Caledonia (/ˌkælɪˈdoʊniə/) is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire, roughly corresponding to modern-day Scotland. The etymology of the name is probably from a P-Celtic source. Its modern usage is as a romantic or poetic name for Scotland as a whole, comparable with Hibernia for Ireland and Cambria for Wales.
The original use of the name, by Tacitus, Ptolemy, Lucan and Pliny the Elder, referred to the area later known as Pictavia or Pictland, mostly in what is now Scotland, to the north of Hadrian's Wall (though the wall is all in today's Northern England). The name may be related to that of a large central Pictish tribe, the Caledonii, one amongst several in the area and perhaps the dominant tribe, which would explain the binomial Caledonia/Caledonii.
The name of the Caledonians may be found in toponymy, such as Dùn Chailleann, the Scottish Gaelic word for the town of Dunkeld meaning "fort of the Caledonii", and possibly in that of the mountain Sìdh Chailleann, the "fairy hill of the Caledonians". According to Historia Brittonum the site of the seventh battle of the mythical Arthur was a forest in what is now Scotland, called Coit Celidon in early Welsh.
According to Zimmer (2006), Caledonia is derived from the tribal name Caledones (or Calīdones), which he etymologises as "'possessing hard feet', alluding to standfastness or endurance", from the Proto-Celtic roots *kal- "hard" and *φēdo- "foot". Similarly, Moffat (2005) suggests the name is related to the Welsh word caled, "hard", which could refer to the rocky land or the hardiness of the people. Keay and Keay (1994) state that the word is "apparently pre-Celtic".
The exact location of what the Romans called Caledonia in the early stages of Britannia is uncertain, and the boundaries are unlikely to have been fixed until the building of Hadrian's Wall. From then onwards, Caledonia stood to the north of the wall, and to the south was the Roman province of Britannia (consisting of most of what is now England and Wales).[note 1] During the brief Roman military incursions into central and northern Scotland,[note 2] the Scottish Lowlands were indeed absorbed into the province of Britannia, and the name was also used by the Romans, prior to their conquest of the southern and central parts of the island, to refer to the whole island of Great Britain.
Once the Romans had built a second wall further to the north (the Antonine Wall) and their garrisons advanced north likewise, the developing Roman-Britons south of the wall had trade relations with the Picts north of the wall, as testified by archaeological evidence, much of it available at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.
The name has been widely used by organisations and commercial entities. Notable examples include Glasgow Caledonian University, ferry operator Caledonian MacBrayne, and the now-defunct British Caledonian airline and Caledonian Railway. The Caledonian Sleeper is an overnight train service from London to Scottish destinations. The Inverness Caledonian Thistle F.C. is a professional football club. In music, "Caledonia" is a popular folk ballad written by Dougie MacLean in 1977 and published in 1979 on an album of the same name; it has since been covered by various other artists, most notably Frankie Miller. The web series Caledonia and associated novel is a supernatural police drama that takes place in Glasgow, Scotland.
Some scholars point out that the name "Scotland" is ultimately derived from Scotia, a Latin term first used for Ireland (also called Hibernia by the Romans) and later for Scotland, the Scoti peoples having originated in Ireland and resettled in Scotland.[note 4] Another, post-conquest, Roman name for the island of Great Britain was Albion, which is cognate with the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland: Alba.
Société Aircalin, also known as Air Calédonie International, is a French airline and is the international airline of New Caledonia. It also operates domestic services in Wallis and Futuna. Including Wallis and Futuna, it operates scheduled services to twelve destinations in Oceania and Asia, including Japan. Its main base is La Tontouta International Airport. It is headquartered in Nouméa.Caledonia, Wisconsin
Caledonia is a village in Racine County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 24,705 at the 2010 census. The residential community of Franksville is located within the village. Franksville was a former census-designated place. The residential neighborhood of Husher is also located within the village.Caledonia County, Vermont
Caledonia County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Vermont. As of the 2010 census, the population was 31,227. Its shire town (county seat) is the municipality of St. Johnsbury. The county was created in 1792 and organized in 1796. It was given the Latin name for Scotland, in honor of the many settlers who claimed ancestry there.Congress of New Caledonia
The Congress of New Caledonia (French: Congrès de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), a "territorial congress" (congrès territorial or congrès du territoire), is the legislature of New Caledonia. It has 54 members who serve five-year terms, selected proportionally based on the partisan makeup of all three assemblies of the provinces of New Caledonia with a 5% threshold.Football at the Pacific Games
Football has been a regular event at the Pacific Games, the multi-sports event for Pacific nations, territories and dependencies, since 1963. Until 2011 the competition was known as the South Pacific Games.Since 1971 the men's tournament has been held every four years, but was not played in 1999 due to contractual issues. In 2007, the men's competition doubled as the Oceania Football Confederation's preliminary qualifying competition for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The men's tournament also became the Olympic qualifier for Oceania for the 2015 edition.
The women's tournament was introduced in 2003, and has doubled up as the preliminary qualifying competition for the Olympic Games since 2007.
Football has also been held at several editions of the Pacific Mini Games, starting with the first tournament in 1981.French Armed Forces
The French Armed Forces (French: Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the National Guard and the Gendarmerie of the French Republic. The President of France heads the armed forces as chef des armées.
France maintains the sixth largest defence budget in the world and the first in the European Union (EU). France has the largest armed forces in size in the European Union. France also maintains the world's third-largest nuclear deterrent (behind Russia and the United States).Melanesia
Melanesia (UK: , US: ) is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. Most of the region is in the Southern Hemisphere, with a few small northwestern islands of Western New Guinea in the Northern Hemisphere.
The name Melanesia (in French Mélanésie) was first used by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands whose inhabitants he thought were distinct from those of Micronesia and Polynesia.Namaqualand 0-4-2IST Caledonia
The Cape Copper Company 0-4-2IST Caledonia of 1904 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope.
In 1904, a single 0-4-2 inverted saddle-tank locomotive was placed in service by the Cape Copper Company as a shunting engine at O'okiep in Namaqualand in the Cape of Good Hope.New Caledonia
New Caledonia (; French: Nouvelle-Calédonie) is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, located to the south of Vanuatu, about 1,210 km (750 mi) east of Australia and 20,000 km (12,000 mi) from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, and a few remote islets. The Chesterfield Islands are in the Coral Sea. Locals refer to Grande Terre as Le Caillou ("the pebble").New Caledonia has a land area of 18,576 km2 (7,172 sq mi). Its population of 268,767 (August 2014 census) consists of a mix of Kanak people (the original inhabitants of New Caledonia), people of European descent (Caldoches and Metropolitan French), Polynesian people (mostly Wallisians), and Southeast Asian people, as well as a few people of Pied-Noir and North African descent. The capital of the territory is Nouméa.New Caledonia Super Ligue
New Caledonia Super Ligue is the top division of the Fédération Calédonienne de Football in New Caledonia. It is played as a double round robin between the top-4 clubs from the Division Honneur of Grande Terre and the champions of the Îles.New Caledonia catshark
The New Caledonia catshark or Kanakorum catshark (Aulohalaelurus kanakorum) is a catshark of the family Scyliorhinidae in the order Carcharhiniformes, known only from one specimen collected near southwestern New Caledonia in the western central Pacific Ocean. The holotype measured 79 cm (31 in). The New Caledonia catshark is a rare and vulnerable inshore catshark found around coral reefs.New Caledonia national football team
The New Caledonia national football team is the national team of New Caledonia and is controlled by the Fédération Calédonienne de Football. Although they were only admitted to FIFA in 2004, they have been participating in the OFC Nations Cup since its inception. They have been one of this relatively small region's strongest teams, finishing second in 2008 and 2012, and third in 1973 and 1980. They were the top ranked OFC nation at number 95 in September 2008, making them only the fourth country from the confederation to have reached the global top 100.New Caledonian barrier reef
The New Caledonian barrier reef is located in New Caledonia in the South Pacific, and is the longest continuous barrier reef in the world and the second largest after the Great Barrier Reef of Australia.
The New Caledonian barrier reef surrounds Grande Terre, New Caledonia's largest island, as well as the Ile des Pins and several smaller islands, reaching a length of 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The reef encloses a lagoon of 24,000 square kilometres (9,300 sq mi), which has an average depth of 25 metres (82 ft). The reefs lie up to 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the shore, but extend almost 200 kilometres (120 mi) to the Entrecasteaux reefs in the northwest. This northwestern extension encloses the Belep Islands and other sand cays. Several natural passages open out to the ocean. The Boulari passage, which leads to Noumea, the capital and chief port of New Caledonia, is marked by the Amédée lighthouse.New Caledonian lorikeet
The New Caledonian lorikeet (Charmosyna diadema) is a potentially extinct lorikeet endemic to the Melanesian island of New Caledonia.Nouméa
Nouméa (French pronunciation: [nume.a]) is the capital and largest city of the French special collectivity of New Caledonia. It is situated on a peninsula in the south of New Caledonia's main island, Grande Terre, and is home to the majority of the island's European, Polynesian (Wallisians, Futunians, Tahitians), Indonesian, and Vietnamese populations, as well as many Melanesians, Ni-Vanuatu and Kanaks who work in one of the South Pacific's most industrialised cities. The city lies on a protected deepwater harbour that serves as the chief port for New Caledonia.
At the August 2014 census, there were 179,509 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Greater Nouméa (French: agglomération du Grand Nouméa), 99,926 of whom lived in the city (commune) of Nouméa proper. 66.8% of the population of New Caledonia live in Greater Nouméa, which covers the communes of Nouméa, Le Mont-Dore, Dumbéa and Païta.RMS Majestic (1914)
RMS Majestic was a White Star ocean liner working on the North Atlantic run, originally launched in 1914 as the Hamburg America Line liner SS Bismarck. At 56,551 gross register tons, she was the largest ship in the world until completion of SS Normandie in 1935.
The third and largest member of German HAPAG Line's trio of transatlantic liners, her completion was delayed by World War I. She never sailed under the German flag except on her sea trials in 1922. Following the war, she was finished by her German builders, handed over to the allies as war reparations and became the White Star Line flagship Majestic. She was the second White Star ship to bear the name, the first being the RMS Majestic of 1889. She served successfully throughout the 1920s but the onset of the Great Depression made her increasingly unprofitable. She managed to struggle through the first half of the 1930s before being sold off for scrapping to Thos W Ward. She was taken possession of by the British Admiralty before demolition commenced after an agreement was reached with White Star and Thomas Ward. She served the Royal Navy as the training ship HMS Caledonia before catching fire in 1939 and sinking. She was subsequently raised and scrapped in 1943.Rural Municipality of Caledonia No. 99
Caledonia No. 99 (2006 Population 286 ) is a rural municipality in south-eastern Saskatchewan, Canada encompassing 845.68 square kilometers in area. The rural municipality maintains its office in Milestone, Saskatchewan. The rural municipality include the hamlets of Parry and Dummer. The rural municipality in conjunction with the provincial government is in charge of maintenance of highways in its area. As well, the municipality provides policing, fire protection and municipal governance for the rural district, with a reeve as its administrator. The rural municipality was incorporated in 1909. Agriculture is the major industry in the rural municipality.St. Johnsbury, Vermont
St. Johnsbury (known locally as "St. J") is the shire town (county seat) of Caledonia County, Vermont, United States. The population was 7,603 at the 2010 census. St. Johnsbury is located approximately 10 miles (16 km) northwest of the Connecticut River and 48 miles (77 km) south of the Canada-U.S. border.
St. Johnsbury is the largest town by population in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont and has long served as a commercial center for the region. In 2006, the town was named "Best Small Town" in National Geographic Adventure's "Where to live and play" feature. The more densely settled southern half of the town is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as a census-designated place, where over 81% of the population resides.Zealandia
Zealandia (), also known as the New Zealand continent or Tasmantis, is an almost entirely submerged mass of continental crust that sank after breaking away from Australia 60–85 million years ago, having separated from Antarctica between 85 and 130 million years ago. It has variously been described as a continental fragment, a microcontinent, a submerged continent, and a continent. The name and concept for Zealandia was proposed by Bruce Luyendyk in 1995. Zealandia's status as a continent is not universally accepted, but New Zealand geologist Nick Mortimer has commented that "if it wasn't for the ocean" it would have been recognized as such long ago.The land mass may have been completely submerged about 23 million years ago, and most of it (93%) remains submerged beneath the Pacific Ocean. With a total area of approximately 4,920,000 km2 (1,900,000 sq mi), it is the world's largest current microcontinent, more than twice the size of the next-largest microcontinent and more than half the size of the Australian continent. As such, and due to other geological considerations, such as crustal thickness and density, it is arguably a continent in its own right. This was the argument which made news in 2017, when geologists from New Zealand, New Caledonia, and Australia concluded that Zealandia fulfills all the requirements to be considered a continent, rather than a microcontinent or continental fragment.Zealandia supports substantial inshore fisheries and contains gas fields, of which the largest known is New Zealand's Maui gas field, near Taranaki. Permits for oil exploration in the Great South Basin were issued in 2007. Offshore mineral resources include iron sands, volcanic massive sulfides and ferromanganese nodule deposits.