Calpe (Ancient Greek: Κάλπη, romanized: Kalpē), also Kalpas or Calpas, was a port city of ancient Bithynia in Asia Minor, on the shore of the Black Sea. It was located not far from the mouth of the river Calpas (modern Ilaflı Dere). It was mentioned in Xenophon's Anabasis. Xenophon, who passed through the place on his retreat with the Ten Thousand, describes it as about half way between Byzantium and Heraclea Pontica on a promontory, part which projects into the sea is an abrupt precipice. The neck which connects the promontory with the mainland is only 400 feet (120 m) wide. The port is under the rock to the west, and has a beach; and close to the sea there is a source of fresh water. The place is minutely described by Xenophon.  The place is mentioned also by Pliny the Elder, Solinus, Arrian, who places it 210 stadia from the mouth of the Psilis, and Stephanus of Byzantium.
Calpe is the Spanish name for Calp, a coastal town in Valencia, Spain. It may also refer to:
Calpe (monolith), also known as the Rock of Gibraltar or Mons Calpe, a monolithic limestone promontory located in Gibraltar. It was one of the Pillars of Hercules.
Gibraltar: Calpe is an ancient name for Gibraltar, taken from the promontory. It still appears in names, and in the motto "Montis Insignia Calpe", traditionally placed on the coat of arms of Gibraltar
Royal Calpe Hunt, formerly Civil Hunt, Civil Calpe Hunt and Calpe Hunt, a fox-hunting club based in Gibraltar, which existed during the 19th and 20th centuries
Calpe (Bithynia), a city of ancient Bithynia in Asia Minor
Calpe (river), a river of ancient Bithynia in Asia Minor
HMS Calpe, the name of two ships of the Royal Navy
Espasa Calpe, a Spanish book publisher
Calpe Treitschke, 1825, a moth genus synonymous with Calyptra
Calpe Quoy & Gaimard, 1827, a siphonophore genus now accepted as Abylopsis