Caledonians

The Caledonians (/ˌkælɪˈdoʊniənz/; Latin: Caledones or Caledonii; Greek: Καληδῶνες, Kalēdōnes) or the Caledonian Confederacy were a Brittonic-speaking (Celtic) tribal confederacy in what is now Scotland during the Iron Age and Roman eras. The Greek form of the tribal name gave rise to the name Caledonia for their territory. The Caledonians were considered to be a group of Britons,[1] but later, after the Roman conquest of the southern half of Britain, the northern inhabitants were distinguished as Picts, thought to be a related people who would have also spoken a Brittonic language. The Caledonian Britons were thus enemies of the Roman Empire, which was the occupying force then administering most of Great Britain as the Roman province of Britannia.

The Caledonians, like many Celtic tribes in Britain, were hillfort builders and farmers who defeated and were defeated by the Romans on several occasions. The Romans never fully occupied Caledonia, though several attempts were made. Nearly all of the information available about the Caledonians is based on predominately Roman sources, which may suggest bias.

Peter Salway assumes that the Caledonians would have been Pictish tribes speaking a language closely related to Common Brittonic, or a branch of it[2] augmented by fugitive Brythonic resistance fighters fleeing from Britannia. The Caledonian tribe, after which the historical Caledonian Confederacy is named, may have been joined in conflict with Rome by tribes in northern central Scotland by this time, such as the Vacomagi, Taexali and Venicones recorded by Ptolemy. The Romans reached an accommodation with Brythonic tribes such as the Votadini as effective buffer states.

Britain.north.peoples.Ptolemy
Peoples of Northern Britain according to Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography

Etymology

According to German linguist Stefan Zimmer, Caledonia is derived from the tribal name Caledones (a Latinization of a Brittonic nominative plural n-stem Calīdones), which he etymologises as "possessing hard feet" ("alluding to standfastness or endurance", from the Proto-Celtic roots *kal- "hard" and *φēdo- "foot").[3] The singular form of the ethnic name is attested as Caledo (a Latinization of the Brittonic nominative singular n-stem *Calidū) on a Romano-British inscription from Colchester.[4]

History

In AD 83 or 84, led by Calgacus, the Caledonians' defeat at the hands of Gnaeus Julius Agricola at Mons Graupius is recorded by Tacitus. Tacitus avoids using terms such as king to describe Calgacus and it is uncertain as to whether the Caledonians had single leaders or whether they were more disparate and that Calgacus was an elected war leader only. Tacitus records the physical characteristics of the Caledonians as red hair and long limbs.

In AD 180 they took part in an invasion of Britannia, breached Hadrian's Wall and were not brought under control for several years, eventually signing peace treaties with the governor Ulpius Marcellus. This suggests that they were capable of making formal agreements in unison despite supposedly having many different chieftains. However, Roman historians used the word "Caledonius" not only to refer to the Caledones themselves, but also to any of the other tribes (both Pictish or Brythonic) living north of Hadrian's Wall, and it is uncertain whether these later were limited to individual groups or wider unions of tribes.

In 197 AD Dio Cassius records that the Caledonians aided in a further attack on the Roman frontier being led by the Maeatae and the Brigantes and probably inspired by the removal of garrisons on Hadrian's Wall by Clodius Albinus. He says the Caledonians broke the treaties they had made with Marcellus a few years earlier (Dio lxxvii, 12).

The governor who arrived to oversee the regaining of control over Britannia after Albinus' defeat, Virius Lupus, was obliged to buy peace from the Maeatae rather than fight them.

The Caledonians are next mentioned in 209, when they are said to have surrendered to the emperor Septimius Severus after he personally led a military expedition north of Hadrian's Wall, in search of a glorious military victory. Herodian and Dio wrote only in passing of the campaign but describe the Caledonians ceding territory to Rome as being the result. Cassius Dio records that the Caledonians inflicted 50,000 Roman casualties due to attrition and unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare. Dr. Colin Martin has suggested that the Severan campaigns did not seek a battle but instead sought to destroy the fertile agricultural land of eastern Scotland and thereby bring about genocide of the Caledonians through starvation.[5]

By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. A punitive expedition led by Severus' son, Caracalla, was sent out with the purpose of slaughtering everyone it encountered from any of the northern tribes. Severus meanwhile prepared for total conquest but was already ill; he died at Eboracum (modern day York) in Britannia in 211. Caracalla attempted to take over command but when his troops refused to recognise him as emperor, he made peace with the Caledonians and retreated south of Hadrian's Wall to press his claim for the imperial title. Sheppard Frere suggests that Caracalla briefly continued the campaign after his father's death rather than immediately leaving, citing an apparent delay in his arrival in Rome and indirect numismatic and epigraphic factors that suggest he may instead have fully concluded the war but that Dio's hostility towards his subject led him to record the campaign as ending in a truce. Malcolm Todd however considers there to be no evidence to support this. Nonetheless the Caledonians did retake their territory and pushed the Romans back to Hadrian's Wall.

In any event, there is no further historical mention of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew (or grandson) of "Uepogenus, [a] Caledonian".[6] This may be because Severus' campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, however this is highly unlikely. In 305, Constantius Chlorus re-invaded the northern lands of Britain although the sources are vague over their claims of penetration into the far north and a great victory over the "Caledones and others" (Panegyrici Latini Vetares, VI (VII) vii 2). The event is notable in that it includes the first recorded use of the term 'Pict' to describe the tribes of the area.

Physical appearance

Tacitus in his Agricola, chapter XI (c. 98 AD) described the Caledonians as red haired and large limbed, which he considered features of Germanic origin: “The reddish (rutilae) hair and large limbs of the Caledonians proclaim a German origin”. Jordanes in his Getica wrote something similar:

...The inhabitants of Caledonia have reddish hair and large loose-jointed bodies.[7]

Eumenius, the panegyrist of Constantine Chlorus, wrote that both the Picts and Caledonians were red haired (rutilantia).[8] Scholars such as William Forbes Skene noted that this description matches Tacitus' description of the Caledonians as red haired in his Agricola.[9]

Archaeology

There is little direct evidence of a Caledonian archaeological culture but it is possible to describe the settlements in their territory during their existence.

The hillforts that stretched from the North York Moors to the Scottish Highlands are evidence of a distinctive character emerging in northern Great Britain from the Middle Iron Age onwards. They were much smaller than the hillforts further south, often less than 10,000 square metres in area (one hectare, about 2.47 acres), and there is no evidence that they were extensively occupied or defended by the Caledonians, who appear to generally have had a dispersed settlement pattern.

By the time of the Roman invasion there had been a move towards less heavily fortified but better sheltered farmsteads surrounded by earthwork enclosures. Individual family groups likely inhabited these new fortified farmsteads, linked together with their neighbours through intermarriage.

The reason for this change from hilltop fortresses to farms amongst the Caledonians and their neighbours is unknown. Barry Cunliffe considers that the importance of demonstrating an impressive residence became less significant by the second century because of falling competition for resources due to advances in food production or a population decline. Alternatively, finds of Roman material may mean that social display became more of a matter of personal adornment with imported exotica rather than building an impressive dwelling.

See also

References

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Romana. University of Chicago. accessed March 1, 2007
  2. ^ Watson 1926; Jackson 1955; Koch 1983; Smyth 1984; Forsyth 1997; Price 2000; Forsyth 2006; Woolf 2007; Fraser 2009
  3. ^ Zimmer, Stefan, "Some Names and Epithets in Culhwch ac Olwen", in: Studi Celtici 3, 2004 [recte 2006], p. 163-179.
  4. ^ Koch, John T. (ed.). Celtic Culture: an hystorical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2006, pp. 332-333.
  5. ^ "British Archaeology, no 6, July 1995: Features". Archived from the original on 2006-01-15. Retrieved 2005-12-11.
  6. ^ medievalscotland.org
  7. ^ http://www.harbornet.com/folks/theedrich/Goths/Goths1.htm#II
  8. ^ The early chronicles relating to Scotland being the Rhind lectures in archaeology for 1912 in connection with the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, published 1912 by J. Maclehose in Glasgow, p. 7.
  9. ^ Celtic Scotland: A History of Ancient Alban, William Forbes Skene, Forgotten Books, p. 94, footnote.

Bibliography

  • Cunliffe, B, Iron Age Britain, Batsford, London, 2004, ISBN 0-7134-8839-5
  • Frere, S, Britannia, Routledge, London, 1987, ISBN 0-7102-1215-1
  • Moffat, Alistair (2005) Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History. London. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05133-X
  • Salway, P, Roman Britain, OUP, Oxford, 1986
  • Todd, M, Roman Britain, Fontana, London, 1985. ISBN 0-00-686064-8

External links

1891 Argentine Primera División

The 1891 Primera División was the first ever Argentine championship making Argentina's the oldest football league outside Continental Europe. This tournament was organized by the Argentine Association Football League which president was F.L. Wooley. This league only lasted one season, so in 1892 no championship was held. In 1893 other Association with the same name would be established by Alexander Watson Hutton becoming current Argentine Football Association.The championship took the format of a league of 5 teams, with each team playing the other twice. Many of the results of individual games have been lost, hence the lack of goals for and against in the table below. Hurlingham registered in the tournament but did not take part of the same.At the end of the season, St. Andrew's and Old Caledonians finished at the top position with 13 points each. They were declared joint champions, but played a playoff match to decide which team got to keep the medals, being St. Andrew's the winner.

The current Association has not included this title in their documents, except in its web page where only St. Andrew's is listed as champion.

1905–06 Isthmian League

The 1905–06 season was the first in the history of the Isthmian League, an English football competition.

London Caledonians emerged as champions.

1907–08 Isthmian League

The 1907–08 season was the third in the history of the Isthmian League, an English football competition.

At the end of the previous season Casuals, Civil Service and Ealing Association resigned from the league. Dulwich Hamlet, Oxford City and West Norwood joined the league. London Caledonians won the title for a second time in three years.

1911–12 Isthmian League

The 1911–12 season was the seventh in the history of the Isthmian League, an English football competition.

Tunbridge Wells and Woking joined the league this season. London Caledonians were champions, winning their third Isthmian League title.

1912–13 Isthmian League

The 1912–13 season was the eighth in the history of the Isthmian League, an English football competition.

London Caledonians were champions, winning their fourth Isthmian League title. At the end of the season Tunbridge Wells resigned from the league and joined the Spartan League.

1913–14 Isthmian League

The 1913–14 season was the ninth in the history of the Isthmian League, an English football competition.

New Crusaders were newly admitted to what would be their only season in the Isthmian League. London Caledonians were champions, winning their fifth Isthmian League title.

It was the last season before the league was suspended for the First World War. Shepherd's Bush never returned to the league after the war, while four other clubs missed short 1919 season.

1924–25 Isthmian League

The 1924–25 season was the 16th in the history of the Isthmian League, an English football competition.

London Caledonians were champions, winning their sixth Isthmian League title.

2000–01 Glasgow Warriors season

The 2000–01 season is the fifth in the history of the Glasgow Warriors as a professional side. During this season the young professional side competed as Glasgow Caledonians; the last time they would use that name.

The 2000–01 season saw Glasgow Caledonians compete in the competitions: the Welsh-Scottish League and the European Champions Cup, the Heineken Cup for sponsorship reasons.

Antonine Wall

The Antonine Wall, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. Representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire, it spanned approximately 63 kilometres (39 miles) and was about 3 metres (10 feet) high and 5 metres (16 feet) wide. Lidar scans have been carried out to establish the length of the wall and the Roman distance units used. Security was bolstered by a deep ditch on the northern side. It is thought that there was a wooden palisade on top of the turf. The barrier was the second of two "great walls" created by the Romans in what the English once called Northern Britain. Its ruins are less evident than the better-known Hadrian's Wall to the south, primarily because the turf and wood wall has largely weathered away, unlike its stone-built southern predecessor.

Construction began in AD 142 at the order of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, and took about 12 years to complete. Antoninus Pius never visited Britain, whereas his predecessor Hadrian did. Pressure from the Caledonians may have led Antoninus to send the empire's troops further north. The Antonine Wall was protected by 16 forts with small fortlets between them; troop movement was facilitated by a road linking all the sites known as the Military Way. The soldiers who built the wall commemorated the construction and their struggles with the Caledonians in decorative slabs, twenty of which survive. The wall was abandoned only eight years after completion, and the garrisons relocated back to Hadrian's Wall. In 208 Emperor Septimius Severus re-established legions at the wall and ordered repairs; this has led to the wall being referred to as the Severan Wall. The occupation ended a few years later, and the wall was never fortified again. Most of the wall and its associated fortifications have been destroyed over time, but some remains are visible. Many of these have come under the care of Historic Scotland and the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.

Bassendean Caledonians SFC

Bassendean Caledonian Soccer Football Club is an association football team based in Bassendean, Western Australia.

Frank Scott-Walford

Frank Scott-Walford (c. 1866 – 27 June 1935) was an English football player and manager, best known for managing Brighton & Hove Albion, Leeds City and Coventry City.

Islam in New Caledonia

Islam in New Caledonia is a minority faith, consisting of 2.6% of population or 6,357 people. The community is largely ethnic Javanese, and primarily speaks French, and Arabic or Indonesian, causing a linguistic gap between them and neighbouring Anglophone Muslim communities in Australia and Fiji. There is an Islamic centre in Nouméa, and another in Bourail catering to Algerian-Caledonians.

Japanese settlement in New Caledonia

Japanese settlement in New Caledonia dates back to the 19th century when male indentured labourers were brought to the island and worked in the nickel mines. Some of whom settled down in New Caledonia, and often intermarried with women of other ethnicites. After the Second World War, most of the island's Japanese were repatriated back to Japan, although a small minority remained behind.

London Caledonians F.C.

London Caledonians F.C. was an amateur football club based in London, primarily for Scottish players. They were founder members of the Isthmian League, which they won in its inaugural season. They remained in the league until 1939 when the club folded.

London Senior Cup

The London Senior Cup is the County Senior Cup of the London FA. The London Senior Cup was first won by Upton Park in 1882. Although the leading professional sides in London no longer compete, the Cup has been won in the past by the likes of Arsenal (as Royal Arsenal in 1891), Brentford, Wimbledon and Barnet. The current champions are Welling United.

Middlesex Senior Cup

The Middlesex Senior Cup is the most prestigious football cup competition in the historic county of Middlesex, England. The competition is run mainly for non-League clubs in the region, although league sides have been known to enter the competition, such as Brentford, Barnet and Chelsea. In order to be eligible to play in the Middlesex Senior Cup, clubs have to play at step 5 or above of the National League System.

New Caledonia

New Caledonia (; French: Nouvelle-Calédonie) is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, located to the south of Vanuatu, about 1,210 km (750 mi) east of Australia and 20,000 km (12,000 mi) from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, and a few remote islets. The Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou ("the pebble").New Caledonia has a land area of 18,576 km2 (7,172 sq mi). Its population of 268,767 (August 2014 census) consists of a mix of Kanak people (the original inhabitants of New Caledonia), people of European descent (Caldoches and Metropolitan French), Polynesian people (mostly Wallisians), and Southeast Asian people, as well as a few people of Pied-Noir and North African descent. The capital of the territory is Nouméa.

Tasmanian association football cup competitions

The Football Federation of Tasmania organises several annual Tasmanian association football (soccer) cups and tournaments alongside the regular league competitions that they also run. The first cup competition in Tasmania was the Falkinder Cup, which began in 1913. For nearly 60 years it was the state's premier football cup tournament, but was eclipsed by the Statewide Cup, and the pre-season Summer Cup. Various Cups and trophies have come and gone, and currently the main non-league tournaments in Tasmania are the Statewide Cup (currently known as the Milan Lakoseljac Cup), and the three pre-season tournaments, the Summer Cup (south), the North West Summer Cup (North West), and the Steve Hudson Cup.

Tasmanian soccer championship

The Tasmanian soccer championship describes the method of determining the best soccer club in Tasmania, Australia. The championship has been decided using three different formats; a statewide league, a playoff between Northern and Southern league Champions and lastly a statewide finals system with top teams from Northern and Southern leagues.

By location
Architecture
Artefacts
Economy
Tribes
Warfare
Timeline

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.