Calgary

Calgary (/ˈkælɡri/ (listen)) is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km (50 mi) east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. The city anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor".[13]

The city had a population of 1,239,220 in 2016, making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality.[6] Also in 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area (CMA) in Canada.[8]

The economy of Calgary includes activity in the energy, financial services, film and television, transportation and logistics, technology, manufacturing, aerospace, health and wellness, retail, and tourism sectors.[14] The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada among the country's 800 largest corporations.[15] In 2015, Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major city in Canada.[16] In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games.

Calgary has consistently been recognized for its high quality of life. In 2018, The Economist magazine ranked Calgary the fourth most liveable city in the world in their Global Liveability Ranking.[17] Calgary is classed as a Beta global city.

Calgary
City
City of Calgary
From top: Downtown Calgary, Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, Calgary Stampede, Canada Olympic Park, Lougheed House, Stephen Avenue, Calgary Zoo
Flag of Calgary
Flag
Coat of arms of Calgary
Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
Cowtown, Stampede City, Mohkínstsis more...[1][2][3][4]
Motto(s): 
Onward
Calgary is located in Alberta
Calgary
Calgary
Location of Calgary in Alberta
Calgary is located in Canada
Calgary
Calgary
Calgary (Canada)
Calgary is located in North America
Calgary
Calgary
Calgary (North America)
Coordinates: 51°03′N 114°04′W / 51.050°N 114.067°WCoordinates: 51°03′N 114°04′W / 51.050°N 114.067°W
CountryCanada
ProvinceAlberta
RegionCalgary Region
Census division6
Founded1875
Incorporated[5] 
 • TownNovember 7, 1884
 • CityJanuary 1, 1894
Named forCalgary, Mull
Government
 • MayorNaheed Nenshi
 • Governing body
 • ManagerJeff Fielding[12]
 • MPs
 • MLAs
Area
 (2016)[6][7][8]
 • Land825.56 km2 (318.75 sq mi)
 • Urban
586.08 km2 (226.29 sq mi)
 • Metro
5,110.21 km2 (1,973.06 sq mi)
Elevation1,045 m (3,428 ft)
Population
(2016)[6][7][8]
 • City1,239,220
 • Density1,501.1/km2 (3,888/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,237,656
 • Urban density2,111.8/km2 (5,470/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,392,609 (4th)
 • Metro density272.5/km2 (706/sq mi)
 • Municipal census (2018)
1,267,344[10]
Demonym(s)Calgarian
Time zoneUTC−7 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
Forward sortation areas
Area code(s)403, 587, 825
Highways1, 1A, 2, 2A, 8, 22X, 201, 772
WaterwaysBow River, Elbow River, Glenmore Reservoir
GDPUS$ 97.9 billion[11]
GDP per capitaUS$ 69,826[11]
WebsiteOfficial website

Etymology

Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Mull, Scotland.[18] In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning "cold" and "garden", likely used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides.[19] Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow (pasture)", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm".[18]

The indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, which were used to fashion bows. In the Blackfoot language (Siksiká), the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence. The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis, simply meaning "elbow".,[3][4][20] has been the popular Indigenous term for the Calgary area.[21][22][23][24][25] In the Nakoda (Stoney) language, the area is known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow".[3][20] In the Nehiyaw (Cree) Language, the area was known as Otoskwanik meaning "house at the elbow" or Otoskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Tsuut'ina (Sarcee) language, the area is known as Kootsisáw meaning "elbow".[3][20] In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary Stampede[3] and the city's settler heritage.[20]

There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the City, Mohkínstsis.[23][24][26][27][28] In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town",[29] however this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot.[30]

History

Early history

The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years.[31] The area has been inhabited by the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot Confederacy; Siksika, Kainai, Piikani), îyârhe Nakoda, the Tsuut'ina First Nations peoples and Métis Nation, Region 3. As Mayor Naheed Nenshi (A'paistootsiipsii; Iitiya) describes, "There have always been people here. In Biblical times there were people here. For generations beyond number, people have come here to this land, drawn here by the water. They come here to hunt and fish; to trade; to live; to love; to have great victories; to taste bitter disappointment; but above all to engage in that very human act of building community."[32]

In 1787, cartographer David Thompson spent the winter with a band of Peigan encamped along the Bow River. He was a Hudson's Bay Company trader and the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873.[33]

FortCalgary1878
In 1875, the North-West Mounted Police erected Fort Calgary in an effort to police the area.

In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police (now the Royal Canadian Mounted Police or RCMP). The NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, and to protect the fur trade. Originally named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod.

When the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, and a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre. Over a century later, the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996.[34] Calgary was officially incorporated as a town in 1884, and elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was then the North-West Territories.[35] The Calgary Police Service was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP.[36]

The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7, 1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200. Although no one was killed or injured,[37] city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings to be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again.[38]

After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost (up to 100,000 acres (400 km2) for one cent per acre per year). As a result of this policy, large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. Already a transportation and distribution hub, Calgary quickly became the centre of Canada's cattle marketing and meatpacking industries.

By the late 19th century, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) expanded into the interior and established posts along rivers that later developed into the modern cities of Winnipeg, Calgary and Edmonton. In 1884, the HBC established a sales shop in Calgary. The HBC also built the first of the grand "original six" department stores in Calgary in 1913, the others that followed are Edmonton, Vancouver, Victoria, Saskatoon, and Winnipeg.[39][40]

Modern history (1900–present)

Rounding up for the first Calgary Stampede (38085634056)
Rounding up cattle for the first Calgary Stampede in 1912. The Stampede is one of the world's largest rodeos.

Between 1896 and 1914 settlers from all over the world poured into the area in response to the offer of free "homestead" land.[41] Agriculture and ranching became key components of the local economy, shaping the future of Calgary for years to come. The world-famous Calgary Stampede, still held annually in July, was started by four wealthy ranchers as a small agricultural show in 1912.[42] It is now known as the "greatest outdoor show on earth".[43]

Calgary experienced Alberta's first oil boom when Calgary Petroleum Products Co found oil just southwest of the city at Turner Valley in 1914. Western Canada's first commercial oilfield boomed again in 1924 and 1936 and by WWII the Turner Valley oilfield was producing more than 95 per cent of the oil in Canada. As a result, major oil companies searched elsewhere in Alberta and in 1947 Imperial Oil discovered new reserves near Leduc, south of Edmonton. But Calgary was already the centre of Alberta oil and the new discovery caused the city to boom again. Calgary's economy grew when oil prices increased with the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. The population increased by 272,000 in the eighteen years between 1971 (403,000) and 1989 (675,000) and another 345,000 in the next eighteen years (to 1,020,000 in 2007). During these boom years, skyscrapers were constructed and the relatively low-rise downtown quickly became dense with tall buildings.[44]

Calgary's economy was so closely tied to the oil industry that the city's boom peaked with the average annual price of oil in 1981.[45] The subsequent drops in oil prices were cited by industry as reasons for a collapse in the oil industry and consequently the overall Calgary economy. Low oil prices prevented a full recovery until the 1990s.[46]

Trolleybus next to Hudson's Bay Company store in Calgary in 1971
From 1971, the population of Calgary rose significantly, with many high-rises constructed to accommodate the growth.

With the energy sector employing a huge number of Calgarians, the fallout from the economic slump of the early 1980s was significant, and the unemployment rate soared.[47] By the end of the decade, however, the economy was in recovery. Calgary quickly realized that it could not afford to put so much emphasis on oil and gas, and the city has since become much more diverse, both economically and culturally. The period during this recession marked Calgary's transition from a mid-sized and relatively nondescript prairie city into a major cosmopolitan and diverse centre. This transition culminated in the city hosting Canada's first Winter Olympics in 1988.[48] The success of these Games[49] essentially put the city on the world stage.

Thanks in part to escalating oil prices, the economy in Calgary and Alberta was booming until the end of 2009, and the region of nearly 1.1 million people was home to the fastest growing economy in the country.[50] While the oil and gas industry comprise an important part of the economy, the city has invested a great deal into other areas such as tourism and high-tech manufacturing. Over 3.1 million people now visit the city annually[51] for its many festivals and attractions, especially the Calgary Stampede. The nearby mountain resort towns of Banff, Lake Louise, and Canmore are also becoming increasingly popular with tourists, and are bringing people into Calgary as a result. Other modern industries include light manufacturing, high-tech, film, e-commerce, transportation, and services.

Widespread flooding throughout southern Alberta, including on the Bow and Elbow rivers, forced the evacuation of over 75,000 city residents on June 21, 2013, and left large areas of the city, including downtown, without power.[52][53]

Geography

Calgary is located at the transition zone between the Canadian Rockies foothills and the Canadian Prairies. The city lies within the foothills of the Parkland Natural Region and the Grasslands Natural Region.[54] Downtown Calgary is about 1,042.4 m (3,420 ft) above sea level,[9] and the airport is 1,076 m (3,531 ft).[55] In 2011, the city covered a land area of 825.29 km2 (318.65 sq mi).[56]

Two rivers run through the city. The Bow River is the larger and it flows from the west to the south. The Elbow River flows northwards from the south until it converges with the Bow River at the historic site of Fort Calgary near downtown. Since the climate of the region is generally dry, dense vegetation occurs naturally only in the river valleys, on some north-facing slopes, and within Fish Creek Provincial Park.

The City of Calgary, 848 km2 (327 sq mi) in size,[57] consists of an inner city surrounded by suburban communities of various density.[58] The city is immediately surrounded by two municipal districts – the Municipal District of Foothills No. 31 to the south and Rocky View County to the north, west and east. Proximate urban communities beyond the city within the Calgary Region include: the City of Airdrie to the north; the City of Chestermere, the Town of Strathmore and the Hamlet of Langdon to the east; the towns of Okotoks and High River to the south; and the Town of Cochrane to the northwest.[59] Numerous rural subdivisions are located within the Elbow Valley, Springbank and Bearspaw areas to the west and northwest.[60][61][62] The Tsuu T'ina Nation Indian Reserve No. 145 borders Calgary to the southwest.[59]

Over the years, the city has made many land annexations to facilitate growth. In the most recent annexation of lands from Rocky View County, completed in July 2007, the city annexed Shepard, a former hamlet, and placed its boundaries adjacent to the Hamlet of Balzac and City of Chestermere, and very close to the City of Airdrie.[63]

‪ View of downtown Calgary, in the summer of 2011, as seen from Crescent Heights bluff during sunset. ‬
View of downtown Calgary, in the summer of 2011, as seen from Crescent Heights bluff during sunset.

Flora and fauna

Numerous plant and animal species are found within and around Calgary. The Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) comes near the northern limit of its range at Calgary.[64] Another conifer of widespread distribution found in the Calgary area is the White Spruce (Picea glauca). Some notable animals that can be found in and around Calgary include: deer, coyote, moose, bat, rabbit, mink, weasel, black bear, raccoon, skunk, and cougar.[65]

Neighbourhoods

InglewoodCalgary
Located east of downtown Calgary, Inglewood is one of the city's oldest residential neighbourhoods.

The downtown region of the city consists of five neighbourhoods: Eau Claire (including the Festival District), the Downtown West End, the Downtown Commercial Core, Chinatown, and the Downtown East Village (also part of the Rivers District). The commercial core is itself divided into a number of districts including the Stephen Avenue Retail Core, the Entertainment District, the Arts District and the Government District. Distinct from downtown and south of 9th Avenue is Calgary's densest neighbourhood, the Beltline. The area includes a number of communities such as Connaught, Victoria Crossing and a portion of the Rivers District. The Beltline is the focus of major planning and rejuvenation initiatives on the part of the municipal government[66] to increase the density and liveliness of Calgary's centre.

Adjacent to, or directly radiating from the downtown are the first of the inner-city communities. These include Crescent Heights, Hounsfield Heights/Briar Hill, Hillhurst/Sunnyside (including Kensington BRZ), Bridgeland, Renfrew, Mount Royal, Scarboro, Sunalta, Mission, Ramsay and Inglewood and Albert Park/Radisson Heights directly to the east. The inner city is, in turn, surrounded by relatively dense and established neighbourhoods such as Rosedale and Mount Pleasant to the north; Bowness, Parkdale and Glendale to the west; Park Hill, South Calgary (including Marda Loop), Bankview, Altadore, and Killarney to the south; and Forest Lawn/International Avenue to the east. Lying beyond these, and usually separated from one another by highways, are suburban communities including Evergreen, Somerset, Auburn Bay Country Hills, Sundance, Riverbend, and McKenzie Towne. In all, there are over 180 distinct neighbourhoods within the city limits.[67]

Several of Calgary's neighbourhoods were initially separate municipalities that were annexed by the city as it grew. These include Bowness, Montgomery, and Forest Lawn.

Climate

Calgary experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb/Dwb), with cold, snowy winters and warm summers. It falls into the NRC Plant Hardiness Zone 4a.[68] According to Environment Canada, average daily temperatures in Calgary range from 16.5 °C (61.7 °F) in July to −6.8 °C (19.8 °F) in December.[69]

Dilmaghanian00711
Ice skating on the frozen stream in Bowness Park. Winters in Calgary are cold with temperatures dropping below −20 °C (−4 °F).

Winters are cold and the air temperature can drop to or below −20 °C (−4 °F) on average of 22 days of the year and −30 °C (−22 °F) on average of 3.7 days of the year, and are often broken up by warm, dry Chinook winds that blow into Alberta over the mountains. These winds can raise the winter temperature by 20 °C (36 °F), and as much as 30 °C (54 °F) in just a few hours, and may last several days.[70] As well, Calgary's proximity to the Rocky Mountains affects winter temperature average mean temperature with a mixture of lows and highs, and tends to result in a mild winter for a city in the Prairie Provinces. Temperatures are also affected by the wind chill factor, Calgary's average wind speed is 14.2 km/h, one of the highest in Canadian cities.[71]

In summer, daytime temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) an average of 5.1 days anytime in June, July and August, and occasionally as late as September or as early as May, and in winter drop below or at −30 °C (−22 °F) 3.7 days of the year. As a consequence of Calgary's high elevation and aridity, summer evenings tend to cool off, with monthly averages below 10 °C (50 °F) throughout the summer months.[69]

Calgary has the most sunny days year round of Canada's 100 largest cities, with just over 332 days of sun;[69] it has on average 2,396 hours of sunshine annually,[69] with an average relative humidity of 55% in the winter and 45% in the summer (15:00 MST).[69]

Calgary International Airport in the northeastern section of the city receives an average of 418.8 mm (16.49 in) of precipitation annually, with 326.4 mm (12.85 in) of that occurring in the form of rain, and 92.4 mm (3.64 in) as snow.[69] The most rainfall occurs in June and the most snowfall in March.[69] Calgary has also recorded snow every month of the year.[72] It last snowed in July on July 15, 1999.[73]

Thunderstorms can be frequent and some times severe[74] with most of them occurring in the summer months. Calgary lies within Alberta's Hailstorm Alley and is prone to damaging hailstorms every few years. A hailstorm that struck Calgary on September 7, 1991, was one of the most destructive natural disasters in Canadian history, with over $400 million in damage.[75] Being west of the dry line on most occasions, tornadoes are rare in the region.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Calgary was 36.7 °C (98 °F) on August 10, 2018.[76] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −45.0 °C (−49 °F) on February 4, 1893.[69]

Climate data for Calgary International Airport, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1881–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
22.6
(72.7)
25.4
(77.7)
29.4
(84.9)
32.4
(90.3)
35.0
(95.0)
36.1
(97.0)
36.7
(98.1)
33.3
(91.9)
29.4
(84.9)
22.8
(73.0)
19.5
(67.1)
36.7
(98.1)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
13.7
(56.7)
16.5
(61.7)
22.5
(72.5)
26.4
(79.5)
28.1
(82.6)
30.9
(87.6)
31.1
(88.0)
27.9
(82.2)
23.1
(73.6)
15.6
(60.1)
11.7
(53.1)
32.5
(90.5)
Average high °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
0.7
(33.3)
4.4
(39.9)
11.2
(52.2)
16.3
(61.3)
19.8
(67.6)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73.0)
17.8
(64.0)
11.7
(53.1)
3.4
(38.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
10.8
(51.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −7.1
(19.2)
−5.4
(22.3)
−1.6
(29.1)
4.6
(40.3)
9.7
(49.5)
13.7
(56.7)
16.5
(61.7)
15.8
(60.4)
11.0
(51.8)
5.2
(41.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
−6.8
(19.8)
4.4
(39.9)
Average low °C (°F) −13.2
(8.2)
−11.4
(11.5)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
3.1
(37.6)
7.5
(45.5)
9.8
(49.6)
8.8
(47.8)
4.1
(39.4)
−1.4
(29.5)
−8.2
(17.2)
−12.8
(9.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −27.7
(−17.9)
−24.6
(−12.3)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−10.6
(12.9)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.0
(35.6)
4.4
(39.9)
3.2
(37.8)
−2.9
(26.8)
−11.4
(11.5)
−21.0
(−5.8)
−26.4
(−15.5)
−32.7
(−26.9)
Record low °C (°F) −44.4
(−47.9)
−45.0
(−49.0)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−30.0
(−22.0)
−16.7
(1.9)
−3.3
(26.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
−3.2
(26.2)
−13.3
(8.1)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−35.0
(−31.0)
−42.8
(−45.0)
−45.0
(−49.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 9.4
(0.37)
9.4
(0.37)
17.8
(0.70)
25.2
(0.99)
56.8
(2.24)
94.0
(3.70)
65.5
(2.58)
57.0
(2.24)
45.1
(1.78)
15.3
(0.60)
13.1
(0.52)
10.2
(0.40)
418.8
(16.49)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.1
(0.00)
0.1
(0.00)
2.2
(0.09)
10.8
(0.43)
46.1
(1.81)
93.9
(3.70)
65.5
(2.58)
57.0
(2.24)
41.7
(1.64)
7.5
(0.30)
1.5
(0.06)
0.3
(0.01)
326.4
(12.85)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 15.3
(6.0)
14.5
(5.7)
22.7
(8.9)
18.8
(7.4)
11.9
(4.7)
0.1
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
3.9
(1.5)
10.0
(3.9)
16.6
(6.5)
15.0
(5.9)
128.8
(50.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 7.3 6.8 9.2 9.0 11.2 13.8 13.0 10.6 9.1 7.2 7.6 6.9 111.8
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.27 0.20 1.3 4.1 10.1 13.8 13.0 10.5 8.7 4.2 1.4 0.40 67.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 7.7 7.4 9.5 6.4 2.6 0.07 0.0 0.10 1.3 4.1 7.4 7.7 54.2
Average relative humidity (%) 54.5 53.2 50.3 40.7 43.5 48.6 46.8 44.6 44.3 44.3 54.0 55.3 48.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 119.5 144.6 177.2 220.2 249.4 269.9 314.1 284.0 207.0 175.4 121.1 114.0 2,396.3
Percent possible sunshine 45.6 51.3 48.2 53.1 51.8 54.6 63.1 62.9 54.4 52.7 45.0 46.0 52.4
Source: Environment Canada[69]
Climate data for University of Calgary, 1971–2000 normals, extremes 1964–1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.1
(61.0)
19.5
(67.1)
20.5
(68.9)
28.0
(82.4)
31.5
(88.7)
32.2
(90.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.5
(92.3)
33.9
(93.0)
28.0
(82.4)
22.2
(72.0)
18.0
(64.4)
33.9
(93.0)
Average high °C (°F) −2.6
(27.3)
−0.7
(30.7)
3.8
(38.8)
10.7
(51.3)
16.0
(60.8)
20.0
(68.0)
22.6
(72.7)
21.7
(71.1)
16.4
(61.5)
12.2
(54.0)
2.9
(37.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
10.1
(50.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.1
(17.4)
−6.2
(20.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
4.6
(40.3)
9.8
(49.6)
13.9
(57.0)
16.2
(61.2)
15.4
(59.7)
10.3
(50.5)
6.0
(42.8)
−2.3
(27.9)
−6.9
(19.6)
4.3
(39.6)
Average low °C (°F) −13.5
(7.7)
−11.6
(11.1)
−7.2
(19.0)
−1.5
(29.3)
3.6
(38.5)
7.7
(45.9)
9.7
(49.5)
9.0
(48.2)
4.2
(39.6)
−0.3
(31.5)
−7.5
(18.5)
−12.0
(10.4)
−1.6
(29.1)
Record low °C (°F) −40.6
(−41.1)
−38.0
(−36.4)
−31.7
(−25.1)
−20.6
(−5.1)
−11.1
(12.0)
−1.5
(29.3)
0.0
(32.0)
−2.0
(28.4)
−10.6
(12.9)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−34.0
(−29.2)
−41.1
(−42.0)
−41.1
(−42.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.5
(0.69)
13.9
(0.55)
18.7
(0.74)
29.1
(1.15)
64.0
(2.52)
64.4
(2.54)
66.8
(2.63)
60.2
(2.37)
51.8
(2.04)
14.8
(0.58)
13.2
(0.52)
16.5
(0.65)
430.9
(16.98)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.2
(0.01)
0.1
(0.00)
1.6
(0.06)
13.3
(0.52)
54.9
(2.16)
64.4
(2.54)
66.8
(2.63)
60.2
(2.37)
47.1
(1.85)
5.0
(0.20)
0.6
(0.02)
0.2
(0.01)
314.4
(12.37)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 17.3
(6.8)
13.8
(5.4)
17.1
(6.7)
15.8
(6.2)
9.1
(3.6)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
4.7
(1.9)
9.7
(3.8)
12.6
(5.0)
16.4
(6.5)
116.5
(45.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 9.1 7.8 8.1 8.0 11.5 11.9 12.6 11.3 10.2 5.4 6.8 8.1 110.8
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.40 0.05 0.85 3.7 10.5 11.9 12.6 11.3 9.6 3.0 0.68 0.42 65
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 9.1 7.8 7.7 5.6 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 3.1 6.4 7.7 51.3
Source: Environment Canada

Demographics

Federal census
population history
YearPop.±%
18913,876—    
19014,091+5.5%
190611,967+192.5%
191143,704+265.2%
191656,514+29.3%
192163,305+12.0%
192665,291+3.1%
193183,761+28.3%
193683,407−0.4%
194188,904+6.6%
1946100,044+12.5%
1951129,060+29.0%
1956181,780+40.8%
1961249,641+37.3%
1966330,575+32.4%
1971403,319+22.0%
1976469,917+16.5%
1981592,743+26.1%
1986636,107+7.3%
1991710,795+11.7%
1996768,082+8.1%
2001878,866+14.4%
2006988,193+12.4%
20111,096,833+11.0%
20161,239,220+13.0%
Source: Statistics Canada
[77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87]
[56][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][6]

The population of the City of Calgary according to its 2018 municipal census is 1,267,344,[98] a change of 1.7% from its 2017 municipal census population of 1,246,337.[99]

In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the City of Calgary recorded a population of 1,239,220 living in 466,725 of its 489,650 total private dwellings, a change of 13% from its 2011 population of 1,096,833. With a land area of 825.56 km2 (318.75 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,501.1/km2 (3,887.7/sq mi) in 2016.[6] Calgary was ranked 1st among the three cities in Canada that saw their population grow by more than 100,000 people between 2011 and 2016. During this time Calgary saw a population growth of 142,387 people, followed by Edmonton at 120,345 people and Toronto at 116,511 people.[100]

In the 2011 Census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,096,833 living in 423,417 of its 445,848 total dwellings, a change of 10.9% from its 2006 adjusted population of 988,812. With a land area of 825.29 km2 (318.65 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,329.0/km2 (3,442.2/sq mi) in 2011.[56] According to the 2011 Statistics Canada Census, persons aged 14 years and under made up 17.9% of the population, and those aged 65 and older made up 9.95%. The median age was 36.4 years. In 2011, the city's gender population was 49.9% male and 50.1% female.[101]

The Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) is the fourth-largest CMA in Canada and largest in Alberta. It had a population of 1,392,609 in the 2016 Census compared to its 2011 population of 1,214,839. Its five-year population change of 14.6 percent was the highest among all CMAs in Canada between 2011 and 2016. With a land area of 5,107.55 km2 (1,972.04 sq mi), the Calgary CMA had a population density of 272.7/km2 (706.2/sq mi) in 2016.[102] Statistics Canada's latest estimate of the Calgary CMA population, as of July 1, 2017, is 1,488,841.[103]

In 2015, the population within an hour commuting distance of the city is 1,511,755.[104]

As a consequence of the large number of corporations, as well as the presence of the energy sector in Alberta, Calgary has a median family income of $104,530.[105]

Christians make up 54.9% of the population, while 32.3% have no religious affiliation. Other religions in the city are Muslims (5.2%), Sikhs (2.6%) and Buddhists (2.1%).[106]

Ethnicity

According to the 2016 Census, 59.5% of Calgary's population was of European origin, 4% was of Aboriginal heritage, and 36.2% of the population belonged to a visible minority (that is, non-white, non-aboriginal) group. Among those of European origin, the most frequently reported ethnic backgrounds were British, German, Irish, French, and Ukrainian. Among visible minorities, South Asians (mainly from India or Pakistan) make up the largest group (9.5%), followed by Chinese (6.8%) and Filipinos (5.5%). 5.4% were of African or Caribbean origin, 3.5% was of West Asian or Middle Eastern origin, while 2.6% of the population was of Latin American origin. Of the largest Canadian cities, Calgary ranked fourth in proportion of visible minorities, behind Toronto, Vancouver, and Winnipeg. 20.7% of the population identified as "Canadian" in ethnic origin.[107]

Canada 2016 Census[108] Population % of total population (2016)
Visible minority group
South Asian 115,795 9.5%
Chinese 87,835 7.2%
Black 51,515 4.2%
Filipino 67,650 5.5%
Latin American 26,265 2.1%
Arab 25,190 2.1%
Southeast Asian 21,610 1.8%
West Asian 12,610 1%
Korean 10,635 0.9%
Japanese 5,170 0.4%
Other visible minority 4,410 0.4%
Mixed visible minority 13,895 1.1%
Total visible minority population 442,585 36.2%
Aboriginal group First Nations 27,915 2.3%
Métis 19,705 1.6%
Inuit 550 0%
Total Aboriginal population 46,385 3.8%
European 704,040 57.6%
Total population 1,239,220 100%

Economy

Employment by industry[109]
Industry Calgary Alberta
Agriculture 6.1% 10.9%
Manufacturing 15.8% 15.8%
Trade 15.9% 15.8%
Finance 6.4% 5.0%
Health and education 25.1% 18.8%
Business services 25.1% 18.8%
Other services 16.5% 18.7%
Labour force (2016)[110]
Rate Calgary Alberta Canada
Employment 66.9% 66.3% 61.2%
Unemployment 10.3% 9.0% 6.8%
Participation 74.6% 72.9% 65.6%

Calgary is recognized as a leader in the Canadian oil and gas industry, and its economy expanded at a significantly higher rate than the overall Canadian economy (43% and 25%, respectively) over the ten-year period from 1999-2009.[111] Its high personal and family incomes,[15][112] low unemployment and high GDP per capita[113] have all benefited from increased sales and prices due to a resource boom,[111] and increasing economic diversification.

Calgary benefits from a relatively strong job market in Alberta, is part of the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor, one of the fastest growing regions in the country. It is the head office for many major oil and gas related companies, and many financial service business have grown up around them. Small business and self-employment levels also rank amongst the highest in Canada.[112] Calgary is a distribution and transportation hub[114] with high retail sales.[112]

Calgary's economy is decreasingly dominated by the oil and gas industry, although it is still the single largest contributor to the city's GDP. In 2006, Calgary's real GDP (in constant 1997 dollars) was C$52.386 billion, of which oil, gas and mining contributed 12%.[115] The larger oil and gas companies are BP Canada, Canadian Natural Resources Limited, Cenovus Energy, Encana, Imperial Oil, Suncor Energy, Shell Canada, Husky Energy, TransCanada, and Nexen, making the city home to 87% of Canada's oil and natural gas producers and 66% of coal producers.[116]

As of November 2016, the city had a labour force of 901,700 (a 74.6% participation rate) and 10.3% unemployment rate.[117][118][119]

In 2013, Calgary's four largest industries by employee count were "Trade" (with 112,800 employees), "Professional, Scientific and Technical Services" (100,800 employees), "Health Care and Social Assistance" (89,200 employees), and "Construction" (81,500 employees).[120]

In 2006, the top three private sector employers in Calgary were Shaw Communications (7,500 employees), Nova Chemicals (4,945) and Telus (4,517).[121] Companies rounding out the top ten were Mark's Work Wearhouse, the Calgary Co-op, Nexen, Canadian Pacific Railway, CNRL, Shell Canada and Dow Chemical Canada.[121] The top public sector employers in 2006 were the Calgary Zone of the Alberta Health Services (22,000), the City of Calgary (12,296) and the Calgary Board of Education (8,000).[121] Public sector employers rounding out the top five were the University of Calgary and the Calgary Roman Catholic Separate School Division.[121]

In Canada, Calgary has the second-highest concentration of head offices in Canada (behind Toronto), the most head offices per capita, and the highest head office revenue per capita.[15][112] Some large employers with Calgary head offices include Canada Safeway Limited, Westfair Foods Ltd., Suncor Energy, Agrium, Flint Energy Services Ltd., Shaw Communications, and Canadian Pacific Railway.[122] CPR moved its head office from Montreal in 1996 and Imperial Oil moved from Toronto in 2005. Encana's new 58-floor corporate headquarters, the Bow, became the tallest building in Canada outside of Toronto.[123] In 2001, the city became the corporate headquarters of the TSX Venture Exchange.

WestJet is headquartered close to the Calgary International Airport,[124] and Enerjet has its headquarters on the airport grounds.[125] Prior to their dissolution, Canadian Airlines[126] and Air Canada's subsidiary Zip were also headquartered near the city's airport.[127] Although its main office is now based in Yellowknife, Canadian North, purchased from Canadian Airlines in September 1998, still maintains operations and charter offices in Calgary.[128][129]

According to a report by Alexi Olcheski of Avison Young published in August 2015, vacancy rates rose to 11.5 per cent in the second quarter of 2015 from 8.3 per cent in 2014. Oil and gas company office spaces in downtown Calgary are subleasing 40 per cent of their overall vacancies.[130] H&R Real Estate Investment Trust, which owns the 58-storey, 158,000-square-metre Bow Tower, claims the building was fully leased. Tenants such as Suncor "have been letting staff and contractors go in response to the downturn".[130]

Arts and culture

Calgary was designated as one of the cultural capitals of Canada in 2012.[131]

While many Calgarians continue to live in the city's suburbs, more central districts such as 17 Avenue, Kensington, Inglewood, Forest Lawn, Marda Loop and the Mission District have become more popular and density in those areas has increased. The nightlife and the availability of cultural venues in these areas has gradually begun to evolve as a result.

The Calgary Public Library is the city's public library network, with 20 branches loaning books, e-books, CDs, DVDs, Blu-rays, audio books, and more. Based on borrowing, the library is the second largest in Canada, and sixth-largest municipal library system in North America. The new flagship branch, the 22,000-square-metre (240,000 sq ft) Calgary Central Library in Downtown East Village, opened on November 1, 2018.[132]

Calgary is the site of the Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium performing arts, culture and community facility. The auditorium is one of two "twin" facilities in the province, the other located in Edmonton, each being locally known as the "Jube". The 2,538-seat auditorium was opened in 1957[133] and has been host to hundreds of Broadway musical, theatrical, stage and local productions. The Calgary Jube is the resident home of the Alberta Ballet Company, the Calgary Opera, the Kiwanis Music Festival, and the annual civic Remembrance Day ceremonies. Both auditoriums operate 365 days a year, and are run by the provincial government. Both received major renovations as part of the province's centennial in 2005.[133]

The Alberta Ballet is the third largest dance company in Canada. Under the artistic direction of Jean Grand-Maître, the Alberta Ballet is at the forefront both at home and internationally. The dance company has developed a distinctive repertoire and a high level of performance. Jean Grand-Maître has become well known for his successful collaborations with pop-artists like Joni Mitchell, Elton John, and Sarah McLachlan. The Alberta Ballet resides in the Nat Christie Centre.[134][135][136]

Epcor Centre 5
The Arts Commons is a multi-venue arts centre in downtown Calgary.

The city is also home to a number of theatre companies; among them are One Yellow Rabbit, which shares the Arts Commons building with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra, as well as Theatre Calgary, Alberta Theatre Projects and Theatre Junction GRAND, culture house dedicated to the contemporary live arts. Calgary was also the birthplace of the improvisational theatre games known as Theatresports. The Calgary International Film Festival is also held annually, as well as the International Festival of Animated Objects.[137]

Every three years, Calgary hosts the Honens International Piano Competition (formerly known as the Esther Honens International Piano Competition). The finalists of the competition perform piano concerti with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra; the laureate is awarded a cash prize (currently $100,000.00 CDN, the largest cash award of any international piano competition), and a three-year career development program. The Honens is an integral component of the classical music scene in Calgary.

Visual and conceptual artists like the art collective United Congress are active in the city. There are a number of art galleries in the downtown along Stephen Avenue; the SoDo (South of Downtown) Design District; the 17 Avenue corridor; and the neighbourhood of Inglewood, including the Esker Foundation.[138][139] Calgary is also home to the Alberta College of Art and Design.

A number of marching bands are based in Calgary. They include the Calgary Round-Up Band, the Calgary Stetson Show Band, the Bishop Grandin Marching Ghosts, and the five-time World Association for Marching Show Bands champions, the Calgary Stampede Showband, as well as military bands including the Band of HMCS Tecumseh, the King's Own Calgary Regiment Band, and the Regimental Pipes and Drums of The Calgary Highlanders. There are many other civilian pipe bands in the city, notably the Calgary Police Service Pipe Band.[140]

Calgary Stampede Rodeo final day 18 - 2011
A competition for bareback bronc riding during the 2011 Calgary Stampede.

Calgary is also home to a choral music community, including a variety of amateur, community, and semi-professional groups. Some of the mainstays include the Mount Royal Choirs from the Mount Royal University Conservatory, the Calgary Boys' Choir, the Calgary Girls Choir, the Youth Singers of Calgary, the Cantaré Children's Choir, and Spiritus Chamber Choir.

Calgary hosts a number of annual festivals and events. These include the Calgary International Film Festival, the Calgary Folk Music Festival, FunnyFest Calgary Comedy Festival, Sled Island music festival, Beakerhead arts, science and engineering festival, the Folk Music Festival, the Greek festival, Carifest, Wordfest, the Lilac Festival, GlobalFest, Otafest, the Calgary Comic and Entertainment Expo, FallCon, the Calgary Fringe Festival, Summerstock, Expo Latino, Calgary Pride, Calgary International Spoken Word Festival,[141] and many other cultural and ethnic festivals. Calgary's best-known event is the Calgary Stampede, which has occurred each July since 1912. It is one of the largest festivals in Canada, with a 2005 attendance of 1,242,928 at the 10-day rodeo and exhibition.[142]

Several museums are located in the city. The Glenbow Museum is the largest in western Canada and includes an art gallery and First Nations gallery.[143] Other major museums include the Chinese Cultural Centre (at 70,000 sq ft (6,500 m2), the largest stand-alone cultural centre in Canada),[144] Canada's Sports Hall of Fame (at Canada Olympic Park), The Military Museums, the National Music Centre and The Hanger Flight Museum.

Numerous films have been shot in Calgary and the surrounding area. Notable films shot in and around the city include: The Assassination of Jesse James, Brokeback Mountain, Dances with Wolves, Doctor Zhivago, Inception, Legends of the Fall, Unforgiven and The Revenant.[145]

The Calgary Herald and the Calgary Sun are the main newspapers in Calgary. Global, City, CTV and CBC television networks have local studios in the city.

Attractions

Stephen-Ave-Trees-Szmurlo
Featuring a mix of boutiques and high-end retailers, Stephen Avenue is a major pedestrian mall and tourist attraction in Calgary.

Downtown features an eclectic mix of restaurants and bars, cultural venues, public squares (including Olympic Plaza) and shopping. Notable shopping areas include such as The Core Shopping Centre (formerly Calgary Eaton Centre/TD Square), Stephen Avenue and Eau Claire Market. Downtown tourist attractions include the Calgary Zoo, the Telus Spark, the Telus Convention Centre, the Chinatown district, the Glenbow Museum, the Calgary Tower, the Art Gallery of Calgary (AGC), The Military Museums and Arts Commons. At 1.0 hectare (2.5 acres), the Devonian Gardens is one of the largest urban indoor gardens in the world,[146] and it is located on the 4th floor of The Core Shopping Centre (above the shopping). The downtown region is also home to Prince's Island Park, an urban park located just north of the Eau Claire district. Directly to the south of downtown is Midtown and the Beltline. This area is quickly becoming one of the city's densest and most active mixed use areas. At the district's core is the popular 17 Avenue, known for its many bars and nightclubs, restaurants, and shopping venues. During the Calgary Flames' Stanley Cup run in 2004, 17 Avenue was frequented by over 50,000 fans and supporters per game night. The concentration of red jersey-wearing fans led to the street's playoff moniker, the "Red Mile". Downtown is easily accessed using the city's C-Train light rail (LRT) transit system.

Attractions on the west side of the city include the Heritage Park Historical Village, depicting life in pre-1914 Alberta and featuring working historic vehicles such as a steam train, paddle steamer and electric streetcar. The village itself comprises a mixture of replica buildings and historic structures relocated from southern Alberta. Just west of the city limits is Calaway Park Western Canada's largest outdoor family amusement park, and just north of the park across the Trans Canada Highway is the Springbank/Calgary Airport where the Wings over Springbank Airshow is held every July 18 & 19th. Other major city attractions include Canada Olympic Park, which features Canada's Sports Hall of Fame, and Spruce Meadows. In addition to the many shopping areas in the city centre, there are a number of large suburban shopping complexes in the city. Among the largest are Chinook Centre and Southcentre Mall in the south, Westhills and Signal Hill in the southwest, South Trail Crossing and Deerfoot Meadows in the southeast, Market Mall in the northwest, Sunridge Mall in the northeast, and the newly built CrossIron Mills just north of the Calgary city limits, and south of the City of Airdrie.

Skyline

Downtown Calgary 2016 - Kevin Cappis
Many of Calgary's tallest buildings are located downtown.

Downtown Calgary can be recognized by its numerous skyscrapers. Some of these structures, such as the Calgary Tower and the Saddledome are unique to Calgary. Office buildings tend to concentrate within the commercial core, while residential towers occur most frequently within the Downtown West End and the Beltline, south of downtown. These buildings are iconographic of the city's booms and busts, and it is easy to recognize the various phases of development that have shaped the image of downtown. The first skyscraper building boom occurred during the late 1950s and continued through to the 1970s. After 1980, during the recession, many high-rise construction projects were immediately halted. It was not until the late 1980s and through to the early 1990s that major construction began again, initiated by the 1988 Winter Olympics and stimulated by the growing economy.

In total, there are 14 office towers that are at least 150 m (490 ft) (usually around 40 floors) or higher. The tallest of these is Brookfield Place, which is the tallest office tower in Canada outside Toronto. The Bow, completed in 2012, is the second tallest building in Calgary.[147] Calgary's Bankers Hall Towers are also the tallest twin towers in Canada.

Sports and recreation

Nose-Hill-Park-Calgary-Real-Estate
The grassy fields of Nose Hill Park

Within Calgary there are approximately 8,000 ha (20,000 acres) of parkland available for public usage and recreation.[148] These parks include Fish Creek Provincial Park, Inglewood Bird Sanctuary, Bowness Park, Edworthy Park, Confederation Park, Prince's Island Park, Nose Hill Park, and Central Memorial Park. Nose Hill Park is one of the largest municipal parks in Canada at 1,129 ha (2,790 acres). The park has been subject to a revitalization plan that began in 2006. Its trail system is currently undergoing rehabilitation in accordance with this plan.[149][150] The oldest park in Calgary, Central Memorial Park, dates back to 1911. Similar to Nose Hill Park, revitalization also took place in Central Memorial Park in 2008–2009 and reopened to the public in 2010 while still maintaining its Victorian style.[151] A 800 km (500 mi) pathway system connects these parks and various neighbourhoods.[148][152] Calgary also has multiple private sporting clubs including the Glencoe Club and the Calgary Winter Club.

Fish-Creek-Park-Szmurlo
Fish Creek Provincial Park is one of several parks located in Calgary.

In large part due to its proximity to the Rocky Mountains, Calgary has traditionally been a popular destination for winter sports. Since hosting the 1988 Winter Olympics, the city has also been home to a number of major winter sporting facilities such as Canada Olympic Park (bobsleigh, luge, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, downhill skiing, snowboarding, and some summer sports) and the Olympic Oval (speed skating and hockey). These facilities serve as the primary training venues for a number of competitive athletes. Also, Canada Olympic Park serves as a mountain biking trail in the summer months.

In the summer, the Bow River is very popular among river rafters[153] and fly-fishermen. Golfing is also an extremely popular activity for Calgarians and the region has a large number of courses.

Calgary hosted the 2009 World Water Ski Championship Festival in August, at the Predator Bay Water Ski Club, approximately 40 km (25 mi) south of the city.

As part of the wider Battle of Alberta, the city's sports teams enjoy a popular rivalry with their Edmonton counterparts, most notably the rivalries between the National Hockey League's Calgary Flames and Edmonton Oilers, and the Canadian Football League's Calgary Stampeders and Edmonton Eskimos.

McMahon Stadium 6
McMahon Stadium is the home stadium for the CFL's Calgary Stampeders and was the Olympic Stadium for the 1988 Winter Olympics.
Calgary skyline
The Scotiabank Saddledome is a multi-use indoor arena and is home to the NHL's Calgary Flames, and the NLL's Calgary Roughnecks.

Calgary is the hometown of the Hart wrestling family and the location of the Hart family "Dungeon", where the patriarch of the Hart Family, Stu Hart,[154] trained numerous professional wrestlers including Superstar Billy Graham, Brian Pillman, the British Bulldogs, Edge, Christian, Greg Valentine, Chris Jericho, Jushin Thunder Liger and many more. Also among the trainees were the Hart family members themselves, including WWE Hall of Fame member and former WWE champion Bret Hart and his brother, the 1994 WWF King of the Ring, Owen Hart.[154]

In 1997 Calgary hosted The World Police & Fire Games hosting over 16,000 athletes from all over the world.

Professional sports teams
Club League Venue Established Championships
Calgary Stampeders Canadian Football League McMahon Stadium 1945 8
Calgary Flames National Hockey League Scotiabank Saddledome 1980 1
Calgary Roughnecks National Lacrosse League Scotiabank Saddledome 2001 2
Cavalry FC Canadian Premier League Spruce Meadows 2018 0
Amateur and junior clubs
Club League Venue Established Championships
Calgary Canucks Alberta Junior Hockey League Max Bell Centre 1971 9
Calgary Mustangs Alberta Junior Hockey League Father David Bauer Olympic Arena 1990 1
Calgary Hitmen Western Hockey League Scotiabank Saddledome 1995 2
Calgary Mavericks Rugby Canada National Junior Championship Calgary Rugby Park 1998 1
Prairie Wolf Pack Canadian Rugby Championship Calgary Rugby Park 2009 1
Calgary Inferno Canadian Women's Hockey League Olympic Oval 2011 1

Government

The city is a corporate power-centre, a high percentage of the workforce is employed in white-collar jobs. The high concentration of oil and gas corporations led to the rise of Peter Lougheed's Progressive Conservative Party in 1971.[155] However, as Calgary's population has increased, so has the diversity of its politics.

Municipal politics

Calgary city hall1
Calgary Municipal Building is the seat of local government for the City of Calgary. Attached to the building is Calgary's old city hall.

Calgary is governed in accordance with Alberta's Municipal Government Act (1995).[156] Calgarians elect 14 ward councillors and a mayor to Calgary City Council every four years. Naheed Nenshi was first elected mayor in the 2010 municipal election. Naheed Nenshi was re-elected in 2013 and 2017.

Three school boards operate independently of each other in Calgary, the public, the separate (catholic) and francophone systems. Both the public and separate boards have 7 elected trustees each representing 2 of 14 wards. The School Boards are considered to be part of municipal politics in Calgary as they are elected at the same time as City Council.[157]

Provincial politics

As a result of the 2015 provincial election, Calgary is represented by twenty-five MLAs, including fifteen New Democrats, seven Progressive Conservatives, and one member each of the Wildrose Party, Alberta Party and Alberta Liberal Party.[158] During this election, the Alberta Party won its first-ever seat, with MLA Greg Clark in the Calgary-Elbow riding. The Progressive Conservative Party lost the most seats, losing 13 it previously held.

Federal politics

On October 19, 2015, Calgary elected its first two Liberal federal MPs since 1968, Darshan Kang for Calgary Skyview and Kent Hehr for Calgary Centre.[159] The remaining MPs are members of the Conservative Party of Canada (CPC).[160] Before 2015, the Liberals had only elected three MPs from Calgary ridings in their entire history-- Manley Edwards (1940–1945),[161] Harry Hays (1963–1965)[162] and Pat Mahoney (1968–1972).[163]

The federal riding of Calgary Heritage was held by former Prime Minister and CPC leader Stephen Harper. That seat was also held by Preston Manning, the leader of the Reform Party of Canada; it was known as Calgary Southwest at the time. Harper is the second Prime Minister to represent a Calgary riding; the first was R. B. Bennett from Calgary West, who held that position from 1930 to 1935. Joe Clark, former Prime Minister and former leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (also a predecessor of the CPC), held the riding of Calgary Centre during his second stint in Parliament from 2000 to 2004.

The Green Party of Canada has also made inroads in Calgary, exemplified by results of the 2011 federal election where they achieved 7.7% of the vote across the city, ranging from 4.7% in Calgary Northeast to 13.1% in Calgary Centre-North.[164]

Crime

Calgary police on horseback
Members of the Mounted Unit of the Calgary Police Service on duty at Olympic Plaza

The Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) had a crime severity index of 60.4 in 2013, which is lower than the national average of 68.7.[165] A slight majority of the other CMAs in Canada had crime severity indexes greater than Calgary's 60.4.[165] Calgary had the sixth-most homicides in 2013 at 24.[165]

Military

The presence of the Canadian military has been part of the local economy and culture since the early years of the 20th century, beginning with the assignment of a squadron of Strathcona's Horse. After many failed attempts to create the city's own unit, the 103rd Regiment (Calgary Rifles) was finally authorized on April 1, 1910. Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Calgary was established as Currie Barracks and Harvie Barracks following the Second World War. The base remained the most significant Department of National Defence (DND) institution in the city until it was decommissioned in 1998, when most of the units moved to CFB Edmonton. Despite this closure there is still a number of Canadian Forces Reserve units, and cadet units garrisoned throughout the city. They include HMCS Tecumseh Naval Reserve unit, The King's Own Calgary Regiment, The Calgary Highlanders, both headquartered at the Mewata Armouries, 746 Communication Squadron, 41 Canadian Brigade Group, headquartered at the former location of CFB Calgary, 14 (Calgary) Service Battalion, 15 (Edmonton) Field Ambulance Detachment Calgary, 14 (Edmonton) Military Police Platoon Calgary, 41 Combat Engineer Regiment detachment Calgary (33 Engineer Squadron), along with a small cadre of Regular Force support. Several units have been granted Freedom of the City.

The Calgary Soldiers' Memorial commemorates those who died during wartime or while serving overseas. Along with those from units currently stationed in Calgary it represents the 10th Battalion, CEF and the 50th Battalion, CEF of the Canadian Expeditionary Force.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Calgary transit CTrain (11739586804)
CTrain is Calgary's light-rail public transit system.

Calgary International Airport (YYC), in the city's northeast, is a major transportation and cargo hub for much of central and western Canada. It is Canada's fourth busiest airport, serving 16.3 million passengers in 2017.[166] The airport serves as the primary gateway into Banff National Park, located 90 minutes west, and the entire Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks system.[167] Non-stop destinations include cities throughout Canada, the United States, Europe, Central America, and Asia. Calgary/Springbank Airport, Canada's eleventh busiest,[168] serves as a reliever for the Calgary International taking the general aviation traffic and is also a base for aerial firefighting aircraft.

Calgary's presence on the Trans-Canada Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) mainline (which includes the CPR Alyth Yard) also make it an important hub for freight. The Rocky Mountaineer and Royal Canadian Pacific operates railtour service to Calgary; Via Rail no longer provides intercity rail service to Calgary since the company discontinued the Super Continental via Edmonton in 1990 and then rerouted The Canadian from Calgary to serve Edmonton.

Plus 15 sign and walkway Calgary
Calgary's +15 skyway network is one of the world's most extensive pedestrian skywalk systems.

Much of Calgary's street network is on a grid where roads are numbered with avenues running east–west and streets running north–south. Until 1904 the streets were named; after that date, all streets were given numbers radiating outwards from the city centre.[169] Roads in predominantly residential areas as well as freeways and expressways do not generally conform to the grid and are usually not numbered as a result. However, it is a developer and city convention in Calgary that non-numbered streets within a new community have the same name prefix as the community itself so that streets can more easily be located within the city.

Calgary Transit provides public transportation services throughout the city with buses and light rail. Calgary's light rail system, known as the C-Train, was one of the first such systems in North America (behind Edmonton LRT). It consists of four lines (two routes) and 44 stations on 58.2 km (36.2 mi) of track. The Calgary LRT is one of the continent's busiest carrying 270,000 passengers per weekday and approximately half of Calgary downtown workers take the transit to work. The C-Train is also North America's first and only LRT to run on 100% renewable energy.[170]

As an alternative to the over 260 km (160 mi) of shared bikeways on streets, the city has a network of multi-use (bicycle, walking, rollerblading, etc.) paths spanning over 635 km (395 mi).[152] The Peace Bridge provides pedestrians and cyclists, access to the downtown core from the north side of the Bow river. The bridge ranked among the top 10 architectural projects in 2012 and among the top 10 public spaces of 2012.[171]

In the 1960s, Calgary started to develop a series of pedestrian bridges, connecting many downtown buildings.[172] To connect many of the downtown office buildings, the city also boasts the world's most extensive skyway network (elevated indoor pedestrian bridges), officially called the +15. The name derives from the fact that the bridges are usually 15 ft (4.6 m) above ground.[173]

Health care

Medical centres and hospitals
Alberta Children's Hospital 3+4
Located in Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital is the largest pediatric hospital in the province.

Calgary has four major adult acute care hospitals and one major pediatric acute care site: the Alberta Children's Hospital, the Foothills Medical Centre, the Peter Lougheed Centre, the Rockyview General Hospital and the South Health Campus. They are all overseen by the Calgary Zone of the Alberta Health Services, formerly the Calgary Health Region. Calgary is also home to the Tom Baker Cancer Centre (located at the Foothills Medical Centre), the Grace Women's Health Centre, which provides a variety of care, and the Libin Cardiovascular Institute. In addition, the Sheldon M. Chumir Centre (a large 24-hour assessment clinic), and the Richmond Road Diagnostic and Treatment Centre (RRDTC), as well as hundreds of smaller medical and dental clinics operate in Calgary. The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Calgary also operates in partnership with Alberta Health Services, by researching cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes, joint injury, arthritis and genetics.[174] The Alberta children's hospital, built in 2006, replaced the old Children's Hospital.

The four largest Calgary hospitals have a combined total of more than 2,100 beds, and employ over 11,500 people.[175]

Education

Primary and secondary

Calgary Catholic School District 2
The head offices for the Calgary Catholic School District is located in downtown Calgary. It is one of four publicly-funded school boards operating in Calgary.

In the 2011–2012 school year, 100,632 K-12 students enrolled in 221 schools in the English language public school system run by the Calgary Board of Education.[176] With other students enrolled in the associated CBe-learn and Chinook Learning Service programs, the school system's total enrolment is 104,182 students.[176] Another 43,000 attend about 95 schools in the separate English language Calgary Catholic School District board.[177] The much smaller Francophone community has their own French language school boards (public and Catholic), which are both based in Calgary, but serve a larger regional district. There are also several public charter schools in the city. Calgary has a number of unique schools, including the country's first high school exclusively designed for Olympic-calibre athletes, the National Sport School.[178] Calgary is also home to many private schools including Mountain View Academy, Rundle College, Rundle Academy, Clear Water Academy, Calgary French and International School, Chinook Winds Adventist Academy, Webber Academy, Delta West Academy, Masters Academy, Calgary Islamic School, Menno Simons Christian School, West Island College, Edge School, Calgary Christian School, Heritage Christian Academy, Bearspaw Christian School.

Calgary is also home to what was Western Canada's largest public high school, Lord Beaverbrook High School, with 2,241 students enrolled in the 2005–2006 school year.[179] Currently the student population of Lord Beaverbrook is 1,812 students (September 2012) and several other schools are equally as large; Western Canada High School with 2,035 students (2009) and Sir Winston Churchill High School with 1,983 students (2009).

Post-secondary

UCalgaryTFDL
Taylor Family Digital Library at the University of Calgary. The University is the largest post-secondary institution in the city.

The publicly funded University of Calgary (U of C) is Calgary's largest degree-granting facility with an enrolment of 28,464 students in 2011.[180] Mount Royal University, with 13,000 students, grants degrees in a number of fields. SAIT Polytechnic, with over 14,000 students, provides polytechnic and apprentice education, granting certificates, diplomas and applied degrees. Athabasca University provides distance education programs.

Other publicly funded post-secondary institutions based in Calgary include the Alberta College of Art and Design, Ambrose University College (associated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance and the Church of the Nazarene), Bow Valley College, St. Mary's University and the U of C.[181] The publicly funded Athabasca University, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT), and the University of Lethbridge[181] also have campuses in Calgary.[182][183][184]

Several independent private institutions are located in the city. This includes Reeves College, MaKami College, Robertson College, Columbia College, Alberta Bible College, and CDI College.

Media

Calgary's daily newspapers include the Calgary Herald, Calgary Sun and Metro News.

Calgary is the sixth largest television market in Canada.[185] Broadcasts stations serving Calgary include CICT 2 (Global), CFCN 4 (CTV), CKAL 5 (City), CBRT 9 (CBC), CKCS 32 (YesTV), and CJCO 38 (Omni). Network affiliate programming from the United States originates from Spokane, Washington.

There are a wide range of radio stations, including a station for First Nations and the Asian Canadian community.

Sister cities

The City of Calgary maintains trade development programs, cultural and educational partnerships in twinning agreements with six cities:[186][187]

City Province/State Country Date
Quebec City Quebec Canada 1956
Jaipur Rajasthan India 1973
Naucalpan Mexico State Mexico 1994
Daqing Heilongjiang China 1985
Daejeon Chungnam South Korea 1996
Phoenix[188] Arizona US 1997

Calgary is one of nine Canadian cities, out of the total of 98 cities internationally, that is in the New York City Global Partners, Inc. organization,[189] which was formed in 2006 from the former Sister City program of the City of New York, Inc.[190]

See also

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Further reading

External links

1988 Winter Olympics

The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a Winter Olympics multi-sport event celebrated in and around Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between February 13 and 28, 1988 and were the first Winter Olympics to be held over a whole two week period. The host city was selected in 1981 over Falun, Sweden, and Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. Most events took place in Calgary while several skiing events were held in the mountain resorts of Nakiska and Canmore, west of the city.

A then-record 57 nations competed and 1,423 athletes participated. As it had in Montreal in 1976, Canada again failed to win a gold medal in an official medal event as the host nation. Finnish ski jumper Matti Nykänen and Dutch speed skater Yvonne van Gennip were individual medal leaders with each winning three gold medals. The games are also remembered for the "heroic failure" of British ski jumper Eddie "The Eagle" Edwards, and the Winter Olympic début of the Jamaica national bobsled team, both of which would be subjects of major feature films about their participation in the games.

The Calgary games were at the time one of the most expensive Olympics ever held, but the organizing committee turned record television and sponsorship revenue into a net surplus that was used to maintain the facilities built for the Olympics and develop the Calgary region into the heart of Canada's elite winter sports program. The five purpose-built venues continue to be used in their original functions, and have helped the country develop into one of the top nations in Winter Olympic competition; Canada more than quintupled the five medals it won in Calgary at the 2010 games, the next Winter Olympics hosted on Canadian soil in Vancouver. Calgary is the largest city to host the Winter Olympics; however, the census metropolitan area of Greater Vancouver could also be considered the largest metropolitan area to host the Winter Olympics. Nonetheless, this title will soon to be turned over to Beijing in 2022.

Airdrie, Alberta

Airdrie is a city in Alberta, Canada within the Calgary Region. It is located north of Calgary within the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor at the intersection of Queen Elizabeth II Highway (Highway 2) and Highway 567.

The City of Airdrie is part of the Calgary census metropolitan area and a member community of the Calgary Metropolitan Region Board (CMRB). The city is surrounded by Rocky View County.

Alberta

Alberta ( (listen)) is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces. Its area is about 660,000 square kilometres (250,000 sq mi). Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. The premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015.

Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U.S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year; but seasonal temperature average swings are smaller than in areas further east, due to winters being warmed by occasional chinook winds bringing sudden warming.Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.About 290 km (180 mi) south of the capital is Calgary, the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations.Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Canmore, Drumheller, Jasper, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise.

Calgary Flames

The Calgary Flames are a professional ice hockey team based in Calgary, Alberta. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). The club is the third major-professional ice hockey team to represent the city of Calgary, following the Calgary Tigers (1921–1927) and Calgary Cowboys (1975–1977). The Flames are one of two NHL franchises in Alberta; the other is the Edmonton Oilers. The cities' proximity has led to a rivalry known as the "Battle of Alberta".

The team was founded in 1972 in Atlanta as the Atlanta Flames until relocating to Calgary in 1980. The Flames played their first three seasons in Calgary at the Stampede Corral before moving into their current home arena, the Scotiabank Saddledome (originally known as the Olympic Saddledome), in 1983. In 1985–86, the Flames became the first Calgary team since the 1923–24 Tigers to compete for the Stanley Cup. In 1988–89, the Flames won their first and only championship. The Flames' unexpected run to the 2004 Stanley Cup Finals gave rise to the Red Mile, and in 2011 the team hosted and won the second Heritage Classic outdoor game.

The Flames have won two Presidents' Trophies as the NHL's top regular season team, and have claimed five division championships. Individually, Jarome Iginla is the franchise leader in games played, goals and points and is a two-time winner of the Maurice "Rocket" Richard Trophy as the NHL's leading goal scorer. Miikka Kiprusoff has the most wins by a goaltender in a Calgary Flames uniform. Nine people associated with the Flames have been inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame.

Off the ice, Calgary Sports and Entertainment, which owns the Flames, also own a Western Hockey League franchise (the Calgary Hitmen), a National Lacrosse League franchise (the Calgary Roughnecks) and a Canadian Football League franchise (the Calgary Stampeders). Through the Flames Foundation, the team has donated more than CA$32 million to charity throughout southern Alberta since the franchise arrived.

Calgary Herald

The Calgary Herald is a daily newspaper published in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Publication began in 1883 as The Calgary Herald, Mining and Ranche Advocate and General Advertiser. It is owned by the Postmedia Network.

Calgary Hitmen

The Calgary Hitmen are a major junior ice hockey team based in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The Hitmen play in the Central Division of the Western Hockey League (WHL). They play their home games at the Scotiabank Saddledome. Bret "The Hitman" Hart, a local-born professional wrestler, was a founding owner as well as the inspiration for the team's name. Established in 1994, the team has been owned by the Calgary Flames hockey club since 1997. They are the third WHL team to represent Calgary, preceded by the Centennials and Wranglers.

The Hitmen have finished with the best record in the WHL four times, and qualified for the playoffs for thirteen consecutive seasons between 1998 and 2010. In 1999, they became the first Calgary team to win the President's Cup as league champions, and the first to represent the city in the Memorial Cup since the Calgary Canadians won the national junior title in 1926. The Hitmen hold numerous WHL attendance records, and in 2004–05 became the first team in Canadian Hockey League history to average 10,000 fans per game. Thirty-nine former Hitmen players have gone on to play in the National Hockey League.

Calgary International Airport

Calgary International Airport (IATA: YYC, ICAO: CYYC), branded as YYC Calgary International Airport, is an international airport that serves the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is located approximately 17 km (11 mi) northeast of downtown and covers an area of 21.36 km2 (8.25 sq mi). With 16.27 million passengers and 233,017 aircraft movements in 2017, Calgary International is the busiest airport in Alberta and the fourth-busiest in Canada by both measures. The region's petroleum and tourism industries have helped foster growth at the airport, which has nonstop flights to an array of destinations in North and Central America, Europe, and Asia. YYC Calgary International is also a hub for two major Canadian airlines: Air Canada and WestJet.

Built in the late 1930s, the site has since grown to house four runways, two terminal buildings with 5 concourses for passengers, warehouses for cargo handling, and other infrastructure. The Calgary Airport Authority operates the property while paying rent to the federal government. Close to the airport is the Deerfoot Trail freeway for transport into the city, and public transit also serves the airport.

Calgary Metropolitan Region

The Calgary Metropolitan Region (CMR), also commonly referred to as the Calgary Region, is a conglomeration of municipalities centred on Calgary, the largest city in Alberta.

With the Government of Alberta's establishment of the Calgary Metropolitan Region Board (CMRB) in 2017, the CMR's boundaries were legislated to include the City of Calgary, the Municipal District (MD) of Foothills No. 31 to the south, Rocky View County to the west, north, and east, and a western portion of Wheatland County further to the east. Also within these boundaries are the cities of Airdrie and Chestermere, eight towns (Black Diamond, Cochrane, Crossfield, High River, Irricana, Okotoks, Strathmore, and Turner Valley), two villages (Beiseker and Longview), and two Indian reserves (Tsuu T'ina 145 and Eden Valley 216), though not all are participating members of the CMRB.

The Calgary census metropolitan area (CMA) as delineated by Statistics Canada is smaller than the CMR. The Calgary CMA includes Calgary, Rocky View County, Airdrie, Beiseker, Chestermere, Cochrane, Crossfield, Irricana, and Tsuu T'ina 145.

The Calgary Metropolitan Region is a major transportation hub for southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, eastern British Columbia, and parts of the northern United States. It is home to the Calgary International Airport, the third busiest airport in Canada in terms of total aircraft movements.

Calgary Stampede

The Calgary Stampede is an annual rodeo, exhibition, and festival held every July in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The ten-day event, which bills itself as "The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth", attracts over one million visitors per year and features one of the world's largest rodeos, a parade, midway, stage shows, concerts, agricultural competitions, chuckwagon racing, and First Nations exhibitions. In 2008, the Calgary Stampede was inducted into the ProRodeo Hall of Fame.The event's roots are traced to 1886 when the Calgary and District Agricultural Society held its first fair. In 1912, American promoter Guy Weadick organized his first rodeo and festival, known as the Stampede. He returned to Calgary in 1919 to organize the Victory Stampede in honour of soldiers returning from World War I. Weadick's festival became an annual event in 1923 when it merged with the Calgary Industrial Exhibition to create the Calgary Exhibition and Stampede.

Organized by thousands of volunteers and supported by civic leaders, the Calgary Stampede has grown into one of the world's richest rodeos, one of Canada's largest festivals, and a significant tourist attraction for the city. Rodeo and chuckwagon racing events are televised across Canada. However, both have been the target of increasing international criticism by animal welfare groups and politicians concerned about particular events as well as animal rights organizations seeking to ban rodeo in general.

Calgary's national and international identity is tied to the event. It is known as the "Stampede City", carries the informal nickname of "Cowtown," and the local Canadian Football League team is called the Stampeders. The city takes on a party atmosphere during Stampede: office buildings and storefronts are painted in cowboy themes, residents don western wear, and events held across the city include hundreds of pancake breakfasts and barbecues.

Calgary Stampeders

The Calgary Stampeders are a professional Canadian football team based in Calgary, Alberta, competing in the West Division of the Canadian Football League (CFL). The Stampeders play their home games at McMahon Stadium and are the third-oldest active franchise in the CFL. The Stampeders were officially founded in 1945, although there were clubs in Calgary as early as 1909.The Calgary Stampeders have won eight Grey Cups, most recently in 2018, from their appearances in 17 Grey Cup Championship games. They have won 20 Western Division Championships and one Northern Division Championship in the franchise's history. The team has a provincial rivalry with the Edmonton Eskimos, as well as fierce divisional rivalries with the Saskatchewan Roughriders and the BC Lions.

Dion Phaneuf

Dion Phaneuf (born April 10, 1985) is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman currently playing for the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League (NHL). He has previously played for the Calgary Flames, Toronto Maple Leafs and Ottawa Senators, serving as captain in Toronto and as an alternate captain in both Calgary and Ottawa. He was drafted ninth overall in the 2003 NHL Entry Draft by Calgary and made his NHL debut in 2005 after a four-year junior career with the Red Deer Rebels of the Western Hockey League (WHL), in which he was twice named the Defenceman of the Year.

Phaneuf set a Flames record for most goals by a first-year defenceman and was named a finalist for the Calder Memorial Trophy as top rookie in 2005–06. Two years later, he was a finalist for the James Norris Memorial Trophy as top defenceman, though he did not win either award. Since going pro, Phaneuf has been involved in two blockbuster trades. The first came in late 2009, when he was involved in a seven-player trade that saw him move from Calgary to Toronto. Six years later, Phaneuf was the centrepiece of a nine-player trade that saw him sent to Ottawa. He was traded to Los Angeles nearing the trade deadline in February 2018.

Phaneuf is a three-time NHL All-Star. He has represented Canada internationally five times in his career, winning a silver medal and a gold medal at the World Junior Hockey Championship in 2004 and 2005, respectively, as well as a gold medal at the 2007 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships.

Phaneuf is active in the community; the Flames honoured Phaneuf for his role as an ambassador to the Alberta Children's Hospital, where he participated in events that help sick and injured children during his time in Calgary. Phaneuf was a common sight at Toronto events, often appearing at fundraisers, promotional activities or visiting patients at Sick Kids Hospital.

Labour Day Classic

The Labour Day Classic is a particular week of the Canadian Football League (CFL) schedule that is played over the Labour Day weekend (which includes the first Monday in September). Labour Day weekend, roughly 12 weeks into the CFL season, is known for its matchups that do not change from year to year, unlike other "rivalry" weeks of the CFL schedule. Labour Day weekend is also one of typically two weeks (the Thanksgiving Day Classic being the other) in the CFL schedule that the league plays on a Monday. Mark's is the presenting sponsor of the event as of 2014.

The current weekend matchups involve the Winnipeg Blue Bombers visiting the Saskatchewan Roughriders on the Sunday and on Labour Day itself, the Hamilton Tiger-Cats play at home against the Toronto Argonauts, while the Edmonton Eskimos visit the Calgary Stampeders. The Montreal Alouettes would normally play against the Ottawa Redblacks on the Thursday or Friday, but both teams were given a bye week in 2019. The BC Lions have no geographic rival and typically have a bye on Labour Day, as they do in 2019.

Legislative Assembly of Alberta

The Legislative Assembly of Alberta is one of two components of the Legislature of Alberta, the other being Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, represented by the Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta. The Alberta legislature meets in the Alberta Legislature Building in the provincial capital, Edmonton. The Legislative Assembly consists of 87 members, elected first past the post from single-member electoral districts.The maximum period between general elections of the assembly, as set by the country's Constitution, is five years, but the premier controls the date of election and usually selects a date in the fourth or fifth year after the preceding election. Since 2011, Alberta has fixed election date legislation, fixing the election to a date between March 1 and May 31 in the fourth calendar year following the preceding election. Alberta has never had a minority government, so an election as a result of a vote of no confidence has never occurred.

To be a candidate for election to the assembly, a person must be a Canadian citizen older than 18 who has lived in Alberta for at least six months before the election. Senators, senators in waiting, members of the House of Commons, and criminal inmates are ineligible.The current and 29th Alberta Legislative Assembly was elected on May 5, 2015.

List of the busiest airports in Canada

The following is a list of the busiest airports in Canada. The airports are ranked by passenger traffic and aircraft movements. For each airport, the lists cite the city served by the airport as designated by Transport Canada, not necessarily the municipality where the airport is physically located.

McMahon Stadium

McMahon Stadium is a Canadian football stadium in Calgary, Alberta. The stadium is owned by the University of Calgary and operated by the McMahon Stadium Society.

The stadium is between the downtown core and the University of Calgary, north of 16 Avenue NW between Crowchild Trail and University Drive. It is within walking distance of the Banff Trail C-Train station.

It is the home venue for the University of Calgary Dinos, Calgary Colts of the Canadian Junior Football League, Calgary Gators and Calgary Wolfpack of the Alberta Football League, and the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League, who played at Mewata Stadium from 1935 to 1959. The stadium also was the open-air venue (as an ice rink) for the National Hockey League's 2011 Heritage Classic match between the Calgary Flames and the Montreal Canadiens.

The stadium also was also the location of the 1988 Winter Olympics opening and closing ceremonies, serving as the Olympic Stadium.

Scotiabank Saddledome

Scotiabank Saddledome is a multi-use indoor arena in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Located in Stampede Park in the southeast end of downtown Calgary, the Saddledome was built in 1983 to replace the Stampede Corral as the home of the Calgary Flames of the National Hockey League, and to host ice hockey and figure skating at the 1988 Winter Olympics.

The facility also hosts concerts, conferences and other sporting championships, and events for the Calgary Exhibition and Stampede. It underwent a major renovation in 1994–95 and sold its naming rights, during which its original name of Olympic Saddledome was changed to Canadian Airlines Saddledome. The facility was given the name Pengrowth Saddledome in 2000, after Pengrowth Management Ltd. signed a ten-year agreement. It adopted its current name in October 2010 as Scotiabank signed on as title sponsor.

The Saddledome is owned by the City of Calgary, who leases it to the Saddledome Foundation, a non-profit organization, to oversee its operation. Since 1996, it has been managed by the Flames. The Saddledome was damaged during the 2013 Alberta floods but was repaired and reopened in time for the 2013–14 NHL season.

The arena's roof is shaped like a saddle, thus earning the name "Saddledome".

University of Calgary

The University of Calgary (U of C or UCalgary) is a public research university located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The University of Calgary started in 1944 as the Calgary branch of the University of Alberta, founded in 1908, prior to being instituted into a separate, autonomous university in 1966. It is composed of 14 faculties and over 85 research institutes and centres. The main campus is located in the northwest quadrant of the city near the Bow River and a smaller south campus is located in the city center.

The University of Calgary was ranked No. 1 in both Canada and North America among young universities by the QS World Universities Ranking (Top 50 under 50) and the Times Higher Education Rankings (Top 150 under 50) in 2016. Its enrollment is approximately 25,000 undergraduate and 5,000 graduate students with over 170,000+ alumni in 152 countries, including James Gosling, who invented the Java computer language, former Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, former Canadian astronaut Robert Thirsk, and Lululemon Athletica founder, Chip Wilson.

A member of the U15, the University of Calgary is also one of Canada's top research universities (based on the number of Canada Research Chairs). The university has a sponsored research revenue of $360.5 million, with total revenues exceeding $1.1 billion, which is one of the highest in Canada. Being in Calgary, with Canada's highest concentration of engineers and geoscientists, the university maintains close ties to the petroleum and geoscience industry through the Department of Geosciences and the Schulich School of Engineering while also maintaining a history of environmental research and leadership, primarily through the Faculty of Environmental Design, the School of Public Policy and the Faculty of Law.

The main campus houses most of the research facilities and works with provincial and federal research and regulatory agencies, several of which are housed next to the campus such as the Geological Survey of Canada. The main campus covers approximately 200 hectares (490 acres).

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