Calcio Fiorentino

Calcio fiorentino (also known as calcio storico "historic football") is an early form of football and rugby that originated in 16th-century Italy. Once widely played, the sport is thought to have started in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence. There it became known as the giuoco del calcio fiorentino ("Florentine kick game") or simply calcio; which is now also the name for association football in the Italian language. The game may have started as a revival of the Roman sport of harpastum.

Calcio fiorentino 1688

Renaissance era

Calcio was reserved for rich aristocrats who played every night between Epiphany and Lent.[1] Even popes, such as Clement VII, Leo XI and Urban VIII, played the sport in Vatican City. The games could get violent as teams vied to score goals. A variation of Calcio Fiorentino was most likely played in the 15th century as well, as a match was organized on the Arno river in 1490, notable as a day so cold the waters were completely frozen. On another famous occasion, the city of Florence held a match on February 17, 1530, in defiance of the imperial troops sent by Charles V, as the city was under siege. In 1574 Henry III of France attended a game of "bridge fighting" – put on in his honor during a visit to Venice. The king is recorded as saying: "Too small to be a real war and too cruel to be a game".[2]

Calcio in Costume 5
Field in Piazza Santa Croce.
Calcio Storico partita 1
Match Between Azzurri and Rossi in 2008.
Corteo11
Former first prize of the palio, a chianina calf

Modern revival

Interest in Calcio waned in the early 17th century. However, in 1930 it was reorganized as a game in Kingdom of Italy,[1] under Benito Mussolini. It was widely played by amateurs in streets and squares using handmade balls of cloth or animal skin.[3] Today, three matches are played each year in Piazza Santa Croce in Florence in the 3rd week of June. A team from each quartiere of the city is represented:

  • Santa Croce / Azzurri (Blues)
  • Santa Maria Novella / Rossi (Reds)
  • Santo Spirito / Bianchi (Whites)
  • San Giovanni / Verdi (Greens)

After playing each other in two opening games, the two overall winners go into the yearly final on June 24, better known as San Giovanni (St. John)'s Day, the Patron Saint of Florence. For decades, this violent match has resulted in severe injuries, including death. During the early decades, in order to encourage wagering and achieve a bettable winner, there were times when bulls would be ushered into the ring in hopes of adding confusion and inciting victory. The modern version of calcio has not changed much from its historical roots, which allow tactics such as head-butting, punching, elbowing, and choking. However due to often fatal injuries, sucker punches and kicks to the head are currently banned.[1] It is also prohibited for more than one player to attack an opponent. Any violation leads to being expelled from the game.

Rules

Matches last 50 minutes and are played on a field covered in sand, twice as long as it is wide (approximately 80x40 meters). A white line divides the field into two identical squares, and a goal net runs the width of each end.

Each team has 27 players and no substitutions are allowed for injured or expelled players. The teams are made up of 4 Datori indietro (goalkeepers), 3 Datori innanzi (fullbacks), 5 Sconciatori (halfbacks), 15 Innanzi or Corridori (forwards). The Captain and Standard Bearer's tent sits at the center of the goal net. They do not actively participate in the game, but can organize their teams and occasionally act as referees, mainly to calm down their players or to stop fights.

The referee and the six linesmen officiate the match in collaboration with the Judge Commissioner, who remains off the field. The referee, above everyone else, is the Master of the Field, and is responsible for making sure the game runs smoothly, stepping into the field only to maintain discipline and reestablish order when fights occur.

A small cannon shot announces the beginning of the event. The game starts when the Pallaio throws and kicks the ball toward the center line, then at the first whistle as the ball first rests on field, 15 forwards or Corridori begin fighting in a wild mixed martial arts match- punching, kicking, tripping, hacking, tackling, and wrestling with each other in an effort designed to tire opponents' defenses, but which often descends into an all-out brawl. They try to pin and force into submission as many players possible. Once there are enough incapacitated players, the other teammates come and swoop up the ball and head to the goal.

From this moment on, the players try by any means necessary to get the ball into the opponents' goal, also called caccia. The teams change sides with every caccia or goal scored. It is important to shoot with precision, because every time a player throws or kicks the ball above the net, the opposing team is awarded with a half caccia. The game ends after 50 minutes and the team which scored the most cacce wins.

Along with the Palio, the winning team used to receive a Chianina, a type of cow. However, this has been reduced to a free dinner for the winning team; the players earn no other compensation.[4]

In popular culture

The comic book series Bitch Planet includes an event titled "Duemila" or "Megaton"; in issue #4 the event is described: "Megaton is one of many modern descendants of Calcio Fiorentino, a 16th century Italian sport... Teams may have any number of players, but their combined weight can be no more than 2000 lbs!"[5]

In the 2017 film Lost In Florence, Brett Dalton plays a former college football star who travels to Italy and becomes involved in playing Calcio Fiorentino.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Halpern, J. Balls and Blood, Sports Illustrated. Vol 109, No. 4: August 4, 2008, p. 42.
  2. ^ "A Point of View: Sporting spectacle on the piazza". BBC NEWS. 12 July 2013.
  3. ^ Artusi, Luciano (2016). "Chapter 4: The Ancient Game". Calcio Fiorentino. History, art and memoirs of the historical game. From its origins to the present day. Scribo Edizioni. p. 31. ISBN 9788894182927.
  4. ^ Borden, Sam (2015-07-01). "A Most Dangerous Game". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-07-01.
  5. ^ DeConnick, Kelly Sue; De Landro, Valentine (April 2015). Bitch Planet (Issue 4 ed.). Berkeley: Image Comics, Inc. pp. 14–15.

External links

Coordinates: 43°46′08″N 11°15′42″E / 43.76880°N 11.26160°E

Baroncelli Chapel

The Baroncelli Chapel is a chapel located at the end of the right transept in church of Santa Croce, central Florence, Italy.

It has frescoes by Taddeo Gaddi executed between 1328 and 1338.

Bartolini Salimbeni Chapel

The Bartolini Salimbeni Chapel (Italian: Cappella Bartolini Salimbeni) is a chapel in the church of Santa Trinita, Florence, central Italy. Its decoration by Lorenzo Monaco, dating to the 1420s, are one of the few surviving examples of International Gothic frescoes in Italy. The chapels has kept other original elements, such as its altarpiece, an Annunciation, also by Lorenzo Monaco, and the railings.

Calcio

Calcio may refer to:

Football in Italy

Calcio Fiorentino, an early form of football that originated in 16th-century Italy

Calcio 2000, Italian football magazine

Calcio, Lombardy, a town and commune in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy, Italy

Football

Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football is understood to refer to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears. Sports commonly called football in certain places include association football (known as soccer in some countries); gridiron football (specifically American football or Canadian football); Australian rules football; rugby football (either rugby league or rugby union); and Gaelic football. These different variations of football are known as football codes.

There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world. Contemporary codes of football can be traced back to the codification of these games at English public schools during the nineteenth century. The expansion of the British Empire allowed these rules of football to spread to areas of British influence outside the directly controlled Empire. By the end of the nineteenth century, distinct regional codes were already developing: Gaelic football, for example, deliberately incorporated the rules of local traditional football games in order to maintain their heritage. In 1888, The Football League was founded in England, becoming the first of many professional football competitions. During the twentieth century, several of the various kinds of football grew to become some of the most popular team sports in the world.

Football in Italy

Football (calcio in Italian) is the most popular sport in Italy. The Italian national football team is considered to be one of the best national teams in the world. They have won the FIFA World Cup four times (1934, 1938, 1982, 2006), trailing only Brazil (with 5), runners-up in two finals (1970, 1994) and reaching a third place (1990) and a fourth place (1978). They have also won one European Championship (1968), also appearing in two finals (2000, 2012), finished third at the Confederations Cup (2013), won one Olympic football tournament (1936) and two Central European International Cups (1927–30 and 1933–35).

Italy's top domestic league, the Serie A, is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world and it is often depicted as the most tactical national football league. Italy's club sides have won 48 major European trophies, making them the second most successful nation in European football. Serie A hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus, Milan and Inter, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs; Serie A was the only league to produce three founding members. Juventus, Milan and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina, Lazio and, historically, Parma but now Napoli are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football. Italian managers are the most successful in European Football, especially in competitions such as the Champions League. More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any other league in the world.

Garden of Archimedes

The Garden of Archimedes (Italian: Il Giardino Di Archimede) is a museum for mathematics in Florence, Italy. It was founded on March 26, 2004 and opened its doors to the public on April 14 of that year. The mission of the museum is to enhance public understanding and perception of mathematics, to bring mathematics out of the shadows and into the limelight. It has been compared to the National Museum of Mathematics in New York City, the only museum in North America devoted to mathematics.

List of ball games

This is a list of ball games which are popular games or sports involving some type of ball or similar object. Ball sports are not sports in the true sense, but are instead considered to be games. These ball games can be grouped by the general objective of the game, sometimes indicating a common origin either of a game itself or of its basic idea:

el pro*Bat-and-ball games, such as cricket and baseball.

Racquet and ball games, such as tennis, squash, racquetball and ball badminton.

Hand and ball-striking games, such as various handball codes, rebound handball and 4 square.

Goal games, such as forms of hockey (except ice hockey which uses a hockey puck), basketball and all forms of football or lacrosse.

Net games, such as volleyball and sepak.

List of squares in Florence

This is a list of the principal squares of Florence in Italy.

List of types of football

This is a list of various types of football, most variations found as gridiron, rugby, association football.

Lost in Florence

Lost in Florence (previously titled The Tourist) is a 2017 romantic drama film written and directed by Evan Oppenheimer and starring Brett Dalton, Stana Katic, Alessandra Mastronardi, Marco Bonini, Alessandro Preziosi and Emily Atack. The sport played in the film is Calcio Fiorentino, an archaic form of soccer that has been played in Florence since the sixteenth century.

Monument to Dante

The Statue of Dante Alighieri (Monumento a Dante Alighieri) is a monument of Dante Alighieri. It is located in Piazza Santa Croce, next to Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence, Italy. It was built in 1865 by Italian sculptor Enrico Pazzi.

Palazzo Strozzi

Palazzo Strozzi is a palace in Florence, Italy.

Piazza Santa Croce

Piazza Santa Croce is one of the main plazas or squares located in the central neighborhood of Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy.

It is located near piazza della Signoria and the National Central Library, and takes its name from the Basilica of Santa Croce that overlooks the square.

Rugby union in Italy

Rugby union in Italy is governed by the Italian Rugby Federation. Rugby was introduced to Italy in the early 1900s. Two Italian professional teams (Treviso and Zebre) compete in Pro14, a league that also includes sides from Ireland, Scotland, South Africa and Wales. One of the teams is guaranteed a place in the European Rugby Champions Cup; the other normally plays in the European Rugby Challenge Cup. The Top12 is the main national club competition. Four Italian clubs from the national championship compete in a qualifying tournament that awards two places in the Challenge Cup. Italy compete in the Six Nations Championship and Rugby World Cup, and are classified as a tier one nation by World Rugby (formerly the International Rugby Board).

Santi Simone e Giuda, Florence

Santi Simone e Giuda (Saints Simon and Jude) is a church in Florence, situated on the Piazza San Simone in an area of narrow streets between the Piazza Santa Croce and the Piazza della Signoria. The present structure dates from 1243 but underwent a major renovation designed by Gherardo Silvani in 1630. Today it is affiliated with the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.

Stibbert Museum

The Stibbert Museum (Italian: Museo Stibbert) is located on via Frederick Stibbert on the hill of Montughi in Florence, Italy. The museum contains over 36,000 artifacts, including a vast collection of armour from Eastern and Western civilizations.

Via de' Tornabuoni

Via de' Tornabuoni, or Via Tornabuoni, is a street at the center of Florence, Italy, that goes from Antinori square to ponte Santa Trinita, across Santa Trinita square, characterized by the presence of fashion boutiques.

The street houses high fashion boutiques, belonging to designer brands such as Gucci, Salvatore Ferragamo, Enrico Coveri, Roberto Cavalli, Emilio Pucci and others; also boutiques of jewelry are here such as Damiani, Bulgari and Buccellati.

Volata

Volata ("flow") is a code of football developed and promoted by Italian fascists for a brief period during the late 1920s and early 1930s, in an attempt to displace sports with non-Italian origins, such as association football (soccer) and rugby union.

Association football was popular in Italy when the fascists came to power in 1921. Rugby union was a new and relatively minor sport, but also growing in popularity.

Although the fascists idealized association football for its contribution to physical fitness, it was also seen at the time as an "English game" (because the rules had been codified by the English Football Association and the first organized matches had taken place in England). The fascists generally distanced themselves from cultural practices with foreign roots.

Conversely, rugby was seen as having links to the extinct Ancient Roman game of harpastum. By 1927, fascist propaganda actively promoted rugby – which it referred to as palla ovale ("oval ball"). However, the Federazione Italiana Rugby proved resistant to manipulation and the fascists quickly ceased their support.

The national secretary of the Fascist Party, Augusto Turati, devised volata. Officially, the rules were based on long-extinct codes of football indigenous to Italy, especially the Roman harpastum and the medieval calcio Fiorentino. Volata was contested by eight-member sides, with rules that were described by a 1929 propaganda newsreel from Istituto Luce as a "synthesis of the essential elements of the games of calcio and rugby" (sintesi di elementi essenziali del giuoco del calcio e del "rugby"). Use of the word "calcio" was ambiguous, as it was the usual name of association football, as well as calcio Fiorentino, which in 1930 was also revived at the fascists' behest.

Promoted by Fascist sporting and cultural organizations, Volata enjoyed a brief phase of popularity. More than 100 Volata clubs and a league were reportedly formed. However, the enduring popularity of association football caused the fascists to change their attitude toward the sport.

In 1933, volata organizations and competitions were officially abandoned. Afterwards the fascists encouraged association football; Italy hosted and won the 1934 World Cup.

The popularity of rugby and its place within Italian sporting culture appear to have been reduced by the changing policies of the fascists, as well as the invention of volata. Nevertheless, rugby survived the fascist period and began to grow when Italy was occupied by British Commonwealth forces during 1943–47.

Yubi lakpi

Yubi lakpi is a seven-a-side traditional football game played in Manipur, India, using a coconut, which has some notable similarities to rugby. Despite these similarities, the name is not related to the game of rugby or Rugby School in England, it is in fact of Meitei origin, and means literally "coconut snatching". Emma Levine, an English writer on little known Asian sports, speculates:

"Perhaps this was the root of modern rugby? Most Manipuris are quite adamant that the modern world 'stole' the idea from them and made it into rugby... this game, which has been around for centuries, is so similar to rugby, which evolved a great deal later, that it must be more than a coincidence."However, traditional football games can be found in many parts of the world, e.g. marn grook in Australia, cuju in China and calcio Fiorentino in Italy and Levine provides no documentary or material evidence of its antiquity.

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