Calendar of saints

The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this context does not mean "a large meal, typically a celebratory one", but instead "an annual religious celebration, a day dedicated to a particular saint".[1]

The system arose from the early Christian custom of commemorating each martyr annually on the date of his or her death, or birth into heaven, a date therefore referred to in Latin as the martyr's dies natalis ("day of birth"). In the Eastern Orthodox Church, a calendar of saints is called a Menologion.[2] "Menologion" may also mean a set of icons on which saints are depicted in the order of the dates of their feasts, often made in two panels.

Calendar of saints
A medieval manuscript fragment of Finnish origin, about 1340–1360, utilized by the Dominican convent at Turku

History

P. 13 a calendar of saint days
A Welsh calendar of saint days c. 1488–1498
National Library of Ireland MS G10 p24
Excerpt from the Irish Feastology of Oengus, presenting the entries for 1 and 2 January in the form of quatrains of four six-syllabic lines for each day. In this 16th-century copy (MS G10 at the National Library of Ireland) we find pairs of two six-syllabic lines combined into bold lines, amended by glosses and notes that were added by later authors.

As the number of recognized saints increased during Late Antiquity and the first half of the Middle Ages, eventually every day of the year had at least one saint who was commemorated on that date. To deal with this increase, some saints were moved to alternate days in some traditions or completely removed, with the result that some saints have different feast days in different calendars. For example, St. Perpetua and Felicity died on 7 March, but this date was later assigned to St. Thomas Aquinas, allowing them only a commemoration (see Tridentine Calendar), so in 1908 they were moved one day earlier.[3] When the 1969 reform of the Catholic calendar moved him to 28 January, they were moved back to 7 March (see General Roman Calendar). Both days can thus be said to be their feast day, in different traditions. The Roman Catholic calendars of saints in their various forms, which list those saints celebrated in the entire church, contains only a selection of the saints for each of its days. A fuller list is found in the Roman Martyrology, and some of the saints there may be celebrated locally.

The earliest feast days of saints were those of martyrs, venerated as having shown for Christ the greatest form of love, in accordance with the teaching: "Greater love has no one than this, that someone lay down his life for his friends."[4] Saint Martin of Tours is said to be the first[5][6] or at least one of the first non-martyrs to be venerated as a saint. The title "confessor" was used for such saints, who had confessed their faith in Christ by their lives rather than by their deaths. Martyrs are regarded as dying in the service of the Lord, and confessors are people who died natural deaths. A broader range of titles was used later, such as: Virgin, Pastor, Bishop, Monk, Priest, Founder, Abbot, Apostle, Doctor of the Church.

The Tridentine Missal has common formulæ for Masses of Martyrs, Confessors who were bishops, Doctors of the Church, Confessors who were not Bishops, Abbots, Virgins, Non-Virgins, Dedication of Churches, and Feast Days of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Pope Pius XII added a common formula for Popes. The 1962 Roman Missal of Pope John XXIII omitted the common of Apostles, assigning a proper Mass to every feast day of an Apostle. The present Roman Missal has common formulas for the Dedication of Churches, the Blessed Virgin Mary, Martyrs (with special formulas for missionary martyrs and virgin martyrs), Pastors (subdivided into bishops, generic pastors, founders of churches, and missionaries), Doctors of the Church, Virgins, and (generic) Saints (with special formulas for abbots, monks, nuns, religious, those noted for works of mercy, educators, and [generically] women saints).

This calendar system, when combined with major church festivals and movable and immovable feasts, constructs a very human and personalised yet often localized way of organizing the year and identifying dates. Some Christians continue the tradition of dating by saints' days: their works may appear "dated" as "The Feast of Saint Martin". Poets such as John Keats commemorate the importance of The Eve of Saint Agnes.

As different Christian jurisdictions parted ways theologically, differing lists of saints began to develop. This happened because the same individual may be considered differently by one church; in extreme examples, one church's saint may be another church's heretic, as in the cases of Nestorius, Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria, or Archbishop Flavian of Constantinople.

Ranking of feast days

Feast days are ranked in accordance with their importance. In the current ordinary form of the Roman Rite, feast days are ranked (in descending order of importance) as solemnities, feasts or memorials (obligatory or optional).[7] The 1962 version, whose use is authorized by the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, divides liturgical days into I, II, III, and IV class days, as decreed by Pope John XXIII in 1960. Those who use even earlier forms of the Roman Rite rank feast days as Doubles (of three or four kinds), Semidoubles, and Simples. See Ranking of liturgical days in the Roman Rite.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church the ranking of feasts varies from church to church. In the Russian Orthodox Church they are: Great Feasts, middle, and minor feasts. Each portion of such feasts may also be called feasts as follows: All-Night Vigils, Polyeleos, Great Doxology, Sextuple ("sixfold", having six stichera at Vespers and six troparia at the Canon of Matins). There are also distinctions between Simple feasts and Double (i.e., two simple feasts celebrated together). In Double Feasts the order of hymns and readings for each feast are rigidly instructed in Typikon, the liturgy book.

In the Church of England, there are Principal Feasts and Principal Holy Days, Festivals, Lesser Festivals, and Commemorations.

Connection to tropical cyclones

Before the advent of standardized naming of tropical storms and hurricanes in the North Atlantic basin, tropical storms and hurricanes that affected the island of Puerto Rico were informally named after the Catholic saints corresponding to the feast days when the cyclones either made landfall or started to seriously affect the island. Examples are: the 1780 San Calixto hurricane a.k.a. the Great Hurricane of 1780 (the deadliest in the North Atlantic basin's recorded history; named after Pope Callixtus I a.k.a. Saint Callixtus, whose feast day is October 14),[8] the 1867 San Narciso hurricane (named after Saint Narcissus of Jerusalem, feast day October 29),[8] the 1899 San Ciriaco hurricane (the deadliest in the island's recorded history; Saint Cyriacus, August 8),[8][9] the 1928 San Felipe hurricane (the strongest in terms of measured wind speed; Saint Philip, father of Saint Eugenia of Rome, September 13),[8] and the 1932 San Ciprian hurricane (Saint Cyprian, September 26).[8]

This practice continued until quite some time after the United States Weather Bureau (now called the National Weather Service) started publishing and using official female human names (initially; male names were added starting in 1979 after the NWS relinquished control over naming to the World Meteorological Organization). The last two usages of this informal naming scheme in P.R. were in 1956 (Hurricane Betsy, locally nicknamed Santa Clara after Saint Clare of Assisi, feast day August 12 back then; her feast day was advanced one day in 1970) and 1960 (Hurricane Donna, nicknamed San Lorenzo after Saint Lawrence Justinian, September 5 back then; feast day now observed January 8 by Canons regular of St. Augustine).[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ "feast – definition of feast in English from the Oxford dictionary". oxforddictionaries.com.
  2. ^ "Relics and Reliquaries – Treasures of Heaven". columbia.edu.
  3. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 89
  4. ^ John 15:13
  5. ^ "Commemoration of St. Martin of Tours". All Saints Parish. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02.
  6. ^ "Saint Martin of Tours". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02.
  7. ^ "Saint Charles Borromeo Catholic Church of Picayune, MS – General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar". scborromeo.org.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Mújica-Baker, Frank. Huracanes y tormentas que han afectado a Puerto Rico (PDF) (Report) (in Spanish). Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, Agencia Estatal para el Manejo de Emergencias y Administración de Desastres. pp. 4, 7–10, 12–14. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  9. ^ "San Ciriaco Hurricane". East Carolina University, RENCI Engagement Center.

External links

Calendar of saints (Anglican Church of Australia)

The calendar of the Anglican Church of Australia (as published in A Prayer Book for Australia [1995]) follows Anglican tradition with the addition of significant people and events in the church in Australia.

Principal festivals (principal holy days) may not be displaced. Festivals (holy days), if falling on a Sunday, may be displaced to a following weekday. The celebration of lesser festivals (commemorations) is optional.

Calendar of saints (Anglican Church of Canada)

Prior to the revision of the Anglican Church of Canada's (ACC) Book of Common Prayer (BCP) in 1962, the national church followed the liturgical calendar of the 1918 Canadian Book of Common Prayer. Throughout most of the twentieth century, the situation in Canada resembled that which pertained in much of the Anglican Communion: There was uncertainty as to whether post-Reformation figures (with the exception of the martyred Charles I) could or should be commemorated. In the words of the calendar's introduction, "New names have been added from the ancient calendars, and also from the history of the Anglican Communion, without thereby enrolling or commending such persons as saints of the Church." The 1962 revision added twenty-six post-Reformation individuals, as well as commemorations of the first General Synod and of "The Founders, Benefactors, and Missionaries of the Church in Canada." Of the calendar days, twenty-eight were highlighted as "red-letter days" — that is, days of required observation.

With the publication of the Book of Alternative Services (BAS) in 1985, a revised and expanded calendar was introduced. This was supplemented, in 1994, with the publication of For All The Saints; a book of propers, short biographies and descriptions of the commemorations, and readings by or about the individuals or events commemorated (there were also some very minor changes to the 1985 calendar). As the BAS has largely supplanted the BCP for most Canadian Anglicans, so too has its calendar. Nonetheless, the BCP calendar is still in use and individuals and parishes can legitimately choose to observe it.

The chief difference between the 1962 and 1985 calendars is the elimination of observations for several European figures, in order to include individuals of interest to the Canadian Church, and to the worldwide Anglican Communion. Similar to the Calendar of saints of the Church of England, the Patriarchs of Old are omitted in both the Book of Common Prayer and the newer Book of Alternative Services, for the Anglican Church of Canada.

In the ACC, the calendar is officially referred to as the Canadian Calendar of Holy Persons.

Calendar of saints (Anglican Church of Korea)

This article comprises Calendar of saints of the Anglican Church of Korea.

Calendar of saints (Anglican Church of Southern Africa)

The calendar of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa is published in An Anglican Prayer Book 1989.

Calendar of saints (Armenian Apostolic Church)

This is a calendar of saints list for the Armenian Apostolic Church.

Calendar of saints (Church of England)

The Church of England commemorates many of the same saints as those in the General Roman Calendar, mostly on the same days, but also commemorates various notable (often post-Reformation) Christians who have not been canonised by Rome, with a particular though not exclusive emphasis on those of English origin. There are differences in the calendars of other churches of the Anglican Communion (see Saints in Anglicanism).

The only person canonised in a near-conventional sense by the Church of England since the English Reformation is St Charles the Martyr (King Charles I), although he is not widely recognised by Anglicans as a saint outside the Society of King Charles the Martyr. The Church of England has no mechanism for canonising saints, and unlike the Roman Catholic Church it makes no claims regarding the heavenly status of those whom it commemorates in its calendar. For this reason, the Church of England avoids the use of the prenominal title "Saint" with reference to uncanonised individuals and is restrained in what it says about them in its liturgical texts. In order not to seem to imply grades of sanctity, or to discriminate between holy persons of the pre- and post-Reformation periods, the title "Saint" is not used at all in the calendar, even with reference to those who have always been known by that title, for example the Apostles.

The ninth Lambeth Conference held in 1958 clarified the commemoration of Saints and Heroes of the Christian Church in the Anglican Communion. Resolution 79 stated:

There is no single calendar for the various churches making up the Anglican Communion; each makes its own calendar suitable for its local situation. As a result, the calendar here contains a number of figures important in the history of the English church. Calendars in different provinces will focus on figures more important to those different countries. At the same time, different provinces often borrow important figures from each other's calendars as the international importance of different figures becomes clear. In this way the calendar of the Church of England has importance beyond the immediate purpose of supporting the liturgy of the English Church. It is, for example, one of the key sources of the calendar for the international daily office Oremus.As there is no mention of the Patriarchs of Old on the Current Church of England Calendar, one is left to presume, theologically and liturgically, that the Patriarchs of Old are not included on All Saints' Day, 1 November (as they would be in the General Vatican II Roman Calendar), since according to the Lambeth Conference, 1958, the purpose was to devise a guide for the commemoration of Saints and Heroes applicable to the Christian Church in England.

Holy Days are variously categorised as Principal Feasts, Festivals, Lesser Festivals, or Commemorations. In order to minimise problems caused by the ambivalence regarding the manner of commemoration of uncanonised persons, all such days are Lesser Festivals or Commemorations only, whose observance is optional.

The following table lists the Holy Days in the calendar of Common Worship, the calendar most generally followed in the Church of England (though the calendar of the Book of Common Prayer is still authorised for use). This calendar was finalised in 2000, with some further names added in 2010. The table includes the feast date, the name of the person or persons being commemorated, their title, the nature and location of their ministry or other relevant facts, and year of death, all in the form in which they are set out in the authorised Common Worship calendar. The typography shows the level of the observance: BOLD CAPITALS denote Principal Feasts and Principal Holy Days, bold denotes Festivals, roman denotes Lesser Festivals, and italics denote Commemorations. SMALL CAPITALS denote observances that are unclassified.

Calendar of saints (Church of the Province of Melanesia)

The calendar of saints and commemorations in the Church of the Province of Melanesia (the Anglican Church in the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu) is a continually developing list. Both old and new, universal and local saints and worthies are celebrated.

Calendar of saints (Episcopal Anglican Church of Brazil)

The calendar of saints of the Episcopal Anglican Church of Brazil (Igreja Episcopal Anglicana do Brasil – IEAB) follows the tradition of The Episcopal Church (TEC), from whom it was a missionary district until 1965. TEC's calendar of saints, in turn, has its origins in the calendar of the Church of England and in the General Roman Calendar. As such, IEAB commemorates many of the figures present in the Roman Calendar, most of them on the same dates, but it also commemorates various notable Post-Reformation uncanonized Christians, especially those of Brazilian origin.

The only person canonized in a traditional sense since the English Reformation was Charles I in 1660 (commemorated on 30 January), although he is not widely venerated as a saint by most Anglicans. The Anglican Communion has no mechanism for canonizing saints, and unlike the Catholic Church it makes no claims regarding the heavenly status of those commemorated in its calendars. For this reason, IEAB avoides the use of the prenominal title "saint" with reference to uncanonized figures. In order not to imply degrees of sanctity or to discriminate between canonized and uncanonized persons, the title "saint" is not used at all in IEAB's calendar, even with reference to those who are generally known by that title, such as the Apostles or the early Christian saints.

There is no single, unified calendar for the various provinces of the Anglican Communion; each makes its own calendar suitable for its local situation. As a result, the following calendar contains some important figures in the history of Brazil, such as Black warrior Zumbi dos Palmares, Native warrior Sepé Tiaraju, and environmentalist Chico Mendes. At the same time, there are figures from other provinces as well as post-Reformation Catholics, such as nun Dulce Pontes. The most recent edition of the calendar, elaborated by IEAB's Liturgical Commission for the liturgical year which has started on Advent Sunday (30 November 2014), tried to balance the number of male and female figures. The holy days are divided in principal feasts, festivals and lesser festivals. To settle any doubts regarding the sanctity of post-Reformed, uncanonized figures, all of them are commemorated in lesser Festivals, whose celebration is optional. The typography shows the level of the observance: BOLD CAPITALS denote principal feasts, Bold denotes festivals, and roman denotes lesser festivals.

Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church)

The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important and influential people of the Christian faith. The usage of the term "saint" is similar to Roman Catholic and Orthodox traditions. Those in high church or Anglo-Catholic traditions may explicitly invoke saints as intercessors in prayer, though saints are mainly recognized in the Episcopal Church as merely examples in history of good Christian people.

This is the calendar of saints found in the Book of Common Prayer, Lesser Feasts and Fasts and additions made at recent General Conventions; the relevant official resources of the Episcopal Church.

Calendar of saints (Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui)

This is a list of the Calendar of saints of the Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui, also known as the Hong Kong Anglican Church (Episcopal), the Anglican Church in Hong Kong and Macau.

Calendar of saints (Lutheran)

The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which specifies the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by some Lutheran Churches in the United States. The calendars of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS) are from the 1978 Lutheran Book of Worship and the 1982 Lutheran Worship. Elements unique to the ELCA have been updated from the Lutheran Book of Worship to reflect changes resulting from the publication of Evangelical Lutheran Worship in 2006. The elements of the calendar unique to the LCMS have also been updated from Lutheran Worship and the Lutheran Book of Worship to reflect the 2006 publication of the Lutheran Service Book.

The event commemorated is listed with the type of event afterwards in parentheses as well as the country where it is observed (if not commonly observed on that date in North America). For individuals, the date given is the date of their death or "heavenly birthday." The single letter listed after each event is the designated color for vestments and paraments: White (W), Red (R) or Purple (P). Commemorations are noted as being specific to the ELCA or LCMS following the particular entry. Commemorations and Festivals that are held in common are not annotated.

For further information on the development of the calendar, see Liturgical calendar (Lutheran).

Calendar of saints (Scottish Episcopal Church)

In the Calendar of the Scottish Episcopal Church, each holy and saint’s day listed has been assigned a number which indicates its category. It is intended that feasts in categories 1 - 4 should be kept by the whole church. Days in categories 5 and 6 may be kept according to diocesan or local discretion. Commemorations not included in this Calendar may be observed with the approval of the bishop.

General Roman Calendar

For historical forms of the General Roman Calendar, see Tridentine Calendar, General Roman Calendar of 1954, General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII, General Roman Calendar of 1960, and General Roman Calendar of 1969.The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical calendar that indicates the dates of celebrations of saints and mysteries of the Lord (Jesus Christ) in the Roman Rite, wherever this liturgical rite is in use. These celebrations are a fixed annual date; or occur on a particular day of the week (examples are the Baptism of the Lord in January and the Feast of Christ the King in November); or relate to the date of Easter (examples are the celebrations of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary). National and diocesan liturgical calendars, including that of the diocese of Rome itself as well as the calendars of religious institutes and even of continents, add other saints and mysteries or transfer the celebration of a particular saint or mystery from the date assigned in the General Calendar to another date.

These liturgical calendars also indicate the degree or rank of each celebration: Memorial (which can be merely optional), Feast, or Solemnity. Among other differences, the Gloria is said or sung at the Mass of a Feast but not at that of a Memorial, and the Creed is added on Solemnities.

The last general revision of the General Roman Calendar was in 1969 and was authorized by the motu proprio Mysterii Paschalis of Pope Paul VI. The motu proprio and the decree of promulgation were included in the book Calendarium Romanum, published in the same year by Libreria Editrice Vaticana. This contained also the official document Universal Norms on the Liturgical Year and the Calendar, and the list of celebrations of the General Roman Calendar. Both these documents are also printed (in their present revised form) in the Roman Missal, after the General Instruction of the Roman Missal. The 1969 book also provided a detailed unofficial commentary on that year's revision of the calendar.

The contents of the General Roman Calendar and the names in English of the celebrations included in it are here indicated in the official English version of the Roman Missal.

Kilmoganny

Kilmoganny (officially Kilmaganny; Irish: Cill Mogeanna, meaning "Church of Saint Mogeanna") is a small village in the County Kilkenny in the south-east of Ireland. Saint Mogeanna was an Irish virgin whose feast day in the Irish Calendar of Saints is 29 January.It is home to a Primary School, Post office, Pub, 2 churches and a GAA field.

Kilmoganny is in the Diocese of Ossory, in the civil parish of Kilmaganny. St. Eoghan's Catholic church is in the parish of Dunnamaggin. St. Matthew's Church of Ireland church is in Kells parish.Kilmoganny has a population of approx 240.

List of Anglican Church calendars

The Church of England uses a liturgical year that is in most respects identical to that of the Roman Catholic Church. While this is less true of the calendars contained within the Book of Common Prayer and the Alternative Service Book (1980), it is particularly true since the Anglican Church adopted its new pattern of services and liturgies contained within Common Worship, in 2000. Certainly, the broad division of the year into the Christmas and Easter seasons, interspersed with periods of Ordinary Time, is identical, and the majority of the Festivals and Commemorations are also celebrated, with some exceptions.

In some Anglican traditions (including the Church of England), the Christmas season is followed by an Epiphany season, which begins on the Eve of the Epiphany (on 6 January or the nearest Sunday) and ends on the Feast of the Presentation (on 2 February or the nearest Sunday). Ordinary Time then begins after this period.

The Book of Common Prayer contains within it the traditional Western Eucharistic lectionary which traces its roots to the Comes of St Jerome in the 5th century. Its similarity to the ancient lectionary is particularly obvious during Trinity season (Sundays after the Sunday after Pentecost), reflecting that understanding of sanctification.

Name day

A name day is a tradition in some countries in Europe, Latin America, and Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries in general. It consists of celebrating a day of the year that is associated with one's given name. The celebration is similar to a birthday.

The custom originated with the Christian calendar of saints: believers named after a saint would celebrate that saint's feast day, or in the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the day of a saint's death. Name days have greater resonance in the Catholic and Orthodox parts of Europe; Protestant churches practice less veneration of saints. In many countries, however, name-day celebrations no longer have connection to explicitly Christian traditions.

Pope Athanasius II of Alexandria

Pope Athanasius II of Alexandria, 28th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

When Pope Peter III of Alexandria died, the bishops, elders and people agreed to ordain Athanasius Patriarch. He retained the post until his death three years and nine months later.

He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Coptic Church on the 20th day of Thout, the day of his death.

Pope Macarius II of Alexandria

Pope Macarius II of Alexandria, the 69th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Coptic Church on 4 Thout. Pope Macarius II was pious and ascetic since his young age, and longed for the monastic life. He went to the desert of Scetes and became a monk in the Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great. He devoted himself to worship and spiritual struggle. He instructed himself by reading the Holy Scriptures, their interpretation and by contemplating on its meaning. He grew in virtues and was ordained a priest. When Pope Michael IV, the sixty-eighth pope, departed and the papal throne became vacant, a group of bishops and priests went to the wilderness of Scetes. They assembled in the church with the elders of Scetes. They remained there for many days, searching and scouting for who would be best for this position. Finally they unanimously agreed to choose this father for what was known of his good character and excellent attributes. They took him and bound him against his will, and he cried out and begged them with excuses to release him saying, "I am not fit to be raised to the dignity of the Papacy." They brought him bound to the city of Alexandria and ordained him Patriarch. The deed of his appointment was read in The Church of the Holy Virgin in the Greek, Coptic, and Arabic languages. During his papacy, he added to his worship and piety. He taught and preached the people daily. He gave alms and did works of mercy to the poor and needy. During his papacy he never asked for any of the Church's money, but rather, he used to give a large portion of the contributions which he received to be spent on different righteous deeds. He completed 27 years in the papacy and departed in peace.

Pope Matthew II of Alexandria

Pope Matthew (Matthias) the Second was the 90th Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark. He became a monk in El-Muharraq Monastery and later was Coptic Pope for thirteen years. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Coptic Church on the 13th day of Thout.

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