Cambridgeshire

Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.)[3] is a county in the East of England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. The city of Cambridge is the county town. Modern Cambridgeshire was formed in 1974 as an amalgamation of the counties of Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely and Huntingdon and Peterborough, the former covering the historic county of Cambridgeshire (including the Isle of Ely) and the latter covering the historic county of Huntingdonshire and the Soke of Peterborough, historically part of Northamptonshire. It contains most of the region known as Silicon Fen.

Local government is divided between Cambridgeshire County Council and Peterborough City Council, which, since 1998, forms a separate unitary authority. Under the county council, there are five district councils, Cambridge City Council, South Cambridgeshire District Council, East Cambridgeshire District Council, Huntingdonshire District Council and Fenland District Council.[4]

Cambridgeshire
County
Flag of Cambridgeshire Coat of arms of Cambridgeshire County Council
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Corde Uno Sapientes Simus
("With one heart let us be wise")
Cambridgeshire within England

Coordinates: 52°20′N 0°0′W / 52.333°N -0.000°ECoordinates: 52°20′N 0°0′W / 52.333°N -0.000°E
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionEast of England
Established1 April 1974
Established byLocal Government Act 1972
Preceded byCambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
Huntingdon and Peterborough
OriginAncient
Ceremonial county
Lord LieutenantJulie Spence[1]
High SheriffDr Andrew Harter (2018–19)[2]
Area3,389 km2 (1,309 sq mi)
 • Ranked15th of 48
Population (mid-2017 est.)847,200
 • Ranked28th of 48
Density249/km2 (640/sq mi)
Ethnicity94.6% White
2.6% S.Asian
Non-metropolitan county
County councilCambridgeshire County Council
ExecutiveConservative
Admin HQCambridge
Area3,046 km2 (1,176 sq mi)
 • Ranked15th of 27
Population648,200
 • Ranked18th of 27
Density212/km2 (550/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2GB-CAM
ONS code12
GSS codeE10000003
NUTSUKH12
Websitewww.cambridgeshire.gov.uk
Unitary authorities
CouncilsPeterborough City Council
Cambridgeshire Ceremonial Numbered

Districts of Cambridgeshire
Unitary County council area
Districts
  1. City of Cambridge
  2. South Cambridgeshire
  3. Huntingdonshire
  4. Fenland
  5. East Cambridgeshire
  6. City of Peterborough
Members of ParliamentList of MPs
PoliceCambridgeshire Constabulary
Time zoneGreenwich Mean Time (UTC)
 • Summer (DST)British Summer Time (UTC+1)

History

Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of Flag Fen in Fengate, one of the earliest-known Neolithic permanent settlements in the United Kingdom, compared in importance to Balbridie in Aberdeen, Scotland. Must Farm quarry, at Whittlesey has been described as 'Britain's Pompeii due to its relatively good condition, including the 'best-preserved Bronze Age dwellings ever found'. A great quantity of archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age were made in East Cambridgeshire. Most items were found in Isleham.

Cambridgeshire was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Grantbridgeshire" (or rather Grentebrigescire) (related to the river Granta).

Covering a large part of East Anglia, Cambridgeshire today is the result of several local government unifications. In 1888 when county councils were introduced, separate councils were set up, following the traditional division of Cambridgeshire, for

  • the area in the south around Cambridge, and
  • the liberty of the Isle of Ely.

In 1965, these two administrative counties were merged to form Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely.[5] Under the Local Government Act 1972 this merged with the county to the west, Huntingdon and Peterborough, which had been formed in 1965, by the merger of Huntingdonshire with the Soke of Peterborough (the latter previously a part of Northamptonshire with its own county council). The resulting county was called simply Cambridgeshire.[6]

Since 1998, the City of Peterborough has been a separately administered area, as a unitary authority. It is associated with Cambridgeshire for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy, and joint functions such as policing and the fire service.[7]

In 2002, the conservation charity Plantlife unofficially designated Cambridgeshire's county flower as the Pasqueflower.

The Cambridgeshire Regiment (nicknamed the Fen Tigers), the county-based army unit, fought in the Boer War in South Africa, the First World War and Second World War.

Due to the county's flat terrain and proximity to the continent, during the Second World War the military built many airfields here for RAF Bomber Command, RAF Fighter Command, and the allied USAAF. In recognition of this collaboration, the Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial is located in Madingley. It is the only WWII burial ground in England for American servicemen who died during that event.

Most English counties have nicknames for their people, such as a "Tyke" from Yorkshire and a "Yellowbelly" from Lincolnshire. The traditional nicknames for people from Cambridgeshire are "Cambridgeshire Camel"[8]or "Cambridgeshire Crane", referring to the wildfowl that were once abundant in the fens. The term "Fen Tigers" is sometimes used to describe the people who live and work in the fenlands.

Original historical documents relating to Cambridgeshire are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies.

Geography

See also Geology of Cambridgeshire

Large areas of the county are extremely low-lying and Holme Fen is notable for being the UK's lowest physical point at 2.75 m (9 ft) below sea level. The highest point is in the village of Great Chishill at 146 m (480 ft) above sea level. Other prominent hills are Little Trees Hill and Wandlebury Hill (both at 74 m (243 ft)) in the Gog Magog Hills, Rivey Hill above Linton, Rowley's Hill and the Madingley Hills.

Green belt

Cambridgeshire contains all its green belt around the city of Cambridge, extending to places such as Waterbeach, Lode, Duxford, Little & Great Abingdon and other communities a few miles away in nearby districts, to afford a protection from the conurbation. It was first drawn up in the 1950s.

Politics

Flag of Cambridgeshire
The banner of the arms of Cambridgeshire County Council, used as de facto flag of the County of Cambridgeshire until 1 February 2015

Cambridgeshire contains seven Parliamentary constituencies:

Constituency Member of Parliament
Cambridge   Daniel Zeichner
Huntingdon   Jonathan Djanogly
North East Cambridgeshire   Stephen Barclay
North West Cambridgeshire   Shailesh Vara
Peterborough   Fiona Onasanya
South Cambridgeshire   Heidi Allen
South East Cambridgeshire   Lucy Frazer

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Cambridgeshire at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of English Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[9] Agriculture[10] Industry[11] Services[12]
1995 5,896 228 1,646 4,022
2000 7,996 166 2,029 5,801
2003 10,154 207 2,195 7,752

AWG plc is based in Huntingdon. The RAF has several stations in the Huntingdon and St Ives area. RAF Alconbury, 3 miles north of Huntingdon, is being reorganised after a period of obsolescence following the departure of the USAF, to be the focus of RAF/USAFE intelligence operations, with activities at Upwood and Molesworth being transferred there. Most of Cambridgeshire is agricultural. Close to Cambridge is the so-called Silicon Fen area of high-technology (electronics, computing and biotechnology) companies. ARM Limited is based in Cherry Hinton.

Education

Primary and secondary

Cambridgeshire has a completely comprehensive education system with 12 independent schools and over 240 state schools, not including sixth form colleges.

Some of the secondary schools act as Village Colleges, institutions unique to Cambridgeshire. For example, Bottisham Village College.

Tertiary

Cambridgeshire is home to a number of institutes of higher education:

In addition, Cambridge Regional College and Huntingdonshire Regional College both offer a limited range of higher education courses in conjunction with partner universities.

Settlements

Cambridge-260x345
Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904)

These are the settlements in Cambridgeshire with a town charter, city status or a population over 5,000; for a complete list of settlements see list of places in Cambridgeshire.

See the List of Cambridgeshire settlements by population page for more detail.

The town of Newmarket is surrounded on three sides by Cambridgeshire, being connected by a narrow strip of land to the rest of Suffolk.

Cambridgeshire has seen 32,869 dwellings created from 2002–2013[13] and there are a further 35,360 planned new dwellings between 2016 and 2023.[14]

Climate

Cambridgeshire has a maritime temperate climate which is broadly similar to the rest of the United Kingdom, though it is drier than the UK average due to its low altitude and easterly location, the prevailing southwesterly winds having already deposited moisture on higher ground further west. Average winter temperatures are cooler than the English average, due to Cambridgeshire's inland location and relative nearness to continental Europe, which results in the moderating maritime influence being less strong. Snowfall is slightly more common than in western areas, due to the relative winter coolness and easterly winds bringing occasional snow from the North Sea. In summer temperatures are average or slightly above, due to less cloud cover. It reaches 25 °C (77 °F) on around 10 days each year, and is comparable to parts of Kent and East Anglia.

Culture

Sports

Various forms of football have been popular in Cambridgeshire since medieval times at least. In 1579 one match played at Chesterton between townspeople and Cambridge University students ended in a violent brawl that led the Vice-Chancellor to issue a decree forbidding them to play "footeball” outside of college grounds.[19] Despite this and other decrees, football continued to be popular. George Elwes Corrie, Master of Jesus College, observed in 1838, that while walking past a park named Parker's Piece he "saw some forty Gownsmen playing at football. The novelty and liveliness of the scene were amusing!"[20] By 1839, Albert Pell was organising football matches at the university; because each town or school had different rules, students had to devise a compromise set of rules.[21]

At Cambridge University in 1846, H. de Winton and J. C. Thring formed a pioneering football club. Only a few matches were played, but in 1848 interest in football increased and that year the Cambridge rules, the first attempt to codify a form of football were drawn up in Cambridge. The Cambridge rules are generally regarded as the main precursor of Association football.

As a result of its role in the formation of the first football rules, Parker's Piece remains hallowed turf for football fans and historians.[22] In commemoration of the creation of Football; a statue is to be raised in the middle of the park where the game was invented.

Cambridgeshire is also the birthplace of bandy,[23] now an IOC accepted sport.[24] According to documents from 1813, Bury Fen Bandy Club was undefeated for 100 years. A member of the club, Charles Goodman Tebbutt, wrote down the first official rules in 1882.[23] Tebbutt was instrumental in spreading the sport to many countries.[25] Great Britain Bandy Federation is based in Cambridgeshire.[26]

Fen skating is a traditional form of skating in the Fenland. The National Ice Skating Association was set up in Cambridge in 1879, they took the top Fen skaters to the worldspeed skating championships where James Smart became world champion.

On 6–7 June 2015, the inaugural Tour of Cambridgeshire cycle race took place on closed roads across the county. The event was an official UCI qualification event, and consisted of a Time Trial on the 6th, and a Gran Fondo event on the 7th. The Gran Fondo event was open to the public, and over 6000 riders took part in the 128 km (80 mi) race.

Contemporary art

Cambridge is home to the Kettle's Yard gallery and the artist-run Aid and Abet project space. Nine miles west of Cambridge next to the village of Bourn is Wysing Arts Centre.[27]

Places of interest

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country Park Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Mosque Mosques
Museum (free)
Museum
Museum (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo

Notable people from Cambridgeshire

See Category:People from Cambridgeshire

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Lord Lieutenant". Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  2. ^ "High Sheriff - Cambridgeshire Home page". www.highsheriffs.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  3. ^ Archaically known as the County of Cambridge (EB 1878).
  4. ^ "Local government in Cambridgeshire". Cambridgeshire County Council. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  5. ^ The Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely Order 1964 (SI 1964/366), see Local Government Commission for England (1958 - 1967), Report and Proposals for the East Midlands General Review Area (Report No.3), 31 July 1961 and Report and Proposals for the Lincolnshire and East Anglia General Review Area (Report No.9), 7 May 1965
  6. ^ The English Non-metropolitan Districts (Definition) Order 1972 (SI 1972/2039) Part 5: County of Cambridgeshire
  7. ^ The Cambridgeshire (City of Peterborough) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996 Archived 10 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine (SI 1996/1878), see Local Government Commission for England (1992), Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Cambridgeshire, October 1994 and Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Basildon & Thurrock, Blackburn & Blackpool, Broxtowe, Gedling & Rushcliffe, Dartford & Gravesham, Gillingham & Rochester upon Medway, Exeter, Gloucester, Halton & Warrington, Huntingdonshire & Peterborough, Northampton, Norwich, Spelthorne and the Wrekin, December 1995
  8. ^ Grose (1790). Provincial Glossary.
  9. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  10. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  11. ^ includes energy and construction
  12. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  13. ^ "Housing Development in Cambridgeshire 2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  14. ^ "Dwelling Commitments in Cambridgeshire" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  15. ^ "Indices Data - Cambridge (B. Gdns) Station 1639". KNMI. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  16. ^ "Indices Data - Cambridge (B. Gdns) Station 1639". KNMI. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  17. ^ "Cqmbridge NIAB 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  18. ^ "Cambridge NIAB 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  19. ^ Association, The Football. "Sorry. Something's wrong with the pitch. - Cambridgeshire FA". www.cambridgeshirefa.com. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 October 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ Harvey 2005, p. 48
  22. ^ Cambridge... the birthplace of football?! Archived 17 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, Cambridgeshire, UK, 2006.
  23. ^ a b BBC. "A handy Bandy guide..." Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  24. ^ "Federation of International Bandy-Olympic". Internationalbandy.com. 12 August 2004. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  25. ^ "Cambridgeshire – History – A handy Bandy guide". BBC. 21 February 2006. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  26. ^ "Members - Federation of International Bandy". www.worldbandy.com. Archived from the original on 27 January 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  27. ^ "cultunet". cultunet.com. 3 December 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2013.

References

External links


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Cambridge

Cambridge ( KAYM-brij) is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately 50 miles (80 km) north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867 including 24,506 students. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, and there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not officially conferred until 1951.

The world-renowned University of Cambridge was founded in 1209. The buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, and the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology has its main campus in the city.

Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies born out of the university. More than 40% of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average. The Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital.Parker's Piece hosted the first ever game of association football. The Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fairs are held on Midsummer Common, and the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the M11 and A14 roads, and Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station.

Cambridgeshire Constabulary

Cambridgeshire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the ceremonial county of Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. In addition to the non-metropolitan county, the Police area includes the city of Peterborough, which became a unitary authority area in 1998. The Chief Constable is Nick Dean, who replaced Alec Wood in 2018. The Deputy Chief Constable (Support) is Alan Baldwin and the Assistant Chief Constable (Operations) is Nav Malik.

The force is divided into two area commands, since October 2017 of North and South each being commanded by a Superintendent. North consists of Fenland and Peterborough and South based on the areas of local district councils: Cambridge, East Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire and South Cambridgeshire. Previously, there were three divisions: Northern, Central and Southern, however these were abolished in 2012.

The force's headquarters is situated at Hinchingbrooke Park on the outskirts of Huntingdon. There is a centralised call centre for the county at Copse Court (opposite Thorpe Wood) in Peterborough.

The force's non-emergency number is 101 which was introduced on 1 February 2012, previously it was 0345 456 4564 (since 2011) and 0845 456 4564 (prior to 2011).

Cambridgeshire County Cricket Club

Cambridgeshire County Cricket Club is one of twenty minor county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Cambridgeshire.

The original Cambridgeshire club, established in 1844, is classified as a first-class team from 1857 to 1871. The present club, founded in 1891, has always had minor status although it has played List A matches occasionally from 1964 until 2004 but is not classified as a List A team per se.The club is based at The Avenue Sports Club Ground, March, though they have played a number of matches at Fenner's, Cambridge University's ground, and occasionally play games there still. In recent years, matches have also been held at Wisbech and Saffron Walden (in northeastern Essex).

ChEMBL

ChEMBL or ChEMBLdb is a manually curated chemical database of bioactive molecules with drug-like properties.

It is maintained by the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), based at the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK.

The database, originally known as StARlite, was developed by a biotechnology company called Inpharmatica Ltd. later acquired by Galapagos NV. The data was acquired for EMBL in 2008 with an award from The Wellcome Trust, resulting in the creation of the ChEMBL chemogenomics group at EMBL-EBI, led by John Overington.

East Anglia

East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe whose name originated in Anglia, northern Germany.

East Cambridgeshire

East Cambridgeshire (locally known as East Cambs) is a local government district in Cambridgeshire, England. Its council is based in Ely. The population of the District Council at the 2011 Census was 83,818.The district was formed on 1 April 1974 with the merger of Ely Urban District, Ely Rural District and Newmarket Rural District.

According to a report by the Halifax bank in 2004, East Cambridgeshire has the fastest population growth rate of any British local authority other than the City of London.

Ely, Cambridgeshire

Ely ( (listen) EE-lee) is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, about 14 miles (23 km) north-northeast of Cambridge and about 80 miles (129 km) by road from London. Æthelthryth (also known as Etheldreda) founded an abbey at Ely in 673; the abbey was destroyed in 870 by Danish invaders and was rebuilt by Æthelwold, Bishop of Winchester, in 970. Construction of the cathedral was started in 1083 by a Norman abbot, Simeon. Alan of Walsingham's octagon, built over Ely's nave crossing between 1322 and 1328, is the "greatest individual achievement of architectural genius at Ely Cathedral", according to architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner. Building continued until the dissolution of the abbey in 1539 during the Reformation. The cathedral was sympathetically restored between 1845 and 1870 by the architect George Gilbert Scott. As the seat of a diocese, Ely has long been considered a city; in 1974, city status was granted by royal charter.

Ely is built on a 23-square-mile (60 km2) Kimmeridge Clay island which, at 85 feet (26 m), is the highest land in the Fens. Major rivers including the Witham, Welland, Nene and Great Ouse feed into the Fens and, until draining commenced in the 17th century, formed freshwater marshes and meres within which peat was laid down. There are two Sites of Special Scientific Interest in the city: a former Kimmeridge Clay quarry, and one of the United Kingdom's best remaining examples of medieval ridge and furrow agriculture.

The economy of the region is mainly agricultural. Before the Fens were drained, the harvesting of osier (willow) and sedge (rush) and the extraction of peat were important activities, as were eel fishing—from which the settlement's name may have been derived—and wildfowling. The city had been the centre of local pottery production for more than 700 years, including pottery known as Babylon ware. A Roman road, Akeman Street, passes through the city; the southern end is at Ermine Street near Wimpole and its northern end is at Brancaster. Little direct evidence of Roman occupation in Ely exists, although there are nearby Roman settlements such as those at Little Thetford and Stretham. A coach route, known to have existed in 1753 between Ely and Cambridge, was improved in 1769 as a turnpike (toll road). The present-day A10 closely follows this route; a southwestern bypass of the city was built in 1986. Ely railway station, built in 1845, is on the Fen Line and is now a railway hub, with lines north to King's Lynn, northwest to Peterborough, east to Norwich, southeast to Ipswich and south to Cambridge and London.

The King's School is a coeducational boarding school which was granted a royal charter in 1541 by Henry VIII; the school claims to have existed since 970. Henry I granted the first annual Fair, Saint Audrey's (or Etheldreda's) seven-day event, to the abbot and convent on 10 October 1189; the word "tawdry" originates from cheap lace sold at this fair. Present-day annual events include the Eel Festival in May, established in 2004, and a fireworks display in Ely Park, first staged in 1974. The city of Ely has been twinned with Denmark's oldest town, Ribe, since 1956. Ely City Football Club was formed in 1885.

Ensembl genome database project

Ensembl genome database project is a joint scientific project between the European Bioinformatics Institute and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, which was launched in 1999 in response to the imminent completion of the Human Genome Project. Ensembl aims to provide a centralized resource for geneticists, molecular biologists and other researchers studying the genomes of our own species and other vertebrates and model organisms. Ensembl is one of several well known genome browsers for the retrieval of genomic information.

Similar databases and browsers are found at NCBI and the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC).

Guy Pearce

Guy Edward Pearce (born 5 October 1967) is an Australian actor. He is known for having starred in the role of Mike Young in the Australian television series Neighbours and in films such as The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (1994), L.A. Confidential (1997), Memento (2000), The Count of Monte Cristo (2002), The Road (2009), The King's Speech (2010), Prometheus (2012), and Iron Man 3 (2013). In Australian cinema, he has appeared in The Proposition (2005), Animal Kingdom (2010), The Rover (2014), Holding the Man (2015) and The Wizards of Aus (2016). He has won a Primetime Emmy Award and received nominations for Golden Globe Awards, Screen Actors Guild Awards, and AACTA Awards. Since 2012, he has played the title role in the TV adaptations of the Jack Irish stories by Australian crime writer Peter Temple.

Huntingdon

Huntingdon is a market town in Cambridgeshire, England. The town was chartered by King John in 1205. It is the traditional county town of Huntingdonshire and the seat of the Huntingdonshire district council. It is well known as the birthplace of Oliver Cromwell, who was born in 1599 and was the Member of Parliament (MP) for the town in the 17th century. The former Conservative Prime Minister (1990–1997) John Major served as the MP for Huntingdon from 1979 until his retirement in 2001.

Huntingdonshire

Huntingdonshire (; abbreviated Hunts) is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire, as well as a historic county of England. Its council is based in Huntingdon. Other towns in the district are St Ives, Godmanchester, St Neots and Ramsey. The population was 169,508 at the 2011 Census. Henry II, on his accession in 1154, declared all of Huntingdonshire a royal forest (i.e., reserved for hunting), but its favourable arable soil, with loam, light clay and gravel, hence good drainage, meant it was largely farmland by the 18th century.

Isle of Ely

The Isle of Ely is a historic region around the city of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England. Between 1889 and 1965, it formed an administrative county.

List of places in Cambridgeshire

Map of places in Cambridgeshire compiled from this list

See List of places in England for lists of settlements in other counties.This is a list of cities, towns and villages in the county of Cambridgeshire, England. It includes places in the former county of Huntingdonshire, as Huntingdonshire is a district of Cambridgeshire.

Peterborough

Peterborough ( (listen)) is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 196,640 in 2015. Historically part of Northamptonshire, it is 75 miles (121 km) north of London, on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea 30 miles (48 km) to the north-east. The railway station is an important stop on the East Coast Main Line between London and Edinburgh. The city is also 70 miles (110 km) east of Birmingham, 38 miles (61 km) east of Leicester, 81 miles (130 km) south of Kingston upon Hull and 65 miles (105 km) west of Norwich.

The local topography is flat, and in some places the land lies below sea level, for example in parts of the Fens to the east of Peterborough. Human settlement in the area began before the Bronze Age, as can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the current city centre, also with evidence of Roman occupation. The Anglo-Saxon period saw the establishment of a monastery, Medeshamstede, which later became Peterborough Cathedral.

The population grew rapidly after the railways arrived in the 19th century, and Peterborough became an industrial centre, particularly noted for its brick manufacture. After the Second World War, growth was limited until designation as a New Town in the 1960s. Housing and population are expanding and a £1 billion regeneration of the city centre and immediately surrounding area is under way. As in much of the United Kingdom, industrial employment has fallen, with a significant proportion of new jobs in financial services and distribution.

Sheriff of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire

This is an incomplete list of Sheriffs of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in England from 1154 until the abolition of the office in 1965.Exceptionally, the two counties shared a single sheriff. Sheriffs had a one-year term of office, being appointed at a meeting of the privy council generally held in February or March and holding office until the similar meeting in the next year. In 1648 it became the practice to rotate the office between inhabitants of Cambridgeshire proper, the Isle of Ely and Huntingdonshire. This was done in a three-year cycle, with an inhabitant of each area occupying the office in turn.

Note: the years shown are the date of commencement of the sheriff's year of office. For example, the high sheriff appointed in March 1892 "for the year 1892" held office until March 1893.

Soham murders

The Soham murders occurred in Soham, Cambridgeshire, England, on 4 August 2002. The victims were two 10-year-old girls, Holly Marie Wells and Jessica Aimee Chapman. Their bodies were found near RAF Lakenheath, Suffolk, on 17 August 2002, by a local farm worker, Keith Pryer.

Ian Kevin Huntley, a caretaker at local secondary school Soham Village College, was convicted on 17 December 2003 of the girls' murder and sentenced to two terms of life imprisonment, with the High Court later setting a minimum term of 40 years. His girlfriend, Maxine Ann Carr, was the girls' teaching assistant at St Andrew's Primary School. Carr had provided Huntley with a false alibi and received a three-and-a-half year prison sentence for perverting the course of justice.

South Cambridgeshire

South Cambridgeshire is a mostly rural local government district of Cambridgeshire, England with a population of 148,755 at the 2011 Census. It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of Chesterton Rural District and South Cambridgeshire Rural District. It completely surrounds the city of Cambridge, which is administered separately from the district by Cambridge City Council.

Southern Cambridgeshire, including both the district of South Cambridgeshire and the city of Cambridge, has a population of over 281,000 (including students) and an area of 1,017.28 km square.

On the abolition of South Herefordshire and Hereford districts to form the unitary Herefordshire in 1998, South Cambridgeshire remained the only English district to completely encircle another. As the other parts of Britain consists of district-equivalents, none of them are shaped like a doughnut.

The district's coat of arms contains a reference to the coat of arms of Cambridge University. The motto, Niet Zonder Arbyt, means "Not Without Work" in old Dutch; it was originally the motto of Cornelius Vermuyden who drained The Fens in the 17th century. The district council's headquarters moved from Cambridge to Cambourne in 2004.

South Cambridgeshire has scored highly on the best places to live, according to Channel 4, which ranked South Cambridgeshire as the fifth best place to live in 2006. A Halifax survey rated South Cambridgeshire the best place to live in rural Britain.

St Ives, Cambridgeshire

St Ives is a market town and civil parish in Cambridgeshire, England, 5 miles (8 km) east of Huntingdon and 12 miles (19 km) north-west of Cambridge. Historically in Huntingdonshire, St Ives is in the non-metropolitan district of the same name which covers a similar area to the historic county.

UniProt

UniProt is a freely accessible database of protein sequence and functional information, many entries being derived from genome sequencing projects. It contains a large amount of information about the biological function of proteins derived from the research literature.

Climate data for Cambridge University Botanic Garden[a], elevation: 13 m or 43 ft, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1914–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.9
(58.8)
18.8
(65.8)
23.9
(75.0)
27.4
(81.3)
31.1
(88.0)
34.0
(93.2)
35.6
(96.1)
36.9
(98.4)
33.9
(93.0)
29.3
(84.7)
21.1
(70.0)
15.8
(60.4)
36.9
(98.4)
Average high °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.0
(46.4)
11.1
(52.0)
13.8
(56.8)
17.5
(63.5)
20.4
(68.7)
23.1
(73.6)
22.8
(73.0)
19.6
(67.3)
15.2
(59.4)
10.5
(50.9)
7.7
(45.9)
14.8
(58.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
4.6
(40.3)
7.1
(44.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.4
(54.3)
15.3
(59.5)
17.8
(64.0)
17.5
(63.5)
14.8
(58.6)
11.2
(52.2)
7.2
(45.0)
4.7
(40.5)
10.5
(50.9)
Average low °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.2
(34.2)
3.0
(37.4)
4.3
(39.7)
7.3
(45.1)
10.2
(50.4)
12.4
(54.3)
12.2
(54.0)
10.0
(50.0)
7.2
(45.0)
3.9
(39.0)
1.7
(35.1)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −16.1
(3.0)
−17.2
(1.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
−6.1
(21.0)
−4.4
(24.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.2
(36.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
−13.3
(8.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−17.2
(1.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.0
(1.81)
34.6
(1.36)
38.6
(1.52)
40.3
(1.59)
46.7
(1.84)
52.1
(2.05)
50.7
(2.00)
53.6
(2.11)
54.3
(2.14)
57.7
(2.27)
54.9
(2.16)
46.9
(1.85)
576.2
(22.69)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.7 8.4 9.9 8.9 8.1 9.2 8.4 8.2 8.4 9.5 10.2 9.7 109.6
Source: KNMI[15]
Climate data for Cambridge University Botanic Garden, elevation: 13 m or 43 ft, 1971–2000 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
7.6
(45.7)
10.4
(50.7)
13.0
(55.4)
16.9
(62.4)
19.8
(67.6)
22.6
(72.7)
22.5
(72.5)
19.1
(66.4)
14.9
(58.8)
10.1
(50.2)
7.9
(46.2)
14.3
(57.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
4.3
(39.7)
6.6
(43.9)
8.5
(47.3)
11.9
(53.4)
14.8
(58.6)
17.3
(63.1)
17.2
(63.0)
14.4
(57.9)
10.9
(51.6)
6.8
(44.2)
5.0
(41.0)
10.1
(50.2)
Average low °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
0.9
(33.6)
2.7
(36.9)
4.0
(39.2)
6.8
(44.2)
9.7
(49.5)
11.9
(53.4)
11.8
(53.2)
9.7
(49.5)
6.8
(44.2)
3.5
(38.3)
2.1
(35.8)
5.9
(42.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.8
(1.76)
32.6
(1.28)
41.7
(1.64)
42.4
(1.67)
45.0
(1.77)
53.7
(2.11)
41.8
(1.65)
48.5
(1.91)
53.3
(2.10)
54.3
(2.14)
51.4
(2.02)
50.3
(1.98)
559.9
(22.04)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.7 8.4 10.7 9.2 8.1 8.8 7.5 7.5 8.6 9.1 10.0 10.1 108.7
Source: KNMI[16]
Climate data for Cambridge NIAB[b], elevation: 26 m or 85 ft, 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.7
(45.9)
10.6
(51.1)
13.3
(55.9)
16.9
(62.4)
19.9
(67.8)
22.8
(73.0)
22.6
(72.7)
19.3
(66.7)
14.9
(58.8)
10.3
(50.5)
7.5
(45.5)
14.5
(58.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
4.5
(40.1)
6.9
(44.4)
8.8
(47.8)
12.0
(53.6)
15.1
(59.2)
17.6
(63.7)
17.5
(63.5)
14.9
(58.8)
11.3
(52.3)
7.3
(45.1)
4.7
(40.5)
10.4
(50.7)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.3
(34.3)
3.1
(37.6)
4.3
(39.7)
7.1
(44.8)
10.2
(50.4)
12.4
(54.3)
12.4
(54.3)
10.4
(50.7)
7.6
(45.7)
4.2
(39.6)
1.9
(35.4)
6.4
(43.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.6
(1.83)
34.5
(1.36)
38.3
(1.51)
41.2
(1.62)
46.0
(1.81)
51.5
(2.03)
47.5
(1.87)
50.8
(2.00)
53.5
(2.11)
59.0
(2.32)
52.8
(2.08)
46.4
(1.83)
568.1
(22.37)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.5 8.0 9.6 8.8 8.0 8.9 8.3 8.0 8.4 9.4 9.8 9.8 107.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.3 77.1 110.7 152.5 179.4 176.7 187.6 182.6 139.5 113.9 66.7 49.3 1,494.5
Source: Met Office[17]
Climate data for Cambridge NIAB, elevation: 26 m or 85 ft, 1971–2000 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
7.4
(45.3)
10.2
(50.4)
12.6
(54.7)
16.5
(61.7)
19.4
(66.9)
22.2
(72.0)
22.3
(72.1)
18.9
(66.0)
14.6
(58.3)
9.9
(49.8)
7.8
(46.0)
14.1
(57.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
4.3
(39.7)
6.6
(43.9)
8.3
(46.9)
11.6
(52.9)
14.6
(58.3)
17.1
(62.8)
17.1
(62.8)
14.5
(58.1)
10.9
(51.6)
6.8
(44.2)
5.1
(41.2)
10.1
(50.2)
Average low °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
1.1
(34.0)
2.9
(37.2)
4.0
(39.2)
6.7
(44.1)
9.8
(49.6)
12.0
(53.6)
11.9
(53.4)
10.1
(50.2)
7.1
(44.8)
3.7
(38.7)
2.3
(36.1)
6.1
(43.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.0
(1.77)
32.7
(1.29)
41.5
(1.63)
43.1
(1.70)
44.5
(1.75)
53.8
(2.12)
38.2
(1.50)
48.8
(1.92)
51.0
(2.01)
53.8
(2.12)
51.1
(2.01)
50.0
(1.97)
553.5
(21.79)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.3 7.9 10.2 9.3 8.3 8.8 7.0 7.2 8.3 8.8 9.6 10.2 105.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.5 72.6 107.0 145.8 189.7 180.0 191.3 186.9 141.6 115.0 68.1 47.7 1,501.2
Source: Met Office[18]
Neighbouring counties
Cambridgeshire Ceremonial county of Cambridgeshire
Unitary authorities
Boroughs or districts
Major settlements
Rivers
Topics
1974–1996 ←   Ceremonial counties of England   → current

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