Santiago de Cali (Spanish pronunciation: [sanˈtjaɣo ðe ˈkali]), usually known by its short name Cali, is the capital of the Valle del Cauca department, and the most populous city in southwest Colombia, with an estimated 2,319,655 residents according to 2005-2020/DANE population projections. The city spans 560.3 km2 (216.3 sq mi) with 120.9 km2 (46.7 sq mi) of urban area, making Cali the third-largest city proper and metropolitan area in population and the second-largest city by area in the country. As the only major Colombian city with access to the Pacific Coast, Cali is the main urban and economic centre in southwest Colombia, and has one of the fastest-growing economies in the country. The city was founded on 25 July 1536 by the Spanish conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar.
Cali is also a centre for sports in Colombia, and is the only Colombian city to have hosted the Pan American Games (in 1971). Cali hosted the 1992 World Wrestling Championships, the ninth edition of the World Games in 2013, the UCI Track Cycling World Championships in 2014 and the World Youth Championships in Athletics in 2015.
|Santiago de Cali|
From the top: Central Cali skyline; Cristo Rey; Sebastián de Belalcázar; San Antonio Church ; Religious complex La Merced; La Ermita; Enrique Buenaventura Municipal Theater
"The Salsa capital of the world", "Capital of Happiness", "Sports Capital of Colombia", "Branch of heaven"
Location of the municipality and city of Cali in the Valle del Cauca Department.
Location in Colombia
|Department||Valle del Cauca|
|Foundation||25 July 1536|
|Founded by||Sebastián de Belalcázar|
|• Mayor||Norman Maurice Armitage|
|• City||619 km2 (239 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,018 m (3,340 ft)|
|• Rank||Ranked 3rd|
|• Density||3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,400,000 (2,012)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (COT)|
|Area code(s)||+57 2|
|HDI (2010)||0.910– very high|
|Website||Official website (in Spanish)|
Cali is the shortened form of the official name of the city: Santiago de Cali. "Santiago" honours Saint James (Santiago in Spanish) whose feast day is celebrated on 25 July. The origin of the word "Cali" comes from the local Amerindians the "Calima" or "Calimas".
Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the region was inhabited by indigenous tribes, mostly speakers of Cariban languages. In the region between the Cauca River and the Western Cordillera, the Gorrones established themselves between the present day Roldanillo and Santiago de Cali. The biggest town of the Morrones was sited on the River Pescador near the present-day towns of Zarzal and Bugalagrande. The Morrones traded with the Quimbayas who inhabited the north of the Valle del Cauca.
On his way to Cali, Sebastián de Belalcázar first met the Timbas who ran away before the arrival of the men, leaving behind gold. After the Timbas, towards the north, the Spaniards entered the territory of the chief Jamundí and his tribe, the Jamundíes, between the rivers Pance and Jamundí. This tribe offered a strong resistance to the invaders, fighting with poisonous darts and arrows against the arquebuses and swords of the Spaniards. Eventually, the Spanish prevailed in the struggle over the central valley.
Before taking control over the region, the Spaniards had to defeat the chief Petecuy, whose tribe inhabited the area between the river Lilí and the Western Cordillera. Petecuy formed a big army with many tribes and fought the Spaniards on Holy Tuesday of 1536. The natives lost to the Spaniards and the region was divided in encomiendas.
Santiago de Cali was important for Belalcázar because it was outside the Inca empire. After the capture and execution of the Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro had sent Belalcázar to take possession of Guayaquil and Quito on his behalf, but Cali, being outside the Quechua empire, was claimed by Belalcazar as his own territory. After his death, his descendants maintained possession of much of the land until the war of independence against Spain.
The founder of Cali, Sebastián de Belalcázar, came to the American continent in the third voyage made by Columbus in 1498. In 1532, after serving in Darién and Nicaragua, he joined Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of Perú. In 1534, Belalcázar separated from Pizarro's expedition to find the city of Quito, and later in his search of El Dorado he entered the territory of what is now Colombia, founding the cities of Pasto and Popayán.
Belalcázar founded Santiago de Cali on 25 July 1536, a few kilometres north of its present location, near what are now the towns of Vijes and Riofrío. Under the orders of Belalcázar, captain Miguel Muñoz moved the city to its present location in 1537, where the chaplain Brother Santos de Añasco celebrated a mass in the place occupied by the Church La Merced today, and Belalcázar designated Pedro de Ayala as the first municipal authority.
During the Colonia (colonial period), Santiago de Cali was part of the gobernación of Popayán, which was part of Quito's Audiencia. Although initially Cali was the capital of Popayán's gobernación, Belalcázar moved this function to Popayán in 1540, owing to "better" weather there.
Until the 18th century most of the territory of what is now Santiago de Cali was occupied by haciendas (cattle farms and plantations of food, with some sugar cane), and the city was only a small town near the Cali River. In 1793, Santiago de Cali had 6,548 inhabitants, 1,106 of whom were (African) slaves. The haciendas were the property of the dominant noble class with many slaves dedicated mostly to stockbreeding and raising sugar cane crops. Many of these haciendas became zone of the present city like Cañaveralejo, Chipichape, Pasoancho, Arroyohondo, Cañasgordas, Limonar and Meléndez. Santiago de Cali was strategically positioned for trade, centrally located in relation to the mining regions of Antioquia, Chocó, and Popayán. In the colonial period, the first trail for mules and horses between Santiago de Cali and the port of Buenaventura was completed.
On 3 July 1810 Santiago de Cali refused to recognize the Council of Regency of Spain, and established its own junta. This local uprising predates the national one in Bogotá by 17 days. The Governor of Popayán, Miguel Tacón organized an army to control the uprising. The people from Cali called for help to the "Junta Suprema" in Bogotá, which sent a contingent under colonel Antonio Baraya to support the independence cause. For mutual defense, Cali also formed, with Anserma, Cartago, Toro, Buga and Caloto, the Confederated cities of the Cauca Valley, which declared independence from the Governorate of Popayán on 1 February 1811, although they continued to recognize the absent Ferdinand VII as their head of state. On 28 March 1811 in the battle of Bajo Palacé, the first in Colombia´s Independence, the royalist Spanish army was defeated by the revolutionary army commanded by colonel Antonio Baraya with a detachment of 120 soldiers from his native Cundinamarca and a huge garrison of 1.080 men from Valle del Cauca led by brothers Miguel and Francisco Cabal Barona.
In the following years there were many battles between royalists and local militia. After having been released from captivity by Napoleon, Ferdinand VII sent a large army under the command of the "Pacificador" (Pacifier) Pablo Morillo who restored royalist rule in the area by 1816.
In 1819 after Simón Bolívar defeated the bulk of the royalist army in the Battle of Boyacá, there were new uprisings in the Valle del Cauca and the Criollos took control permanently. In 1822 Bolívar arrived in Santiago de Cali. The city was an important military outpost and the region contributed many men to the war of independence that liberated the nations in the south.
In the 19th century Santiago de Cali, capital of the Valley of the Cauca River State, was quiet community with no more than 20,000 inhabitants. The urban center of the city was in the neighborhoods of Empedrado or Altozano, which were surrounded by La Merced and San Antonio neighborhoods.
Outside the city there were mango plantations, pastures and communal land that were transferred from the Spanish Crown to the working classes. From the market gardens on this land the city was supplied with food. The economy was based mainly on livestock, sugar cane, beef, panela (jaggery), a sugar derivative, cheese and the gold mines of the Pacific; there was also a small growing industrial sector of the economy.
Jewish entrepreneurs came during the 18th and 19th centuries and achieved prominent positions in the city. Some married local women and felt they had to abandon or diminish their identity. These included author Jorge Isaacs of English Jewish ancestry, the industrialist James Martin Eder (who adopted the more Christian name of Santiago Eder when he translated his name to Spanish) born into the Latvian Jewish community, as well as the De Lima, Salazar, Espinoza, Arias, Ramirez, Perez and Lobo families of Antillean Sephardim. Over the generations most of their descendants converted or were raised as secular Christians.
Around 1890 the Company of Public Works of Cauca, a private venture, built the Plaza de mercado (market plaza). This spurred commercial development and it transformed into the Plaza Mayor or plaza de Caycedo. In 1921, the market was sold to the Cali municipality. Very close to the 9th street was the principal station of the tranvia of Cali, a system which linked the city with suburban areas.
On 7 August 1956 at around 1 a.m., seven Colombian army trucks filled with 42 tons of dynamite exploded near the train station, destroying around eight city blocks. A nearby army barracks was instantly destroyed, killing all 500 soldiers. Windows were shattered for miles. More than 1,000 people were killed and several thousand injured (see Cali explosion).
In 1971, Santiago de Cali hosted the Pan American Games, an event which is considered by many as the height of the city's golden age as a model of civic orderliness: following it, Cali was named the Sports Capital of Colombia. In 1982, the government of Cali inaugurated what is now the city's largest building and the third-largest in the Republic of Colombia—"La Torre de Cali", or The Cali Tower. It stands 42 stories tall and houses a hotel, offices and apartment complexes.
Cali is located on the Cauca Valley to the west of the Cauca River and to the east of the Western Mountain Range near the hills known as Farallones de Cali. The city rests approximately 1,000 metres (3,281 feet) above sea level. Approximately 100 kilometres (62 miles) west of Cali and over the Western Cordillera, lies the port city of Buenaventura on the Colombian Pacific coast. To the northeast are the manufacturing center of Yumbo and Cali's international airport, the Alfonso Bonilla Aragón (CLO). It is Colombia's third largest airport in terms of passengers, transporting 2,667,526 in 2009.
Santiago de Cali is located in a valley. The city is completely bordered by mountains to the West; the Farallones de Cali mountains are the closest to the city. The Eastern part of the city is bordered by the Cauca River. To the north and south are extended plains. In the first one you can find the industrial city of Yumbo which is part of Cali's metropolitan area, to the south you can find Jamundí, also part of the metropolitan area. The city is mainly flat, but there are areas mostly to the west that are mountainous, like San Antonio and La loma de la Cruz, which are both tourist sites. There are several rivers that descend from the Western Mountain Range and empty into the Cauca River, passing through the metropolitan area of Cali. In the western part of the city the Aguacatal River flows into the Cali River, which continues on to the Cauca River. In the south the rivers Cañaveralejo, Lilí, and Meléndez flow into the CVC south channel which also empties into the Cauca River. Farther south, the banks of the Pance River are a popular place for recreation and leisure.
Under Köppen's climate classification, Cali features a tropical savanna climate. The Western Mountain Range rises from an average of 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level in the northern part of the city to approximately 4,000 m (13,123 ft) to the south. Because of this variation in altitude, the weather in the northwest portion of the city is drier than in the southwest. The average annual precipitation varies between 900 to 1,800 mm (35 to 71 in) depending on the metropolitan zone for a citywide average of approximately 1,000 mm (39 in). Cali's average temperature is 25 °C (77 °F) with an average low temperature of 18.5 °C (65 °F) and a high of 31 °C (88 °F).
Owing to its proximity to the equator, there are no major seasonal variations in Cali. However, locals refer to the dry season as the city's "summer", in which temperatures can rise to 34 to 36 °C (93 to 97 °F) and go down to 18 to 19 °C (64 to 66 °F) at night. During the rainy season (or "winter") temperatures can rise to 28 to 29 °C (82 to 84 °F) and go down to 16 to 17 °C (61 to 63 °F) at night. There are typically two rainy seasons: from March to May and from October to November. However, rain can be expected to fall at any point during the year, nourishing the city's permanent green and lush vegetation. The highest temperature ever recorded was 36.6 °C (98 °F) in July 1997, and the lowest temperature ever recorded was 13.4 °C (56 °F) in August 1978.
|Climate data for Santiago de Cali (Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport) 1981–2010|
|Record high °C (°F)||36.3
|Average high °C (°F)||29.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||24.0
|Average low °C (°F)||18.9
|Record low °C (°F)||14.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||51.3
|Average precipitation days||10||9||14||17||15||10||8||8||12||16||15||12||144|
|Average relative humidity (%)||73||72||73||76||76||75||73||71||72||75||76||75||74|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||179.8||158.2||161.2||141.0||142.6||150.0||182.9||189.1||159.0||155.0||153.0||164.3||1,936.1|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||5.8||5.6||5.2||4.7||4.6||5.0||5.9||6.1||5.3||5.0||5.1||5.3||5.3|
|Source: Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales|
|Design and construction|
|Developer||Julián Echeverri cía.|
|Structural engineer||Enrique Martínez Romero|
Santiago de Cali offers historical areas with cultural variety and other attractions. In downtown Cali there are many historic churches such as La Merced and La Ermita. Cali contains a well-preserved historical center. The most important zone is La plaza de Cayzedo, considered the center of the city, which is a square surrounded by many historical and modern buildings like El edificio Otero, La Catedral and El Palacio de Justicia. This plaza is close to other tourist places, like The Saint Francis church (in Spanish, Iglesia de San Francisco), the municipal theater and La Merced church. The city is also rich in monuments, parks, squares and museums. The most emblematic sculptures are Cristo Rey, located upon a mountain range; Sebastian de Belalcazar, founder of the city; and Las tres Cruces, a place of pilgrimage during the days of the Holy Week.
Main touristic centers:
According to recent Lonely Planet guides of Colombia, Cali has recently become famous for being a prime destination for people seeking cheap cosmetic surgery. There have been no significant reports of problems in this area, but Lonely Planet advises proper research before pursuing such an idea. In the city of Cali about 50,000 (2010) cosmetic surgery procedures occur per year, of which around 14,000 involve patients from abroad.
Santiago de Cali is served by Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport (IATA: CLO, ICAO: SKCL), located in the City of Palmira. It is Colombia's third largest airport in terms of passengers (transporting 3,422,919 in 2010) and fourth in cargo. Alfonso Bonilla Aragón is located in a long, narrow valley that runs from north to south, and is surrounded by mountains up to 14,000 feet (4,300 m) high. The airport is connected to the city by a highway known as the "recta a Palmira", that in the last few years has been upgraded to make the airport more accessible to Cali and the surrounding city centers in the region. The airport has also been remodeled recently; some of the last significant events in those terms were the inauguration of the VIP room in the National terminal and the installation of a main electronic screen in the center of the check-in area.
The Marco Fidel Suárez Air Base is a military airport close to the city's downtown. It is located in the east side of the city and belongs to the Colombian Air Force. It is used as one of the main training centers for the country's fighter pilots.
The city of Cali offers a variety of ways to move through the city; in March 2009, The Masivo Integrado de Occidente (MIO) began operations. It is planned to be the primary system that connects the city. Taxis and old buses are the secondary way to get around. Taxis are one of the best systems that tourists can use, as they are relatively inexpensive and are more secure. Non-MIO buses round out the system and are used primarily by the working class to get around and are less expensive to use. Buses are secure but not at the same level as taxis. This part of the transport in the city is awaiting a needed reorganization of routes.
Masivo Integrado de Occidente (MIO): Is a bus rapid transit system of articulated buses that run on dedicated bus lanes in the middle of major thoroughfares, with stations connected to sidewalks by dedicated pedestrian crossings or bridges. The system layout is 243 kilometres (151 miles) and is distributed in a main trunk, pre-trunk and complementary corridors. The system also integrated the renovation and recuperation of the public space. The MIO system was not only designed for the public transport, but built for public use with extensive new sidewalks, parks, gardens and public squares for the public to enjoy.
The system also consists of a cable car, the so-called MÍO Cable, which is fully integrated with the city's public transportation network and directly serves the residents of the district Siloé.
List of the Trunk or principal corridors:
More information about El MIO is in the official web site of Metrocali.
Cali is served by over 20 coach companies which gather in the Central Bus Station. The Station is centrally located near the old (now redundant) railway station, which serves now as Metrocali's headquarters. Depending on the company and the destination, the vehicles range from minibuses to large coaches. Recently, in their last float renovation wave, Colombian coaches operators have opted for Brazil's Marcopolo buses. Informal stops exist for the short destination rides all along the way from Central Station to the town of destination. In some cases, it is enough for a passenger to ask to get off the bus for the bus to stop.
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Cali, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 88 min. 23% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 21 min, while 43% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5.6 km, while 3% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
Cali and Valle del Cauca constitute the third largest economic center of Colombia, being about national and international economic exchange. The City is a must from / to the south and the border with Ecuador, and is connected with the world through the seaport of Buenaventura.
The economic transformation of Cali and the Valle del Cauca during the twentieth century and its crisis of the century, and the outlook to the new century have been the subject of deep analysis of financial and academic institutions. This section is based on the analysis and recommendations of the report Cali Colombia – Toward a City Development and Strategy published by the World Bank in 2002, and the Regional Economic Situation Reports (ICER) published quarterly by the DANE.
Traditionally, Cali and the department have been space farm, the same as during the colonial times out with the mines, production shaft. In the early twentieth century the city's economy was concentrated in the production of sugar, based on an agricultural model in which large tracts of land were cultivated with minimum use of labor. As a result, a few families owned vast areas of land in one of the most fertile regions of the country. This was an important factor in determining the power relations and the organization of the city through the twentieth century.
In the period 1910–1930 the city's economy shifted its focus from an agricultural model to become a commercial node at the national level through the development of basic infrastructure such as construction of the railway to Buenaventura and the creation of the department of Valle del Cauca with Cali designated as its capital.
Although the industrial vallecaucana revolution of Cali did not begin until the third decade of the twentieth century, some companies had already begun to build the industrial development of the region, as the printing company Carvajal y Cia (which began operations in 1904). In 1929 there is the creation of Soap Varela Hermanos, in the 1930s other industries begin to grow as large scale factories of gas and beer, printing and cigarettes. Smaller companies also appeared focusing on textile clothing, chemicals, chocolates, building materials, leather articles and furniture.
In 1940 Cali had already ceased to be a single point of trade and its economy was focused on industry. A few years before the decade began a major investment of foreign capital led to the establishment of many factories and local business grew to multinational corporations; as Croydon in 1937, Cementos del Valle in 1939, and Carton Colombia in 1941; Goodyear and Colgate-Palmolive came from the US in 1941. Later came other corporations like General CEAT (Centelsa) in 1955, and pharmaceutical laboratories were based in the Cauca Valley between 1940 and 1960, as Tecnoquímicas and Baxter.
The flourishing industrial city attracted waves of immigration in the 1950s and 1960s. In these decades there were important partnerships between the public and private sectors, as productive sector support to programs of business administration at the University of Valle. The growth of the University training professionals and technologists, as well as infrastructure development, were crucial for the further development of industry and trade in the Valle del Cauca. This trend continued in the 1970s and early years of the next decade. Public investment in infrastructure reached significant levels benefiting not only the production sector but also the growing population, this made Cali and Valle del Cauca models further development across the country.
In 1998, when the economic crisis became apparent, the national government could not respond to the call of the local politicians and mayors had to introduce austerity measures under pressure from creditors, which caused the vallecaucano development model to collapse. Additionally, the tightening of the country's internal conflict required a tax increase aimed at national war spending, leaving less room for local governments to collect, through taxes, the money required for their development plans.
In the 21st century, economic conditions in the country and the city have changed. The economic model that handled the Valle del Cauca until the 1980s, has been moved to the globalization of the economy, as evidenced in areas such as: capital inflows of the most important economic groups in Colombia, creating strategic alliances between entrepreneurs and multinational vallecaucanos, the concern of the companies in the region to optimize their resources and services, investment and diversification of economic groups. Faced with the loss of influence of traditional
According to statistics by DANE, in 1995 the annual growth of GDP of the Valle del Cauca region was almost twice the national rate. For 1997, GDP increased marginally vallecaucano even 1%. In 1999 the country's economic recession was felt with a depression that made the economy were reduced showing GDP growth of 4%. Since then GDP has grown Valley ups and downs, but its percentage share nationwide has been falling since 1995 as shown in the graph.
The department contributes significantly to the national economy. According to statistics for the year 2005 as agricultural Valley contributes 5.37% of the national production, which is relatively low compared with Antioquia (15.48%) or Cundinamarca (12.81%). In fisheries products, the region ranks first with vallecaucana contributing 36% of the country's total production. As for mining, the Valley is not a metal region; however, in terms of non-metallic minerals the department contributes 8.15% of the value added across Colombia.
The industry vallecaucana contributes 13.81% of the national value added, second only to Bogotá with a 25.39% and 18.20% with Antioquia. Particularly, the industries of food, beverages and snuff are important items of the Valley's economy contributing 16% of national value added, equaled or surpassed only by Antioquia and Bogotá. On trade, nationally Bogotá has a 32.22%, 13.25% Antioquia and Valle 11.34%. In the Valley transportation services has 12.52% of value added.
The Consumer Price Index (IPC) of Cali has been since the last decade one of the lowest among Colombian cities. About 78% of Cali's people are of working age (over 18 years). In 2005 for the first time in six years the city presented an occupancy rate above 60%, which confirms the good state of the economy, led primarily by growth in manufacturing, agriculture and trade among others.
Drogas La Rebaja, one of Colombia's largest pharmacy store chains, is based in Cali. Banco de Occidente,A Grupo Aval company, has head office in cali.
In 2014 Cali suffered 1,545 murders at a rate of 66.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, and had a further reduction to 51.5 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2017. According to statistics from 2006, although there was a slight improvement over 2005, the city can still be considered unsafe with a homicide rate of 74 per 100,000, which is high compared to Bogota (14). Among the three major cities in Colombia, Cali has the least investment in security. In 2006 the budget for security in Medellín was more than four times higher than in Cali, and in Bogota (which is 3.5 times more populous) the budget was more than 7 times higher.
Between 1 January and 1 December 2011 there were 1870 intentional homicides in the municipality of Cali, which is considered a 5% increase compared to 2010. The surge in violence in Cali in 2011 has partly been attributed to what has been described as an ongoing 'mafia war' between the 'neo-paramilitary' groups Los Rastrojos and Los Urabeños, both involved in drug trafficking. Los Rastrojos are considered the 'heirs' of the Cali Cartel and Los Urabeños have their roots in Colombia's coast. Los Rastrojos are accused of committing at least 80 murders in Cali in 2011. According to Colombia's most influential weekly magazine, Semana, there are over 1,700 assassins working for various groups in the city. 3.8 percent of street addresses account for 100 percent of homicides.
During 2012, there was a decrease in homicides, with 24 cases fewer than for the same period last year, and there were 294 fewer people injured, which means a reduction of 8% from a year previous. There were 323 fewer car thefts, i.e. a decrease of 21% over the same period of 2011. There were 152 fewer residential burglaries, which means a reduction of 17% from the same period of 2011. There was also strengthening in technology citywide by the installation of 254 security cameras.
Cali is governed by a mayor who is elected for a four-year term. Under the mayor, there are several administrative departments and secretaries. Mayor's elections started in 1986, followed by Governors' in 1992. Before these dates, all Colombian regional executive-branch leaders were appointed by the President himself. The first elected mayor was Carlos Holmes Trujillo of the Liberal Party. Unlike other Colombian cities, Cali has not properly adapted to the quite new Mayor's election system. The city has had some unsuccessful stories with some of its elected mayors, two of them being removed from office. Some argue this is caused by Aguablanca's huge mass population often driven to vote based in small short-termed gifts from populist candidates fully aware of this District needs. There were recorded cases of candidates giving bricks, cement and other stuff to the District's leaders in exchange for shifting votes to their campaigns.
|Carlos Holmes Trujillo García||January 1988||January 1990|
|Germán Villegas Villegas||January 1990||January 1992|
|Rodrigo Guerrero Velasco||January 1992||December 1994|
|Mauricio Guzmán Cuevas||January 1995||August 1997|
|Julio César Martínez Payán||August 1997||December 1997|
|Ricardo H. Cobo Lloreda||January 1998||December 2000|
|John Maro Rodríguez Flórez||January 2001||December 2003|
|Apolinar Salcedo Caicedo||January 2004||May 2007|
|Sabas Ramiro Tafur Reyes||May 2007||December 2007|
|Jorge Ivan Ospina||January 2008||December 2011|
|Rodrigo Guerrero Velasco||January 2012||December 2015|
|Maurice Armitage||January 2016||December 2019|
The City Council is composed of 21 members, elected by citywide circumscription for four-year terms. There is no relation between the number of City Counselors and the number of 'comunas' of the city, which is a merely administrative division created to facilitate the city's management.
Cali has some decentralized agencies; the most important being:
A large part of the population relies on the public educational system, which is underfunded and in some cases improperly managed. Schools are under municipal or departmental management, the former being the most common. The Municipal Secretary of Education manages a large part of the city's budget, which has brought some politicians to try to control it as their personal organization.
The city is endowed with the most sophisticated and high-quality secondary education institutions and universities in the region. Most universities are located in the south part of the city. Among the most prestigious are University of Valle (Public), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (Private), and Universidad Icesi (Private).
Cali's Museums guide
"La Feria de Cali" is the main cultural event in the city. It is a fair that has been celebrated since 1957. The fair is celebrated from December 25 to the 30th. The fair is known also as "La Feria de la Caña" (sugar cane fair) and "La Feria de la salsa" (Salsa fair). People enjoy many activities like the tascas, salsa concerts, bullfights, parades, athletic activities, competitions and cultural exhibitions.
Cali is also known as the Salsa Capital "Capital de la Salsa" given the city's love for that genre of Afro-Caribbean music. In early July there is the Summer Salsa Festival which lasts for one week. It usually includes concerts by some of the world's great salsa bands as well as dance shows and "melomano" competitions in which salsa connoisseurs try to outdo each other by digging deep into the archives of salsa music and related sounds to find and reveal long lost tunes. On any night of the week small salsa clubs offer a variety of Afro-Caribbean beats. Furthermore, the last Friday of every month, the city has an event known as "Delirio", already internationally known with the most spectacular salsa shows presented, "Las Vegas" style. It has become a very important attraction for tourists to visit the city.
At a professional level, Cali hosts only football teams. At the amateur level there are Basketball, Football, Volleyball, and other sports. Nationally, Cali's athletes compete with Bogotá's and Medellín's in most sport tournaments and championships.
Cali has two main athletic events, a mid-year half marathon ½ Maraton de Cali and a December 10k race called Carrera del Río Cali.
The city of Santiago de Cali is recognized as the sports capital of Colombia. It is the first Colombian city to have hosted the Pan American Games (see 1971 Pan American Games), and has also won the National Olympic Games more than any other region in Colombia. The city also counts with one of the most developed sport infrastructures in the country. Many sporting events have taken place in the city.
Cali has two football stadiums; Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero and Estadio Deportivo Cali/del Deportivo Cali/Palmaseca. Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero is currently home of both Deportivo Cali and América de Cali, since Estadio Deportivo Cali is still under construction. Deportivo Cali is the only football team owner of a stadium in Colombia since all of the other football stadiums are owned by the government. Other important scene of activity in the city is "Coliseo El Pueblo", a covered arena center used for all type of events, the main use is basketball.
Cali's infrastructure has permitted it to host several major international sports competitions such as the 1971 Pan American Games, numerous Games of the Pacific, the final phase of the 1982 World basketball championship, the 1999 World's Roller Hockey Championships, women's basketball and swimming events, Pan American Speed-Track Cycling Championships, and most recently the World's Roller Speed Skating Championships. Cali was the host city of the World Games 2013.
Santiago de Cali is home of Colombia's Deportivo Cali and América de Cali football clubs. Many well-known football players were either born in Cali or have played in one of its clubs. Willington Ortiz, Carlos Valderrama, Ántony de Ávila, Álex Escobar, Julio César Falcioni, Jorge Orosmán da Silva, Jorge Bermúdez, Giovanni Hernández, Hugo Rodallega, Mario Yepes, Faryd Mondragón, Adolfo Valencia, and Óscar Córdoba are a sample of them.
According to CONMEBOL, América ranks 2nd and Deportivo Cali 3rd in the Colombian national ranking, which ranks itself 3rd in the CONMEBOL ranking. América was ranked as the world's 2nd best club in 1996 by the IFFHS (International Federation of Football History & Statistics) and 35th in the All-Time Club World Ranking of the IFFHS. Cali is the Colombian city having hosted the most Colombian first division finals, with 40 matches being played in the stadium. America has won 13 titles, and has been second on 7 occasions. Deportivo Cali has won 8 titles, second in 11 occasions. They have played final against each other three times. In the early 50's, now second-division city's team Boca Juniors lost two finals.
Though there is no current basketball team that calls Santiago de Cali home, basketball is the second-most played sport in the city. Basketball is a preferred sport at the city center location "La Carrera del Cholado". Football still surpasses basketball in sport popularity. Bullfighting is staged during the Cali Fair which is held in December. It is anticipated by many citizens in Cali, as well as by many people in all Colombia. The bullfighting ring is called La Plaza de Toros de Cañaveralejo, located southwest of Cali.
Rugby, tennis, swimming, archery, and ultimate are also played in Cali. The IAAF World Youth Championships in Athletics was hosted in Cali in July 2015. Cali also hosted the 2015 Underwater Rugby World Cup.
The 2013 World Games, the ninth World Games, were an international multi-sport event held in the city of Cali, Colombia, from July 25 to August 4.Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport
Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport (IATA: CLO, ICAO: SKCL) formerly known as Palmaseca International Airport is located between Palmira and Cali, the capital of Valle del Cauca Department, Colombia. It is Colombia's 4th busiest airport in passenger volume, with 5,600,000 people using the airport in 2016. It is the third largest airport in Colombia in terms of area and construction. The airport often serves as the alternate airport for Bogotá - El Dorado Int'l Airport and other Colombian airports.
Alfonso Bonilla Airport lies in the center of the wide and fertile Cauca River valley, which runs north - south between the Western and Central Colombian Andes ranges. It is approximately 5 hours flight from Santiago de Chile, 50 minutes from Quito, Ecuador, and about 3 hours 18 minutes from Miami airport.
The airport has one 3.000m long runway, equipped with the following navigation aids: primary radar, secondary radar, ILS, ALS, PAPI, RVR, runway centerline lights, threshold lights, and taxiway lights. The airport has SEI IX protection.
The Cali non-directional beacon (Ident: AS) is located 0.59 nautical miles (1.09 km) off the Runway 02 approach threshold. The Cali VOR-DME (Ident: CLO) is located 7.78 nautical miles (14.41 km) off the Runway 02 threshold.Alfonso Bonilla airport is notable for being one of the very few secondary airports in Latin America that operates 24 hours a day. This is made possible not only by the year-round stable, consistent meteorological conditions but also because it is 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) away from both Cali and Palmira. That distance frees it from any environmental/noise restrictions, allowing aircraft to take off and land at any time of day. Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport has non-stop flights to the United States, Spain, Ecuador, Panama and Peru.América de Cali
Sociedad Anónima Deportiva América S. A., best known as América de Cali, is a Colombian football team based in Cali and playing in the Categoría Primera A. They play their home games at the Olímpico Pascual Guerrero stadium. The club is regarded by FIFA and IFFHS as the strongest football team in Colombia and the ninth strongest in South America during the 20th century. IFFHS also once ranked América de Cali as the second best club side in the world, behind only Italian champions Juventus.The club is one of the oldest in Colombia; they were founded in 1927, and trace their origins to the América Football Club, which was founded in 1918. They are also one of the most successful Colombian clubs at both the domestic and international levels, winning thirteen national titles and reaching the Copa Libertadores finals four times (including three straight from 1985 to 1987). Although they have never won the Copa Libertadores, they have won two international tournaments, the 1999 Copa Merconorte and the 1975 Copa Simón Bolívar.
In 2011, América was relegated to the local second division, where they played for five seasons. They returned to the top flight by winning the Primera B championship in 2016.
América has a number of fierce rivalries, most notably with crosstown rivals Deportivo Cali. Matches between them are known as the "Clásico vallecaucano". Other rival clubs include Atlético Nacional, Millonarios and Independiente Santa Fe.Cali Cartel
The Cali Cartel (Spanish: Cartel de Cali) is a drug cartel based in southern Colombia, around the city of Cali and the Valle del Cauca Department. Its founders were the Rodríguez Orejuela brothers, Gilberto and Miguel, and José Santacruz Londoño, also known as "Chepe". They broke away from Pablo Escobar and his Medellin associates in the late 1980s when Hélmer Herrera, also known as "Pacho", joined what became a four-man executive board that ran the cartel.With connections to British and Israeli mercenaries, allies among countries, countless spies and informants in the government, and its vast intelligence and surveillance network throughout the city of Santiago de Cali, the cartel was once renowned and compared to the Soviet KGB by the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), which called it, "One of the most powerful crime syndicates in history", later dubbed "The Cali KGB".
At the height of the Cali Cartel's reign, they were cited as having control over 90% of the world's cocaine market and were said to be directly responsible for the growth of the cocaine market in Europe, controlling 90% of the market there as well. By the mid-1990s, the trafficking empire of the Cali Cartel was a multibillion-dollar enterprise.Cali Iz Active
Cali Iz Active is the fourth studio album by rap group Tha Dogg Pound and is also the name of the album's title track and lead single. It was released through Koch and Snoop Dogg's Doggystyle Records on June 27, 2006.
Besides Daz and Kurupt, the album also features Tha Dogg Pound family (Snoop Dogg, Soopafly, Nate Dogg, RBX, and Lady of Rage). Also appearing are David Banner, Ice Cube, Paul Wall and producers Battlecat, Fredwreck, Swizz Beatz and Jazze Pha.
Snoop Dogg has already used the Royal Cash sample in one of his earlier unreleased recordings with DJ Glaze of Foesum. It was titled "True To The Game" and DJ Glaze included it in his mixtape The Lost TapezCategoría Primera A
The Categoría Primera A (Spanish pronunciation: [kateɣoˈɾi.a pɾiˈmeɾa ˈa]), commonly referred to as Liga Águila due to sponsorship by brewery company Bavaria (manufacturer of Águila beer), is a Colombian professional league for association football clubs. It is the country's premier football tournament and sits at the top of the Colombian football league system. The league was ranked 6th in the world and 2nd in South America by the IFFHS in its list "The Strongest National League in The World 2017".A total of twenty clubs compete in the league's regular season. División Mayor del Fútbol Profesional Colombiano, better known as DIMAYOR, operates the league system of promotion and relegation for both Categoría Primera A and Categoría Primera B leagues. Since its founding in 1948, fourteen teams have been crowned as Colombian football champions. The most successful club is Atlético Nacional with 16 titles.Claro Open Cali
The Claro Open Cali is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Cali, Colombia, since 2014.Deportivo Cali
Asociación Deportivo Cali, best known as Deportivo Cali, is a Colombian sports club based in Cali, most notable for its football team, which currently competes in the Categoría Primera A.
Deportivo Cali is one of the most successful football teams in Colombia, having won nine domestic league championships, one Copa Colombia and one Superliga Colombiana, for a total of eleven titles. Their stadium, Estadio Deportivo Cali, with an original capacity for 61,890, is the largest football stadium in Colombia and was officially inaugurated on 19 November 2008. In 2010 its capacity was reduced to 55,000 people due to renovations. Deportivo Cali's old home stadium was Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero, with capacity for 43,130. Deportivo Cali is the only Colombian football club that owns its own stadium. It was also the first Colombian team to reach the final of Copa Libertadores in 1978. In 2016, Forbes listed Deportivo Cali as the 36th most valuable team of America.Frank Cali
Francesco Paolo Augusto Calì (born March 26, 1965), known as "Frank" or "Franky Boy", is the current Boss of the Gambino crime family. Law enforcement considers Cali to be the Gambino "ambassador to Sicilian mobsters" and have linked him to the Inzerillo Mafia family from Palermo. "Cali is seen as a man of influence and power by organized crime members in Italy", according to Assistant U.S. Attorney Joseph Lipton.Ice Cube
O'Shea Jackson Sr. (born June 15, 1969), known professionally as Ice Cube, is an American rapper, writer and actor.
Ice Cube initially gained recognition as a member of the hip hop group C.I.A. in 1984, which gained limited commercial success prior to disbanding three years later. Ice Cube, alongside Dr. Dre and Eazy E, then formed the group N.W.A, where he gained extreme notoriety as the group's primary songwriter and performer, noted for becoming one of the founding artists of gangsta rap, and pushing the boundaries of lyrical content in mainstream popular music, as well as visual imagery in music videos.After leaving N.W.A in December 1989, Ice Cube embarked on a successful solo career, releasing the albums AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted (1990) and Death Certificate (1991), both of which have attained platinum certification in the United States, while also being classed as defining albums of the 1990s. Much of his musical output has contained harsh socio-political commentary and storytelling, which has earned him several accolades from multiple publications and artists, often cited as an influence and one of the best rappers of all time.Following the release of Death Certificate, Ice Cube transitioned into film, where his popularity was further enhanced by his starring role in Boyz n the Hood (1991), where his performance was heavily praised. He also wrote and starred in the Friday film series, which contributed to reinventing his public image as a movie star. Ice Cube has also featured in the Barbershop, Ride Along, and XXX film series, while also serving as a producer to several other films, including Straight Outta Compton (2015), a biographical film depicting the career of N.W.A.
As a businessman, Ice Cube has founded his clothing line, Solo by Cube, as well as the 3 on 3 basketball league BIG3, which predominately features retired NBA players.Liv and Maddie
Liv and Maddie, titled Liv and Maddie: Cali Style for the fourth season, is an American comedy television series created by John D. Beck and Ron Hart that aired on Disney Channel from July 19, 2013 to March 24, 2017. The series stars Dove Cameron, Joey Bragg, Tenzing Norgay Trainor, Kali Rocha, Benjamin King, and Lauren Lindsey Donzis.
A significant feature of the series is that Dove Cameron plays dual roles, one being Liv, an actress who has returned to her home after starring on a popular television series in Hollywood for four years, and the other one being Maddie, Liv's identical twin who remained behind. Another significant feature of the series are documentary-style cutaways where characters speak to the viewers to explain their opinions on various situations in each episode.Majeerteen
The Majeerteen (Somali: Majeerteen, Arabic: ماجرتين, Muhammad Harti Amaleh Abdi Muhammad Abdirahman Jaberti; also spelled Majerteen, Macherten, Majertain, or Mijurtin) is a Somali clan. It's one of the major Somali clans, with a vast traditional territory spanning 3 major regions of Somalia, Bari, Nugaal and Mudug. From Bosaso down to Garacad, the Majerteen are settled in what is literally considered to be 'the Horn of Africa'. Its members form a part of the Darod clan family, and primarily inhabit the Puntland state of northeastern Somalia.The Majeerteen Sultanates played an important role in the pre-independence era of Somalia.Majeerteens also held many other significant government posts in the 1960s and 1970s, and continue to play a key role in Puntland state and Somalia as a whole.Milo Open Cali
The Milo Open Cali (formerly Seguros Bolívar Open Cali) is a tennis tournament held in Cali, Colombia. The event is part of the ATP Challenger Tour and is played on outdoor clay courts.Narcos
Narcos is an American crime drama web television series created and produced by Chris Brancato, Carlo Bernard, and Doug Miro.
Set and filmed in Colombia, seasons one and two are based on the story of drug kingpin Pablo Escobar, who became a billionaire through the production and distribution of cocaine. The series also focuses on Escobar's interactions with drug lords, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) agents, and various opposition entities. Season three picks up after the fall of Escobar and continues to follow the DEA as they try to shutdown the rise of the infamous Cali Cartel.
Season one, comprising 10 episodes, originally aired on August 28, 2015, as a Netflix exclusive. The series was renewed for a second season, which premiered on September 2, 2016, with 10 episodes. On September 6, 2016, Netflix renewed the series for its third and fourth seasons. The third season premiered on September 1, 2017.On July 18, 2018, the directors announced that the fourth season would instead "reset" as a new Netflix original series, titled Narcos: Mexico. The new series, released on November 16, 2018 is set in Mexico in the 1980s.Pan American Youth Championships in Athletics
The Pan American Youth Athletics Championships is an athletics event organized by the Association of Panamerican Athletics (APA) open for youth (U18) athletes from member and associate member associations. The inaugural competition took place in Cali, Colombia in 2015.Pontifical Xavierian University
The Pontifical Xavierian University (in Spanish Pontificia Universidad Javeriana) is a private higher education institution founded in 1623. It is one of the oldest, most traditional, and prestigious Colombian universities, directed by the Society of Jesus, with its main facilities in Bogotá and a second campus in Cali. "La Javeriana", as it is known by its students, has traditionally educated the Colombian elite. It is one of the 33 universities entrusted to the Society of Jesus in Latin America and one of 167 around the world.The Javeriana University in Bogotá has 18 schools comprising 61 departments and 181 academic programs catering to areas of knowledge, giving the university its multidisciplinary nature. It has 45 buildings in 445 acres (1.80 km2). The Javeriana University in Cali offers 18 schools in four faculties. It is located in Pance, Cali. Its Law School recently received a high quality accreditation by Resolution 6808 6 August 2010, of the Ministry of National Education. The campus in Cali has sectional divisions of the Bolsa de Valores de Colombia (BVC), Temple University's Fox School of Business, and others.The University is one of the twelve universities in Colombia having a high quality institutional accreditation, granted to it for eight years by Resolution 1320, 12 June 2003, of the Ministry of National Education.The university has 21 undergraduate programs with high quality accreditation, and eight programs in advanced stages of the accreditation process. In graduate programs, quality is acknowledged through the Qualified Registries. The university has 87 graduate programs with Qualified Registries and has presented another 29 to these processes. In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings Javeriana is ranked in the 501 to 600 range worldwide.Reinaldo Rueda
Reinaldo Rueda Rivera (born April 16, 1957 in Cali) is a Colombian football manager who currently is in charge of the Chile national football team. In 2011, Rueda was naturalized as a Honduran citizen.As the coach of the Colombian U-20 team, he finished 3rd in the 2003 FIFA World Youth Championship. He also led the Colombian U-17 team to a 4th-place finish that same year at the U-17 World Cup.
After an unfavorable start to 2006 World Cup Qualifying, (only 1 point after 5 games) the Colombian Football Federation promoted Rueda to senior coach. Colombia failed to qualify to the 2006 World Cup, but Rueda had lifted them from near last on the CONMEBOL qualification to 6th place. Honduras, under his direction, succeeded in gaining a place in the 2010 FIFA World Cup.Salsa (dance)
Salsa is a popular form of social dance originating from Cuban folk dances. The movements of Salsa are a combination of Afro-cuban dance, Son, cha-cha-cha, mambo and other dance forms. The dance, along with salsa music, saw major development in the mid-1970s in New York. Different regions of Latin America and the United States have distinct salsa styles of their own, such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Cali Colombia, L.A. and New York styles. Salsa dance socials are commonly held in night clubs, bars, ballrooms, restaurants, and outside, especially when part of an outdoor festival.
In many styles of salsa dancing, as a dancer shifts their weight by stepping, the upper body remains level and nearly unaffected by the weight changes. Weight shifts cause the hips to move. Arm and shoulder movements are also incorporated. Salsa generally uses music ranging from about 150 bpm (beats per minute) to around 250 bpm, although most dancing is done to music somewhere between 160–220 bpm. The basic Salsa dance rhythm consists of taking three steps for every four beats of music. The odd number of steps creates the syncopation inherent to Salsa dancing and ensures that it takes 8 beats of music to loop back to a new sequence of steps.Tyga
Micheal Ray Stevenson (born November 19, 1989), known by his stage name Tyga (a backronym for Thank you God always), is an American rapper. In 2011, Tyga signed a recording contract with Young Money Entertainment, Cash Money Records and Republic Records. His major label debut Careless World: Rise of the Last King, included the singles "Rack City", "Faded" featuring fellow Young Money artist Lil Wayne, "Far Away" featuring Chris Richardson, "Still Got It" featuring Drake, and "Make It Nasty". He released his third album Hotel California, on April 9, 2013, and includes the singles "Dope" featuring Rick Ross, "For The Road" featuring Chris Brown, and "Show You" featuring Future. His 2018 single, "Taste", peaked at number 8 on the Billboard Hot 100, being his first Top 40 single in over 3 years.