California Air Resources Board

The California Air Resources Board (CARB or ARB) is the "clean air agency" in the government of California. Established in 1967 when then-governor Ronald Reagan signed the Mulford-Carrell Act, combining the Bureau of Air Sanitation and the Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board, CARB is a department within the cabinet-level California Environmental Protection Agency.

The stated goals of CARB include attaining and maintaining healthy air quality; protecting the public from exposure to toxic air contaminants; and providing innovative approaches for complying with air pollution rules and regulations. CARB has also been instrumental in driving innovation throughout the global automotive industry through programs such as its ZEV mandate.

One of CARB's responsibilities is to define vehicle emissions standards. California is the only state permitted to issue emissions standards under the federal Clean Air Act, subject to a waiver from the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Other states may choose to follow CARB or federal standards but may not set their own.[2]

California Air Resources Board
California Air Resources Board 2017 logo
Logo of the California Air Resources Board
Agency overview
Formed1967
Preceding agencies
  • Bureau of Air Sanitation
  • Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board
JurisdictionCalifornia
Headquarters1001 I Street Sacramento, California
Employees1,365[1]
Annual budget$581.1 million[1]
Agency executive
Parent agencyCalifornia Environmental Protection Agency
Websitehttp://www.arb.ca.gov

Governance

CARB's governing board is made up of 16 members, with 2 non-voting members appointed for legislative oversight, one each by the California State Assembly and Senate. 12 of the 14 voting members are appointed by the governor and subject to confirmation by the Senate: five from local air districts, four air pollution subject-matter experts, two members of the public, and the Chair. The other two voting members are appointed from environmental justice committees by the Assembly and Senate.[3]

Five of the governor-appointed board members are chosen from regional air pollution control or air quality management districts, including one each from:[3]

SCIENTISTS WITH PHOTOCHEMICAL TUBE REACTOR MANUFACTURE SMOG AT THE STATEWIDE AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH CENTER - NARA - 549627
Researchers at the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center manufacture smog using a photochemical tube reactor (May 1972)

Four governor-appointed board members are subject matter experts in specific fields: automotive engineering, currently Dan Sperling; science, agriculture, or law, currently John Eisenhut; medicine, currently John R. Balmes, M.D.; and air pollution control. The governor is also responsible for two appointees from members of the public, and the final governor appointee is the Board's Chair. The first Chair of CARB was Dr. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, who was previously a professor at the California Institute of Technology and started research into air pollution in 1948. Dr. Haagen-Smit is credited with discovering the source of smog in California, which led to the development of air pollution controls and standards.[4]

The two legislature-appointed board members work directly with communities affected by air pollution. They are currently Diane Takvorian and Dean Florez, appointed by the Assembly and Senate respectively.

Organizational structure

CARB has nine major divisions:[5]

  • Administrative Services Division
  • Enforcement Division
  • Mobile Source Control Division
  • Emissions Compliance, Automotive Regulations and Science Division
  • Monitoring and Laboratory Division
  • Office of Information Services
  • Air Quality Planning and Science Division
  • Research Division
  • Toxics and Transportation Division
  • Industrial Strategies Division

Air Quality Planning and Science Division

THE LOS ANGELES REACTIVE POLLUTANT PROGRAM (LARPP), IS A UNIQUE, MULTI-AGENCY AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH STUDY SPONSORED... - NARA - 552386
California Air Resources Board Laboratory, Los Angeles, in 1973

The division assesses the extent of California's air quality problems and the progress being made to abate them, coordinates statewide development of clean air plans and maintains databases pertinent to air quality and emissions. The division's technical support work provides a basis for clean air plans and CARB's regulatory programs. This support includes management and interpretation of emission inventories, air quality data, meteorological data and of air quality modeling.[6]

The Air Quality Planning and Science Division has five branches:

Atmospheric Modeling & Support Section

The Atmospheric Modeling & Support Section is one of three sections within the Modeling & Meteorology Branch. The other two sections are the Regional Air Quality Modeling Section and the Meteorology Section.[6]

The air quality and atmospheric pollution dispersion models[7][8] routinely used by this Section include a number of the models recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The section uses models which were either developed by CARB or whose development was funded by CARB, such as:

  • CALPUFF – Originally developed by the Sigma Research Company (SRC) under contract to CARB. Currently maintained by the TRC Solution Company under contract to the U.S. EPA.
  • CALGRID – Developed by CARB and currently maintained by CARB.[9]
  • SARMAP – Developed by CARB and currently maintained by CARB.[10]

Role in reducing greenhouse gases

The California Air Resources Board is charged with implementing California's comprehensive suite of policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In part due to the efforts of CARB, California has successfully decoupled greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth, and achieved its goal of reducing emissions to 1990 levels four years earlier than the target date of 2020.[11]

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program (also known as Fueling Alternatives) is funded by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), offered throughout the State of California and administered by the California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE).[12]

Low-Emission Vehicle Program

LOW-HANGING SMOG - NARA - 542683
Smog in San Gabriel, May 1972

The CARB first adopted the Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program standards in 1990 to address smog-forming pollutants,[13][14] which covered automobiles sold in California from 1994 through 2003. An amendment to the LEV Program, known as LEV II, was adopted in 1999, and covered vehicles for the 2004 through 2014 model years.[15] Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulations were adopted in 2004 starting for the 2009 model year, and are named the "Pavley" standards after Assemblymember Fran Pavley, who had written Assembly Bill 1493 in 2002 to establish them.[16][17] A second amendment, LEV III, was adopted in 2012, and covers vehicles sold from 2015 onward for both smog (superseding LEV II) and GHG (superseding Pavley) emissions.[18][19] The rules created under the LEV Program have been codified as specific sections in Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations;[20] in general, LEV I is § 1960.1; LEV II is § 1961; Pavley is § 1961.1; LEV III is § 1961.2 (smog-forming pollutants) and 1961.3 (GHG). The ZEV regulations, which were initially part of LEV I, have been broken out separately into § 1962.[21]

For comparison, the average new car sold in 1965 would produce approximately 2,000 lb (910 kg) of hydrocarbons over 100,000 mi (160,000 km) of driving; under the LEV I standards, the average new car sold in 1998 was projected to produce hydrocarbon emissions of 50 lb (23 kg) over the same distance, and under LEV II, the average new car in 2010 would further reduce hydrocarbon emissions to 10 lb (4.5 kg).[22]

Required labeling

In 2005, the California State Assembly passed AB 1229, which required all new vehicles manufactured after January 1, 2009 to bear an Environmental Performance Label, which scored the emissions performance of the vehicle on two scales ranging between 1 (worst) and 10 (best): one for global warming (emissions of GHG such as N
2
O
, CH
4
, air conditioning refrigerants, and CO
2
) and one for smog-forming compounds (non-methane organic gases (NMOG), NO
x
, and HC).[23][25] The Federal Government followed suit and required a similar "smog score" on new vehicles sold starting in 2013; the standards were realigned for labels applied to 2018 model year vehicles.

Vehicle categories

The LEV program has established several categories of reduced emissions vehicles. LEV I defined LEV and ULEV vehicles, and added TLEV and Tier 1 temporary classifications that would not be sold after 2003. LEV II added SULEV and PZEV vehicles, and LEV III tightened emission standards. The actual emission levels depend on the standards in use.

LEV I defined emission limits for several different classes of vehicle, including passenger cars (PC), light-duty trucks (LDT), and medium-duty vehicles (MDV). Heavy-duty vehicles were specifically excluded from LEV I. LEV I also defined a loaded vehicle weight (LVW) as the vehicle's kerb weight plus an allowance of 300 lb (140 kg). In general, the most stringent standards were applied to passenger cars and light-duty trucks with a LVW up to 3,750 lb (1,700 kg) (these "light" LDTs were later denoted LDT1 under LEV II).[14] LEV II increased the scope of vehicles classed as light-duty trucks to encompass a higher GVWR up to 8,500 lb (3,900 kg), compared to the LEV I standard of 6,000 lb (2,700 kg). In addition, LEV I had defined less stringent limits for heavier LDTs (denoted LDT2 with a LVW 3,751–5,750 lb (1,701–2,608 kg)); LEV II closed that discrepancy and defined a single emissions standard for all PCs and LDTs.[15] Under LEV III, medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPV) were brought under the most stringent standards alongside PCs and LDTs.[18]

Vehicle classes under the LEV regulations[14][15][18]
Class Abbr. GVWR Notes
Passenger car PC Designed primarily for transportation of persons with a design capacity of ≤12 people.
Light-duty truck LDT ≤6,000 lb
2,700 kg[a]
Designed primarily for transportation of property, derivatives of those, or available with special features for off-street use. LDT1 was defined as those with LVW up to 3,750 lb (1,700 kg), and LDT2 was defined as those with LVW from 3,751 to 5,750 lb (1,701 to 2,608 kg).
≤8,500 lb
3,900 kg[b]
Medium-duty vehicle MDV ≤8,500 lb
3,900 kg[c]
Any non-passenger vehicle with a GVWR >6,000 lb (2,700 kg) and less than the limits shown here.
≤14,000 lb
6,400 kg[d]
Notes
  1. ^ For model years before 2000
  2. ^ For model years 2000 and subsequent
  3. ^ For model years before 1995
  4. ^ For model years 1995 and subsequent, or model years 1992 and subsequent LEV, ULEV, SULEV, or ZEV.

Smog-forming compound emissions limits

Rather than providing a single standard for vehicles based on age, purpose, and weight, the LEV I standards introduced different tiers of limits for smog-forming compound emissions starting in the 1995 model year. After 2003, LEV was the minimum standard to be met.[14]

California Emissions Standards[a][b][c][26]
Category NMOG[d]+NO
x
[e]
CO PM[f] HCHO
LEV I[g][14] LEV II[h][15] LEV III[i][18] LEV I[g] LEV II[h] LEV III[i] LEV I[g] LEV II[h] LEV III[i] LEV I[g] LEV II[h] LEV III[i]
Tier 1[j] 0.91[k][l][m] 4.2[n] [o]
TLEV[j] 0.756[p] 4.2 0.08 0.018
LEV LEV160 0.390[q] 0.160[r] 0.160 4.2 4.2 4.2 0.08 0.01 0.01 0.018 0.018 0.004
ULEV ULEV125 0.355[s] 0.125[t] 0.125 2.1 2.1 2.1 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.011 0.011 0.004
ULEV70 0.070 1.7
ULEV50 0.050
SULEV[u] SULEV30 0.030[v] 0.030 1.0 1.0 0.01 0.01 0.004 0.004
SULEV20 0.020
Notes
  1. ^ Values are in grams per mile for all passenger cars and those light-duty trucks with a loaded vehicle weight (total of kerb weight plus 300 lb (140 kg) driver) less than 3,750 lb (1,700 kg), tested under the FTP-75 protocol.
  2. ^ Under LEV II and LEV III, the definition of light duty trucks was expanded to encompass all vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 lb (3,900 kg) or less.
  3. ^ Under LEV III, this category also now includes all medium-duty passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) or less.
  4. ^ Non-methane organic gases
  5. ^ NMOG and NO
    x
    were reported separately under LEV I and LEV II
  6. ^ Particulate Matter
  7. ^ a b c d LEV I standards are given for emissions at the 100,000 mi (160,000 km) / 10 year age
  8. ^ a b c d LEV II standards are given for emissions at the 120,000 mi (190,000 km) / 11 year age
  9. ^ a b c d LEV III standards are given for emissions at the 150,000 mi (240,000 km) age
  10. ^ a b Tier 1 and transitional LEV (TLEV) vehicles were not sold after 2003.
  11. ^ LEV I: 0.31 g/mi NMOG + 0.6 g/mi NO
    x
    .
  12. ^ LEV I: 0.31 g/mi NMOG + 1.0 g/mi NO
    x
    for diesel-powered vehicles.
  13. ^ For comparison, the values for 1988–94 model year passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty trucks (<3,750 LVW) were 0.39–0.46 g/mi NMOG and 0.4-1.0 g/mi NO
    x
    .
  14. ^ For comparison, the values for 1988–94 model year passenger cars were 7.0-8.3 g/mi CO, and for light-duty trucks and medium-duty trucks (<3,750 LVW), 9.0-10.6 g/mi CO.
  15. ^ Formaldehyde standards provided for 1993 and newer model year vehicles fueled by methanol and ethanol: for passenger cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty trucks (<3,750 LVW), 0.023 g/mi HCHO for 1993–95 and 0.015 g/mi HCHO for 1996+
  16. ^ LEV I: 0.156 g/mi NMOG + 0.6 g/mi NO
    x
  17. ^ LEV I: 0.090 g/mi NMOG + 0.3 g/mi NO
    x
  18. ^ LEV II: 0.090 g/mi NMOG + 0.07 g/mi NO
    x
  19. ^ LEV I: 0.055 g/mi NMOG + 0.3 g/mi NO
    x
  20. ^ LEV II: 0.055 g/mi NMOG + 0.07 g/mi NO
    x
  21. ^ SULEV for passenger cars and light-duty trucks was not defined until LEV II.
  22. ^ LEV II: 0.010 g/mi NMOG + 0.02 g/mi NO
    x

Greenhouse gas emissions limits

TRANSMISSION LINES AND RAILROAD NEAR SALTON SEA. DISTRICT OF LOS ANGELES SMOG OBSCURES THE SUN - NARA - 547711
Sunlight filtered through smog near Blythe, May 1972

CARB adopted regulations for limits on greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 starting with the 2009 model year to support the direction provided by AB 1493.[16] In June 2005, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-03-05, which required a reduction in California GHG emissions, targeting an 80% reduction compared to 1990 levels by 2050.[27] Assembly Bill 32, better known as the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, codified these requirements.[28]

CARB filed a waiver request with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act in December 2005 to permit it to establish limits on greenhouse gas emissions; although the waiver request was initially denied in March 2008, it was later approved on June 30, 2009 after President Barack Obama signed a Presidential Memorandum directing the EPA to reconsider the waiver.[16][29] In the initial denial, EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson stated the Clean Air Act was not "intended to allow California to promulgate state standards for emissions from new motor vehicles designed to address global climate change problems" and further, that he did not believe "the effects of climate change in California are compelling and extraordinary compared to the effects in the rest of the country."[30] Johnson's successor, Lisa P. Jackson, signed the waiver overturning Johnson's denial, writing that "EPA must grant California a waiver if California determines that its standards are, in the aggregate, at least as protective of the public health and welfare as applicable Federal standards." Jackson also noted that in the history of the waiver process, over 50 waivers had been granted and only one had been fully denied, namely the March 2008 denial of the GHG emissions regulation.[31]

CARB decided to adopt regulation of GHG emissions under Executive Order G-05-061, which provided phase-in targets for fleet average GHG emissions in CO
2
-equivalent grams per mile starting with the 2009 model year.[32] The calculation of CO
2
-equivalent emissions was based on contributions from four different chemicals:

The emissions in g/mi CO
2
-equivalent are calculated according to the formula , which has two terms for direct and indirect emissions allowances of air conditioning refrigerants, depending on the refrigerant used, such as HFC134a, and the system design. Vehicles powered by alternative fuels use a slightly modified formula, , where is a fuel adjustment factor depending on the alternative fuel used (1.03 for natural gas, 0.89 for LPG, and 0.74 for E85). ZEVs are also required to calculate GHG as the processes to generate the energy (or fuel) used also produce GHG. For ZEVs, , where is the upstream emissions factor (130 g/mi for battery electric vehicles, 210 for hydrogen/fuel cell, and 290 for hydrogen/internal combustion).[32] Direct CO
2
emissions could be calculated in a relatively straightforward fashion based on fuel consumption.[33] Manufacturers that do not wish to measure N
2
O
emissions may assume a value of 0.006 g/mi.[32] An update was issued in 2010 which allowed manufacturers to calculate GHG emissions using CAFE data; for conventionally powered vehicles, the contribution from the nitrous oxide and methane terms could be assumed to be 1.9 g/mi.[34]

CARB voted unanimously in March 2017 to require automakers to average 54.5 mpg for new cars in 2025.[35]

Section 177 states

Section 177 states (2019)
Section 177 states:
 •      blue=LEV only
 •      green=LEV+ZEV
 •      red=LEV repealed

Because California had emissions regulations prior to the 1977 Clean Air Act, under Section 177 of that bill,[38] other states may adopt the more stringent California emissions regulations as an alternative to Federal standards. Thirteen other states and the District of Columbia have chosen to do so, and nine of those have additionally adopted the California Zero-Emission Vehicle regulations.[36][39]

Arizona and New Mexico had previously adopted California LEV regulations under Section 177, but later repealed those states' clean car standards in 2012[40] and 2013,[41] respectively.[42]

In Canada, the province of Quebec adopted CARB standards effective in 2010.[43]

Zero-Emission Vehicle Program

The CARB Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program was enacted by the California government to promote the use of zero emission vehicles.[44] The program goal is to reduce the pervasive air pollution affecting the main metropolitan areas in the state, particularly in Los Angeles, where prolonged pollution episodes are frequent. The California ZEV rule was first adopted by CARB as part of the 1990 Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV I) Program.[13] The focus of the 1990 rules (ZEV-90) was to meet air quality standards for ozone rather than the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.[45]:5

Under LEV II in 1999, the ZEV regulations were moved to a separate section (13 CCR § 1962) and the requirements for ZEVs as a percentage of fleet sales was made more formal. Executive Order S-03-05 (2005) and Assembly Bills 1493 (2002) and 32 (2006) prompted CARB to reevaluate the ZEV program as last amended in 1996, which had been primarily concerned with reducing emissions of smog-forming pollutants.[45] By the time AB 32 passed in 2006, vehicles complying with PZEV and AT PZEV standards had become commercially successful, and the ZEV program could then shift towards reducing both smog-forming compounds and greenhouse gases.[45]

Vehicle definitions

LEV I defined a ZEV as one that produces "zero emissions of any criteria pollutants under any and all possible operational modes and conditions." A vehicle could still qualify as a ZEV with a fuel-fired heater, as long as the heater was unable to be operated at ambient temperatures above 40 °F (4 °C) and did not have any evaporative emissions.[14]:2-6;2-7 Under LEV II (ZEV-99), the ZEV definition was updated to include precursor pollutants, but did not consider upstream emissions from power plants.[46]:C-1

The ZEV regulation has evolved and been modified several times since 1990, and several new partial or low-emission categories were created and defined,[47][48][49][50] including the introduction of PZEV and AT PZEV categories in ZEV-99.[46]:B-1;B-2

  • PZEV (Partial Zero Emission Vehicle): Meets SULEV tailpipe standards, has a 15-year / 150,000 mile warranty, and zero evaporative emissions. These vehicles are 80% cleaner than the average 2002 model year car.
  • AT PZEV (Advanced Technology PZEV): These are advanced technology vehicles that meet PZEV standards and include ZEV enabling technology, typically hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). They are 80% cleaner than the average 2002 model year car.
  • ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicle): Zero tailpipe emissions, and 98% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle.

Manufacturer sales volume

Under ZEV-90, CARB classified manufacturers according to the average sales per year between 1989 and 1993; small volume manufacturers were those that sold 3,000 or fewer new vehicles per year; intermediate volume manufacturers sold between 3,001 and 35,000; and large volume manufacturers sold more than 35,000 per year.[14]:2-3 For large volume manufacturers, CARB required that 2% of 1998 to 2000 model year vehicles sold were ZEVs, ramping up to 5% ZEVs by 2001 and 10% ZEVs in 2003 and beyond. Intermediate volume manufacturers were not required to meet the goals until 2003, and small volume manufacturers were exempted. These percentages were calculated based on total production of passenger cars and light-duty trucks with a loaded vehicle weight (LVW) less than 3,750 lb (1,700 kg).[14]:3-22 to 3-24 [51]

ZEV credit system

The LEV I rules also introduced the concept of emission credits. Under LEV I, the vehicle fleet average emissions rate of non-methane organic gases (NMOG) produced by a manufacturer was required to meet increasingly stringent requirements starting in 1994.[14]:3-18 The calculation of fleet average NMOG emissions was based on a weighted sum of vehicle NMOG emissions, based on the number sold and type of certification (i.e., TLEV, LEV, ULEV, etc.), divided by the total number of vehicles produced, including ZEVs.[14]:3-20 Manufacturers whose fleet average NMOG emissions met or exceeded the NMOG emissions goal would be subjected to civil penalties; those which fell below the goal would receive credits, which could then be marketed to other manufacturers.[14]:3-24

The 1996 amendments to the ZEV regulations in LEV I (ZEV-96) introduced credits where a ZEV could be counted more than once based on vehicle range or battery specific energy to encourage deployment of ZEVs prior to 2003.[52]:3–4

Under LEV II/ZEV-99, the PZEV and AT PZEV categories were introduced, and the percentage of ZEVs sold by a manufacturer could be partially met by the sales of PZEV and AT PZEVs.[46]:C-2 If a vehicle met PZEV criteria, it qualified for a credit equal to 0.2 of one ZEV for the purposes of calculating that manufacturer's ZEV production.[46]:C-6 AT PZEVs capable of traveling with zero emissions for a limited range were allowed additional credit if the urban all-electric range was at least ten miles.[46]:C-7 ZEVs that were introduced prior to 2003 received a multiplier, with a value ranging up to 10× a single ZEV depending on the all-electric range and fast-charging capability.[46]:C-11;C-12

MOA demonstration fleet

In March 1996, ZEV-96 eliminated the ZEV ramp-up planned to start in 1998, but the goal of 10% ZEVs by 2003 was retained, with credits granted for sales of partial ZEVs (PZEVs).[52][47] According to comment responses, CARB determined that advanced batteries would not be ready in time to meet the ZEV requirements until at least 2003.[54]:6–7

EV1A014 (1)
GM EV1

In conjunction with relaxing the requirements in ZEV-96, CARB signed memoranda of agreement (MOAs) with the seven large scale manufacturers to begin rolling out demonstration fleets of ZEVs with limited public availability in the near term. The GM EV1 was the first battery electric vehicle (BEV) offered to the public, in partial fulfillment of the agreement with CARB. The EV1 was available only through a US$399 (equivalent to $640 in 2018)/month lease starting in December 1996; the initial markets were South Coast, San Diego, and Arizona, and expanded to Sacramento and the Bay Area. GM also offered an electric S-10 pickup truck to fleet operators.[53]

In 1997, Honda (EV Plus, May 1997), Toyota (RAV4 EV, October 1997), and Chrysler (EPIC, 1997) followed suit. Ford also introduced the Ranger EV for the 1998 model year, and Nissan stated they planned to offer the Altra in the 1998 model year as well to fulfill the MOA. As an acceptable alternative, Mazda stated they would purchase ZEV credits from Ford.[53]:7–10

Future

The Low-Emission Vehicle Program is currently under revision to define modified ZEV regulations for 2015 models.[47][55][56] CARB estimates the ZEV program will result in 15% ZEV sales by 2025. The share remained at 3% between 2014 and 2016. Battery vehicles receive 3 or 4 credits, while fuel cell cars receive 9. As of 2016, a credit has a market value of $3-4,000, and some automakers have more credits than required.[57][58]

Low-carbon fuel standard

The Low-Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) requires oil refineries and distributors to ensure that the mix of fuel they sell in the Californian market meets the established declining targets for greenhouse gas emissions measured in CO2-equivalent grams per unit of fuel energy sold for transport purposes. The 2007 Governor's LCFS directive calls for a reduction of at least 10% in the carbon intensity of California's transportation fuels by 2020. These reductions include not only tailpipe emissions but also all other associated emissions from production, distribution and use of transport fuels within the state. Therefore, California LCFS considers the fuel's full life cycle, also known as the "well to wheels" or "seed to wheels" efficiency of transport fuels.[13][59] The standard is aimed to reduce the state’s dependence on petroleum, create a market for clean transportation technology, and stimulate the production and use of alternative, low-carbon fuels in California.[60]

On April 23, 2009, CARB approved the specific rules for the LCFS that will go into effect in January 2011.[61][62] The rule proposal prepared by its technical staff was approved by a 9-1 vote, to set the 2020 maximum carbon intensity reference value to 86 grams of carbon dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced.[60][63]

PHEV Research Center

The PHEV Research Center was launched with funding from the California Air Resources Board.

Innovative Clean Transit

Under the Innovative Clean Transit (formerly known as the Advanced Clean Transit) regulation adopted in December 2018, public transportation agencies in California will gradually transition to a zero-emission bus fleet by 2040.[64] Large transit agencies (defined as those operating more than 65 buses in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin or South Coast Air Quality Management District, or those operating more than 100 buses elsewhere with populations greater than 200,000) are required to have 25% of new bus purchases as zero-emission buses (ZEBs) starting in 2023, 50% of new purchases as ZEBs starting in 2026, and 100% of new purchases as ZEBs starting in 2029. Small transit agencies are required to make 25% of new purchases as ZEBs in 2026 and 100% of new purchases as ZEBs in 2029+. Per the regulation, ZEBs are defined to include battery electric buses and fuel cell buses, but do not include electric trolleybuses which draw power from overhead lines.[65] The Antelope Valley Transit Authority has set a goal to be the first all-electric fleet by the end of 2018, ahead of the tightened regulations.[66]

Criticism

CARB's Goods Movement Emission Reduction Plan (GMERP) has been criticized by a coalition of California truck owners, farmers, construction contractors and business and community leaders. The coalition has estimated that "applying the new emissions regulations to the 2.3 million or so diesel trucks that move goods throughout California could cost at least $8 billion".[67]

See also

California Air Resources Board
Other

References

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  5. ^ board, california air resources. "Organizations within the California Air Resources Board". www.arb.ca.gov.
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  19. ^ "Low-Emission Vehicle Program". California Air Resources Board. January 25, 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
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  21. ^ "The California Low-Emission Vehicle Regulations (With Amendments Effective October 16, 2017)" (PDF). California Air Resources Board. October 16, 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  22. ^ "Fact Sheet: LEV II - Amendments to California's Low-Emission Vehicle regulations" (PDF). California Air Resources Board. February 1999. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  23. ^ a b Chiladakis, Lisa (March 2010). "Environmental Performance Label" (PDF). California Air Resources Board. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  24. ^ "Understand the Smog Rating". DriveClean. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  25. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to amend Section 43200 of, and to add Section 43200.1 to, the Health and Safety Code, relating to air pollution". Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 575 p. 4355. direct URL
  26. ^ "Emission Standards: United States: Cars and Light-Duty Trucks: California". DieselNet. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  27. ^ "California Executive Order S-3-05". State of California, Office of the Governor. June 1, 2005. Archived from the original on 22 September 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  28. ^ California State Assembly. "An act to add Division 25.5 (commencing with Section 38500) to the Health and Safety Code, relating to air pollution". Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 488 p. 3419. direct URL
  29. ^ "California Greenhouse Gas Waiver Request". United States Environmental Protection Agency. June 30, 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  30. ^ Johnson, Stephen L. (March 6, 2008). "California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Decision Denying a Waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption for Californias 2009 and Subsequent Model Year Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  31. ^ Jackson, Lisa P. (June 30, 2009). "California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Decision Denying a Waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption for Californias 2009 and Subsequent Model Year Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  32. ^ a b c d "Final Regulation Order: Amendments to Sections 1900 and 1961, and Adoption of new Section 1961.1, Title 13, California Code of Regulations" (PDF). California Air Resources Board. September 15, 2005. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  33. ^ "How to calculate the CO2 emission from the fuel consumption?". ecoscore. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
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  35. ^ "What's New List Serve Post Display". www.arb.ca.gov.
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  37. ^ "States Adopting California's Clean Cars Standards". Maryland Department of the Environment. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  38. ^ 42 U.S.C. § 7507
  39. ^ Neustifter, Jeremy (November 16, 2018). "Air Quality Control Commission approves low emission vehicle standards" (Press release). State of Colorado, Department of Public Health & Environment. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  40. ^ "Notice of final rulemaking" (PDF). Arizona Department of Environmental Quality. November 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  41. ^ "Petition to repeal regulations" (PDF). State of New Mexico, Environmental Improvement Board. June 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
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  43. ^ "Quebec adopts California car emissions standards". CBC. December 29, 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
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  49. ^ Sherry Boschert (2006). Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that will Recharge America. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, Canada. pp. 15–28. ISBN 978-0-86571-571-4. See the box "Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate Timeline", pp. 23-28
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  51. ^ According to the LEV I regulations, the LVW is defined as the sum of the vehicle's kerb weight and a 300 lb (140 kg) allowance for the driver and fuel.
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  67. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "COMMENTARY: Diesel risks mostly hot air?". The Washington Times.

External links

News
Carb

Carb or CARB may refer to:

Carbohydrate, a simple molecule

Carburetor, a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine

California Air Resources Board, in the government of California, US

Flyscooters Il Bello

The Il Bello is a street legal, gas-powered motor scooter assembled in China using parts sourced from China,. Il Bello is an unlicensed copy of the Honda Joker and is the flagship vehicle of Flyscooters.

The Il Bello has 4-stroke air-cooled motor and gets 70-90 mpg. It is certified by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT). It comes in 50cc and 150cc. Sometimes the Il Bello is erroneously called Il Bella.

Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006

The Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, or Assembly Bill (AB) 32, is a California State Law that fights global warming by establishing a comprehensive program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from all sources throughout the state. AB 32 was authored by then-Assembly member Fran Pavley and Assembly Speaker Fabian Nunez (D-Los Angeles) and signed into law by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger on September 27, 2006.

On June 1, 2005, Governor Schwarzenegger signed an executive order known as Executive Order S-3-05 which established greenhouse gas emissions targets for the state. The executive order required the state to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions levels to 2000 levels by 2010, to 1990 levels by 2020, and to a level 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. However, to implement this measure, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) needed authority from the legislature. The California State Legislature passed the Global Warming Solutions Act to address this issue and gave the CARB authority to implement the program.

AB 32 requires the California Air Resources Board (CARB or ARB) to develop regulations and market mechanisms to reduce California's greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year of 2020, representing approximately a 30% reduction statewide, with mandatory caps beginning in 2012 for significant emissions sources. The bill also allows the Governor to suspend the emissions caps for up to a year in case of emergency or significant economic harm.

The State of California leads the nation in energy efficiency standards and plays a lead role in environmental protection, but is also the 12th largest emitter of carbon worldwide. Greenhouse gas emissions are defined in the bill to include all of the following: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons. These are the same greenhouse gases listed in Annex A of the Kyoto Protocol.

Hector De La Torre

Hector De La Torre is an American politician from Los Angeles County, California who served in the California State Assembly from 2004 to 2010. A Democrat, he represented the largely Latino 50th Assembly district. De La Torre grew up in South Gate and taught at Edison Junior High in South Los Angeles.

De La Torre majored in Diplomacy and World Affairs at Occidental College in Los Angeles and attended graduate school at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. He and his wife, Christine, live in South Gate with their children, Elinor, Henrik, and Emilia.

Honda CRF250L

The Honda CRF250L (model designation MD38) is a dual-sport motorcycle, part of the Honda CRF series, manufactured by Honda for their global market. It was first released in 2012 for the 2013 model year.

It combines a high-efficiency, fuel-injected DOHC single-cylinder counterbalanced engine, and electric starter with a comfortable, neutral seating position, headlight, taillight, turn signals, mirrors, EPA and California Air Resources Board compliant exhaust system.

Honda EV Plus

The Honda EV Plus was the first battery electric vehicle from a major automaker with non-lead acid batteries. Roughly 340 EV Plus models were produced and released. The EV Plus was taken out of production in 1999 when Honda announced the release of its first hybrid electric vehicle, the Honda Insight. The EV Plus was made to learn about advanced battery use in an electric car and to meet California Air Resources Board requirements for zero-emission vehicles, the same as the new General Motors EV1. It served as a test bed for the pancake-style motor, electronic control unit, power control unit and the Nickel–metal hydride battery (NiMH) later used in Honda hybrids and developed further in the first Honda FCX Fuel Cell Vehicles made from returned (decommissioned) EV Plus chassis.

The EV Plus featured on-board conductive charging with the Avcon connector, passive battery balancing, regenerative braking and deceleration, AC/heat-pump climate control, HID headlights, 4 seats, and electrically heated windshield. Units deployed in cold climates also had oil-fired heaters for faster cabin heating and passenger comfort. As with virtually all vehicles, range was affected by driving style: rapid acceleration, high speeds, and fast stops lowered the all-electric range significantly. United States Environmental Protection Agency rated at 81 miles (130 km), careful driving would give it a range of just over 100 miles (160 km). The EV Plus came with a 12 V battery for running normal 12 volt accessories and lighting.

Honda R engine

The Honda R engine is an inline-four engine launched in 2006 for the Honda Civic (non-Si). It is fuel injected, has an aluminum-alloy cylinder block and cylinder head, is a SOHC 16-valve design (four valves per cylinder) and utilizes Honda's i-VTEC system. The R series engine has a compression ratio of 10.5:1, features a "drive by wire" throttle system which is computer controlled to reduce pumping losses and create a smooth torque curve.

The engine uses many advanced technologies to improve fuel economy and reduce friction. Piston rings are given an ion plating and weight is reduced with plastic and aluminum parts and variable length intake manifolds that maintain ram air at a wide RPM range. The engine also features piston cooling jets, previously available only on high performance engines, and in the ninth-generation 1.8L Civic (2012-2015) the pistons are treated with molybdenum disulfide applied in a polka-dot pattern. The automatic transmission model is rated at California Air Resources Board (CARB) ULEV-2 (Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) with fuel economy 25 mpg‑US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg‑imp) city, and 36 mpg‑US (6.5 L/100 km; 43 mpg‑imp) highway. It also uses the same computer (engine control unit) controlled distributorless coil-on-plug ignition as the Honda K-series engines.

Honda XR650L

The XR650L is a dual-sport motorcycle manufactured by Honda, part of the Honda XR series. It was released in 1992 as a 1993 model. It combines the RFVC engine from the proven NX650 Dominator dual sport with the lighter, off-road capable XR600R chassis, which is not road legal in the US (the XR600R). It has been produced virtually unchanged since 1993.

The engine is an air-cooled 644 cc (39.3 cu in) SOHC, dry-sump, single-cylinder, four-stroke. With an electric starter, headlight, taillight, turn signals, mirrors, US EPA and California Air Resources Board (CARB) compliant exhaust system, and a 2.8-US-gallon (11-litre; 2.3-imperial-gallon) metallic fuel tank, the 650L has a 349 lb (158 kg) wet weight. The seat height is 37 inches (940 mm).

Indirect land use change impacts of biofuels

The indirect land use change impacts of biofuels, also known as ILUC, relates to the unintended consequence of releasing more carbon emissions due to land-use changes around the world induced by the expansion of croplands for ethanol or biodiesel production in response to the increased global demand for biofuels.As farmers worldwide respond to higher crop prices in order to maintain the global food supply-and-demand balance, pristine lands are cleared to replace the food crops that were diverted elsewhere to biofuels' production. Because natural lands, such as rainforests and grasslands, store carbon in their soil and biomass as plants grow each year, clearance of wilderness for new farms translates to a net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Due to this change in the carbon stock of the soil and the biomass, indirect land use change has consequences in the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of a biofuel.Other authors have also argued that indirect land use changes produce other significant social and environmental impacts, affecting biodiversity, water quality, food prices and supply, land tenure, worker migration, and community and cultural stability.

Magne Charge

Magne Charge is a largely obsolete inductive charging system, also known as J1773, used to charge battery electric vehicles (BEV) formerly made by General Motors, for vehicles such as the EV1, Chevy S10 EV, and other electric vehicles. It was produced by the General Motors subsidiary Delco Electronics. It is still used by a few hundred first generation Toyota RAV4 EV electric vehicles. As these first generation Toyota RAV4 EV electric vehicles retire from the roadways, Magne Charge will be completely obsolete since no existing or future electric vehicles can use it. The 2012 Gen 2 RAV4 EV, as well as the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt, use J1772 instead of the obsolete Magne Charge.

Level 2 most common was the 6.6 kW version. Level 3 higher power 50 kW fast charge versions were demonstrated.This charger was unique in that its charge port used an inductive charge paddle, of which there were two sizes, a small and large paddle.

The system was designed to be safe even when used in the rain, and was demonstrated in operation fully submerged in water. These are often referred on electric vehicle charging station maps as SPI and LPI stations for Small Paddle Inductive and Large Paddle Inductive stations.

Magne Charge support was withdrawn by General Motors in 2002,

after the California Air Resources Board settled on a conductive charging interface for electric vehicles in California in June, 2001.

It has also been referred to as Magne-Charge and MagneCharge.In 2011 the California Energy Commission created the Reconnect CA Program, a grant program to upgrade and expand existing publicly available EV charging infrastructure to the new SAE J1772 charging standard.

In the movie Gattaca (1997), Vincent is shown plugging a Magne Charge paddle into his electric car at 41 minutes into the movie.

Mary D. Nichols

Mary Dolores Nichols is the chairwoman of the California Air Resources Board (CARB), a post she has held since 2007, when she was appointed by Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger. She also held that post between 1979 and 1983. From 1999 to 2003, she served as secretary of the California Natural Resources Agency in the cabinet of then-Governor Gray Davis Due to her efforts to combat global warming, she has been dubbed "the Queen of Green".

Mitsubishi Caterpillar Forklift America

Mitsubishi Caterpillar Forklift America Inc. ("MCFA"), headquartered in Houston, Texas is a manufacturer and distributor of material handling equipment and parts under the Mitsubishi Forklift Trucks, Cat Lift Trucks, and Jungheinrich brand names. MCFA also owns the rights to Towmotor brand name, but does not manufacture under it. MCFA is ISO 9001-2000 certified and has obtained compliance certification from the California Air Resources Board (CARB). MCFA provides a full line of forklifts with complete sales and product support through more than 400 dealer locations throughout the United States, Canada and Latin America.

The company's 860,000 sq ft (80,000 m2). facility in Houston is located on 42 acres (170,000 m2) of land and employs 1,200 workers, capable of producing over 25,000 forklifts per annum.

MCFA is a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and one of the worldwide MCF group of companies:

MCFE (Mitsubishi Caterpillar Forklift Europe) based in Almere, Netherlands

MCFS (Mitsubishi Caterpillar Forklift Asia) based in SingaporeEach group, with the exception of MCFS, is responsible for design engineering, manufacturing and marketing the product lines and handling parts distribution in their respective regions.

Partial zero-emissions vehicle

A partial zero emission vehicle, in the United States, is an automobile that has zero evaporative emissions from its fuel system, has a 15-year (or at least 150,000-mile) warranty on its emission-control components, and meets SULEV tailpipe-emission standards.

Phoenix Motorcars

Phoenix Cars LLC., d.b.a. Phoenix Motorcars based in Ontario, California, is a leading developer of zero emission, all-electric vehicles (EV), focused on the deployment of light- and medium-duty EVs into the fleet and transit markets. The company was founded in 2002 and became a wholly owned subsidiary of Al Yousuf LLC in 2009. Phoenix launched its all-electric 14-22 passenger shuttle bus with 100 mile range per charge in 2013. The bus is based on the versatile Ford E350/450 Series vehicle.Phoenix is fully California Air Resources Board (CARB) approved and is currently delivering vehicles to customers.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Center

The Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research Center at the University of California, Davis, United States, provides technology and policy guidance to the state, helps solve research questions and addresses commercialization issues for PHEVs.It was launched in 2007 with funding from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the California Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program.

South Coast Air Quality Management District

The South Coast Air Quality Management District, also using the acronym SCAQMD, formed in 1976, is the air pollution agency responsible for regulating stationary sources of air pollution in the South Coast Air Basin, in Southern California. The separate California Air Resources Board is responsible for regulating mobile sources (e.g. vehicles) in the air basin.

Tiger Truck

The Tiger Truck is a light utility truck sub-brand from Chinese manufacturer Chang'an. It belongs to a class of vehicles known as “mini-trucks,” “micro trucks,” “K trucks,” and "kei trucks”. The K is short for kei jidosha, Japanese for “light vehicle” and the name of a special class of vehicles subject to reduced taxation in Japan. In the United States, this class of vehicle is classified as a low speed vehicle as defined under CFR 49-571.500 and is limited to a top speed of 25 MPH. As such, it is only legal for off highway use and/or local road use.The Tiger Truck is known for its diminutive size, but good reliability under harsh conditions and its refined ride quality. The Tiger Truck logo is an homage to the Star Trek logo, meant to highlight the futuristic design and features of the truck. The Tiger Truck offers gasoline, E85 and electric models. A wide range of models from trucks and crew cabs to vans are available. The Tiger Truck is known for its rigorous quality control standards, including their patented tiger-proof test. Also offered are a suite of accessories such as a snowplow, pintle hitch, front brush guard, security light, hot dog cooker and others.

The Tiger Star model is an upgraded and more robust off-road utility truck than most off-road vehicles in its class. The advanced Star class trucks feature robust electric drive, with a 48 volt, 5 kW motor mated with a five-speed transmission. All Tiger Trucks are California Air Resources Board certified. Original design was based on the Suzuki Every/ Suzuki Carry based Changan Star kei vans and kei trucks due to the licensed production by the Changan Suzuki joint venture in China.

Tiger has the largest available array of truck body options for niche applications. Primary distribution in the U.S. is through a select dealership network. Tiger Trucks are being assembled in Poteau, Oklahoma, under the "Tiger Truck" brand to better supply the North American demand for these trucks.

Who Killed the Electric Car?

Who Killed the Electric Car? is a 2006 documentary film that explores the creation, limited commercialization, and subsequent destruction of the battery electric vehicle in the United States, specifically the General Motors EV1 of the mid-1990s. The film explores the roles of automobile manufacturers, the oil industry, the federal government of the United States, the California government, batteries, hydrogen vehicles, and consumers in limiting the development and adoption of this technology.

After a premiere at the Sundance Film Festival, it was released theatrically by Sony Pictures Classics in June, 2006 and then on DVD by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment on November 14, 2006.

During an interview with CBS News, director Chris Paine announced that he had started a new documentary about electric cars with a working title of Who Saved the Electric Car?, later renamed Revenge of the Electric Car, which had its world premiere at the 2011 Tribeca Film Festival on Earth Day, April 22, 2011.

Zero-emissions vehicle

A zero-emissions vehicle, or ZEV, is a vehicle that emits no exhaust gas from the onboard source of power. Harmful pollutants to the health and the environment include particulates (soot), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. Although not considered emission pollutants by the original California Air Resources Board (CARB) or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) definitions, the most recent common use of the term also includes volatile organic compounds, several air toxics (most notably 1,3-Butadiene), and global pollutants such as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.Examples of zero emission vehicles include muscle-powered vehicles such as bicycles; electric bicycles; gravity racers; battery electric vehicles, which may shift emissions to the location where the electricity is generated (if the electricity comes from coal or natural gas power plants--as opposed to hydro-electric, wind power, solar power or nuclear power plants); and fuel cell vehicles powered by hydrogen. Emissions from the manufacturing process are thus not included in this definition, and it has been argued that the emissions that are created during manufacture are currently of an order of magnitude that is comparable to the one of the emissions that are created during a vehicle's operating lifetime. However, these vehicles are in the early stages of their development; the manufacturing emissions may decrease by the development of technology, industry, shifting toward mass production and the ever increasing use of renewable energy throughout the supply-chains.

California Air Resources Board Leadership[3]
Name Affiliation Appointed Term ends
Mary D. Nichols Chair August 2007 December 31, 2020
Sandra Berg Vice Chair August 2004 December 31, 2022
John R. Balmes, MD Physician December 2007 December 31, 2020
Hector De La Torre Assembly June 2018 December 31, 2018
John Eisenhut Agriculture August 2013 December 31, 2022
Dean Florez Senate February 2016 December 31, 2018
Eduardo Garcia Ex Officio (Assembly) February 2017
John Gioia Bay Area AQMD May 2013 December 31, 2020
Ricardo Lara Ex Officio (Senate) February 2017
Judy Mitchell South Coast AQMD May 2013 December 31, 2020
Barbara Riordan Mojave Desert AQMD August 2004 December 31, 2022
Ron Roberts San Diego AQMD February 1995 December 31, 2018
Phil Serna Sacramento Region Air Districts January 2013 December 31, 2022
Alexander Sherriffs, MD San Joaquin Valley APCD August 2012 December 31, 2022
Daniel Sperling Automotive February 2007 December 31, 2022
Diane Tavorkian Public August 31, 2018 December 31, 2022
Global Warming & Smog Scores
Global
Warming
Score
CO
2

(g/mi)
Smog
Score
MY (2009)2013–2017[a][23] MY 2018+[b][24]
CA
LEV II
EPATier 2 NMOG+NO
x

(g/mi)
CA
LEV III
EPATier 3 NMOG+NO
x

(g/mi)
10 <200 10 ZEV Bin 1 0.000 ZEV Bin 0 0.000
9 200–239 9 AT PZEV, PZEV 0.030
8 240–279 8 SULEV Bin 2 0.030 SULEV20 Bin 20 0.020
7 280–319 7 Bin 3 0.085 SULEV30 Bin 30 0.030
6 320–359 6 Bin 4 0.110 ULEV50 Bin 50 0.050
5 360–399 5 ULEV 0.125 ULEV70 Bin 70 0.070
4 400–439 4 LEV Bin 5 0.160
3 440–479 3 Bin 6 0.190 – 0.200 ULEV125 Bin 125 0.125
2 480–519 2 Bin 7 0.240
1 ≥520 1 [c] Bin 8a 0.325 LEV160 Bin 160 0.160
Notes
  1. ^ Based on the scoring for the "Environmental Performance Label", applied to new vehicles model years 2009–2012 in California. The California label was aligned with Federal standards in 2013.
  2. ^ Scoring realigned with LEV III/Tier 3 scores starting in model year 2018. Note the change in standards; for example, a LEV under LEV II (160 mg/mi) which was rated with a smog score of 4 under the old label would now be rated with as LEV160 under LEV III and would receive a smog score of 1.
  3. ^ ULEV under California LEV I standard.
Greenhouse gas fleet average emissions targets[32]
Model
Year
(g/mi CO
2
-equivalent)
PCs & LDT1s LDT2s & MDPVs
2009 323 439
2010 301 420
2011 267 390
2012 233 361
2013 227 355
2014 222 350
2015 213 341
2016+ 205 332
"California emissions" states[36][37]
State LEV ZEV MY
CA Yes Yes 2005
CO Yes No 2022
CT Yes Yes 2008
DC Yes No 2012
DE Yes No 2014
MA Yes Yes 2009
MD Yes Yes 2011
ME Yes Yes 2009
NJ Yes Yes 2009
NY Yes Yes 2009
OR Yes Yes 2009
PA Yes No 2008
RI Yes Yes 2009
VT Yes Yes 2009
WA Yes No 2009
ZEV-96 Credits[52]
Model
Year
2 ZEV Count 3 ZEV Count
Range
(mi)
Specific Energy
(Wh/kg)
Range
(mi)
Specific Energy
(Wh/kg)
1996–97 any any ≥70 ≥40
1998 ≥100 ≥130
1999 ≥50 ≥60
2000 ≥140 ≥175
2001–02 ≥60 ≥90
MOA EVs (1997+)[53]
Mfr Model Date Battery Range Qty
(12/97)
Chrysler EPIC ?/97 SLA 60 mi
97 km
17
Ford Ranger EV ?/97 SLA 60 mi
97 km
10
GM EV1 12/96 SLA 75 mi
121 km
265
GM S-10 EV ?/97 SLA 40 mi
64 km
354
NiMH 80 mi
130 km
7
Honda EV Plus 05/97 NiMH 125 mi
201 km
104
Nissan Altra ?/98 Li-ion 120 mi
190 km
Toyota RAV4 EV 10/97 NiMH 125 mi
201 km
69

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