by the community as manifesting divine approval of the Red Cross of St. Camillus.
It was due to the efforts of the Brothers and alleged supernatural healings by de Lellis that the people of Rome credited De Lellis with ridding the city of a great plague and the subsequent famine. For a time, he became known as the "Saint of Rome". By the time of his death in 1614, Camillians served in eight hospitals, including ones in Naples, Genoa, Milan and Mantua.
In 1630 a plague devastated the north and centre of Italy. Over a hundred Camillians provided assistance to the plague-stricken and fifty-six religious died while providing them service. In the years 1656-57 another plague in Italy led to the death of eighty-six Camillian religious who were looking after the plague-stricken. Annually, on May 25 the order commemorates the "Camillian Martyrs of Charity", all those Camillian priests and brothers who died after contracting diseases in the course of ministering to the sick.
The Irish province developed from the French Province. Started by Fr. Terence O'Rourke in Westmeath in 1935, it became an official province in 1946. After the war the Irish Province spread to England, set up houses in Birmingham, London and Hexham and became known as the Anglo-Irish Province. During the early 60s, two members were sent to Perth, Australia. In 2000 the Anglo-Irish Province opened a Mission in Uganda. As of 2014, there were fifteen members of the Anglo-Irish Province.
The presence of the Camillians in Asia, which began in 1943 in China. In Taiwan the order operates the 700 bed St. Mary's Hospital, a 230 bed center for the mentally disabled, a home for the elderly with 150 beds, and a nursing school with more than 3 thousand students.
Camillians arrived in Thailand in 1952. A small clinic in Baan Pong, Ratchaburi province, later became San Camillo Hospital. They also run Camillian Hospital.
In 1975, the first Camillian Community in the Philippines was established in Quezon City under the Lombardo-Venetian Province. The Vice-Province in India was first established in 1980 in Kerala by Fr. Antonio Crotti of the Lombardo Venetian (Italy) Province. In 1997, Camillians undertook a healthcare initiative for the care and support of people living with HIV. This is in addition, and complementary to their ministries in pastoral care, especially with palliative care for cancer patients, and in jail ministry.
The order runs fifty-six hospitals in Brazil. In the U.S. it operates a number of home health care services.
As of 2018, the Order of St. Camillus serves in 35 countries. The Order is made up of about 1080 priests and brothers, engaged in a variety of ministries. The priests work mainly in the area of spiritual care for the sick and the brothers provide trained physical care. Besides the common three vows, the members of the Order take a fourth vow to serve the poor sick, even when they are infectious, even at the risk to their own lives.
When flooding would periodically cause the Tiber River to top its banks, Camillus worked to bring the patients of the Hospital of the Holy Spirit to safety. Today the Camillian Task Force Order responds to natural or man-made disasters. Members of the Lay Camillian Family work beside the Camillians in various ministries as nurses, caregivers, pastoral caregivers, and extraordinary ministers of the Eucharist.
The Very Reverend Father Renato Salvatore, M.I., is the current Superior General, as of September 2012. He was immediately named by Pope Benedict XVI to serve as one of the papally-appointed, non-episcopal participants, representing the Church's religious orders, for the October 2012 13th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the New Evangelization. Salvatore was arrested in November 2013 and charged with unlawfully detaining two priests to prevent them voting against him in the election for the Superior General. Fr. Leocir Pessini, was elected the new Superior General.
Camillians celebrate November 16 as the Virgin Mary’s feast day of Our Lady Health of the Sick.
The Order is divided into Ecclesiastical Provinces (the main level of geographical jurisdictions), some of which have Delegations and/or Foundations in other continents; they are distributed geographically as follows: Europe is divided into 11 Provinces (four of which are in Italy), and four Foundations; Asia into one Province, three Delegations and four Foundations; Africa into two Delegations and five Foundations; Australia into one Delegation.
The Armenian Rite is an independent liturgy used by both the Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Catholic Churches. It is also the rite used by a significant number of Eastern Catholic Christians in Georgia.Camillian Hospital
Camillian Hospital (called also "San Camillo Hospital") - small private hospital in Bangkok (Thailand), founded by catholic missionaries - camillians in 1956 (earlier in 1952 camillians established another "San Camillo Hospital" in Ratchaburi Province). The hospital is located in Watthana district and has general practice and special care facilities.
The hospital is operated by Saint Camillus Foundation of Thailand and has charity programs to treat poor and low income patients.
Camillian hospital employees took active part in overcoming of the 2004 tsunami damage in Thailand setting up mobile clinics for the disaster survivors.Camillus de Lellis
Saint Camillus de Lellis, M.I., (25 May 1550 – 14 July 1614) was a Roman Catholic priest from Italy who founded a religious order dedicated to the care of the sick.Catholic Church and Islam
Relations between the Catholic Church and Islam deals with the current attitude of the Catholic Church towards Islam and Muslims, as well as the attitude of Islam towards the Catholic Church and Catholics, and notable changes in the relationship since 20th century.Catholic ecclesiology
The ecclesiology of the Catholic Church is the area of Catholic theology covering the ecclesiology -- the nature, structure, and constitution -- of the Catholic Church itself on a metaphysical and revealed level.Dicastery
A dicastery (from Greek δικαστήριον, law-court, from δικαστής, judge/juror) is a department of the Roman Curia, the administration of the Holy See through which the pope directs the Roman Catholic Church. The most recent comprehensive constitution of the church, Pastor bonus (1988), includes this definition:
By the word "dicasteries" are understood the Secretariat of State, Congregations, Tribunals, Councils and Offices, namely, the Apostolic Camera, the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See and the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.Enrico Rebuschini
Blessed Enrico Rebuschini (25 April 1860 – 10 May 1938) was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and professed member from the Camillians. Rebuschini was marked since his childhood as one who had an innate desire to tend to the poor and marginalized and felt the need to hand out his possessions to those less fortunate than himself. But his father opposed his vocation to the priesthood and directed him to studies which he threw himself into in obedience to him. But he felt dissatisfied upon working with his brother-in-law in the silk business and made a final plea to his father to become a priest. His father relented and he commenced his ecclesial studies though in his life afterwards experienced several profound episodes of nervous depression that caused him to grow ill each time.Rebuschini died in the odor of holiness and had been renowned after his death as a saint which had led to calls for the launch of a beatification process. The cause did indeed open sometime later and culminated in 1997 with his beatification.Giacomo Amato
Giacomo Amato (Palermo, 14 May 1643 – Palermo, 26 December 1732) was a Sicilian architect.
Member of the Camillians and pupil of Paolo Amato and Carlo Rainaldi, he designed several scenographic Baroque churches in Palermo, like Santa Teresa alla Kalsa, Santa Maria della Pietà and San Mattia ai Crociferi. He also collaborated with Giacomo Serpotta in the designs of the Palermitan oratories of San Domenico and San Lorenzo.Giuditta Vannini
Blessed Giuditta Vannini (7 July 1859 – 23 February 1911), also known as Josephine Vannini, was an Italian Roman Catholic professed religious who became a Camillian and established – alongside Blessed Luigi Tezza – the Daughters of St. Camillus. Upon her profession to the religious life in the Camillian order she assumed the new name of "Giuseppina".
Pope John Paul II presided over Vannini's beatification on 16 October 1994.International Federation of Catholic Universities
The International Federation of Catholic Universities' (IFCU) is an organisation of over 200 Catholic universities throughout the world.International Union of Catholic Esperantists
The International Union of Catholic Esperantists (Esperanto: Internacia Katolika Unuiĝo Esperantista, IKUE) is an organization of Catholic Esperanto speakers. It was founded in 1910 in Paris and is now headquartered in Rome.Lists of Catholics
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide, as of 2016.Luigi Tezza
Blessed Luigi Tezza (1 November 1841 - 26 September 1923) was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and a professed member of the Camillians. He established the Daughters of St. Camillus and is known as the Apostle of Lima. He was ordained in 1864 and went on to serve the sick and the poor in Peru where he administered. Tezza's new religious congregation was established with the sole aim of sick relief who followed the example of the Camillian order as a branch of it.
On 4 November 2001 he was beatified as confirmation of his popular status as a Peruvian figure and as well as for his reputation for holiness.Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
The Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (Latin: Ordo SS. Annuntiationis), also known as the Turchine or Blue Nuns, is a Roman Catholic religious order of contemplative nuns formed in honour of the mystery of the Incarnation of Christ at Genoa, in Italy, by the Blessed Maria Vittoria De Fornari Strata.
Pope Clement VIII approved the religious order on 5 August 1604, placing it under the Rule of Saint Augustine.
At present, the order has monasteries in Brazil, France, Italy, the Philippines, Portugal, Romania, and Spain.Pedro Marieluz Garces
Pedro Marieluz Garcés (or Peter Marielux) (born in 1780 in Tarma/Peru, died on 23 September 1825 in Callao/Peru) was a Roman Catholic priest who died as a martyr of the Seal of the Confessional.
As a young man, Pedro Marieluz Garcés entered the order of the Camillians and was ordained a priest in 1805.
Later he became a military chaplain with the troops of the Spanish Royal Governor, Ramón Rodil. During the siege of the fortress Real Felipe in the city of Callao after the Battle of Ayacucho, there was a conspiracy made against Rodil by some of the Royal soldiers. The plot was discovered and Rodil sentenced the conspirators to death. They were allowed to confess to Father Marieluz before being shot. After the execution of the plotters, Rodil is said to have doubted whether he had convicted all members of the plot and, thinking that the executed ones would have revealed everything in confession to Father Marieluz, he tried to force the confessor to disclose to him what he had heard under the holy seal by threatening him to be shot likewise, if he would not obey. But Father Marieluz remained steadfast and thus died a martyr in the evening of 23 September 1825, as his legend tells us.Religious Teachers Filippini
The Religious Teachers Filippini (abbreviated as M.P.F. from the Italian: Maestre Pie Filippini), known also as the Sisters of St. Lucy Filippini, or simply the Filippini Sisters, is a Catholic religious institute devoted to education. They were founded in Italy in 1692 by Saint Lucy Filippini and Cardinal Marco Antonio Barbarigo.Sisters of Holy Cross
The Sisters of Holy Cross, headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada is a Catholic congregation of religious sisters which traces its origins to the foundation of the Congregation of Holy Cross in 1837 in Le Mans, France by the Blessed Father Basil Anthony-Marie Moreau, CSC. Two other congregations of sisters also have the same origins: the Marianites of Holy Cross (New Orleans, Louisiana) and the Sisters of the Holy Cross (Notre Dame, Indiana).
For a history of the four congregations of Holy Cross, see the Congregation of Holy Cross.Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament
The Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament is a Roman Catholic order of nuns. It was founded in 1891 by Saint Katharine Drexel under the name Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament for Indians and Colored People. It is a Catholic religious institute.Superior (hierarchy)
In a hierarchy or tree structure of any kind, a superior is an individual or position at a higher level in the hierarchy than another (a "subordinate" or "inferior"), and thus closer to the apex. In business, superiors are people who are supervisors and in the military, superiors are people who are higher in the chain of command (superior officer). Superiors are given, sometimes supreme, authority over others under their command. When an order is given, one must follow that order and obey it or punishment may be issued.