Caius (presbyter)

Caius, Presbyter of Rome (also known as Gaius) was a Christian author who lived and wrote towards the beginning of the 3rd century.[1] Only fragments of his works are known, which are given in the collection entitled The Ante-Nicene Fathers. However, the Muratorian fragment, an early attempt to establish the canon of the New Testament, is often attributed to Caius and is included in that collection.[2]

For the existing fragments from Caius' "Dialogue or Disputation Against Proclus," we are indebted to Eusebius, who included them in his Ecclesiastical History.[1] In one of these fragments, Caius tells Proclus,

"And I can show the trophies of the apostles. For if you choose to go to the Vatican or to the Ostian Road, you will find the trophies of those who founded this church." [3]

This is described by the Catholic Encyclopedia as "a very valuable evidence of the death of Sts. Peter and Paul at Rome, and the public veneration of their remains at Rome about the year 200."[1]

There is also another series of fragments Eusebius gives from a work called "Against the Heresy of Artemon," although the Ante-Nicene Fathers note says regarding the authorship only that it is "an anonymous work ascribed by some to Caius."[4]

Caius was also one of the authors to whom the "Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades" was ascribed at one time.[5] (It was also attributed, much more famously, to Josephus and still appears in editions of the William Whiston translation of his collected works, but is now known to be excerpted from a work by Hippolytus of Rome.)[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Catholic Encyclopedia entry on Caius". Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  2. ^ Salmond, S.D.F. ""Introductory Notice to Caius, Presbyter of Rome" from the Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 5. (Ed. by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson.)". Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  3. ^ ""Fragments of Caius. I.—From a Dialogue or Disputation Against Proclus" from the Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 5". Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  4. ^ ""Fragments of Caius. II.—Against the Heresy of Artemon" from the Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 5". Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  5. ^ Niese, Benedictus. "Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics entry on Josephus" (PDF). Retrieved 14 July 2007. (From the website of the Project on Ancient Cultural Engagement Archived 4 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine.)
  6. ^ Goldberg, Gary. "Did Josephus write the "Discourse on Hades?" (from "Josephus Mail and FAQs")". Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2007. (Part of the Flavius Josephus Home Page Archived 10 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine of G.J. Goldberg.)
Caius

Caius may refer to:

Caius (name), a spelling of the Latin prenom Gaius (including a list of people and characters with the name)

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge

Caius Boat Club

Gonville & Caius A.F.C.

Development of the New Testament canon

The canon of the New Testament is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible. For most, it is an agreed-upon list of twenty-seven books that includes the Canonical Gospels, Acts, letters of the Apostles, and Revelation. The books of the canon of the New Testament were written before 120 AD.For the Orthodox, the recognition of these writings as authoritative was formalized in the Second Council of Trullan of 692. The Catholic Church provided a conciliar definition of its Biblical canon in 382 at the (local) Council of Rome (based upon the Decretum Gelasianum of uncertain authorship)) as well as at the Council of Trent of 1545, reaffirming the Canons of Florence of 1442 and North African Councils (Hippo and Carthage) of 393–419. For the Church of England, it was made dogmatic on the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563; for Calvinism, on the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647.

Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades

Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades is a short treatise believed to be the work of Hippolytus of Rome.

It is also known as Josephus's Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades because it was erroneously attributed to the Jewish historian since at least the 9th century, although it is now believed to be (at least in its original form) the work of Hippolytus. It was first published in the translation of Josephus by William Whiston. As Whiston's translation is in the public domain, it appears in many present-day English editions of Josephus' work without any noting of its erroneous attribution.

List of Christian theologians

This is a list of notable Christian theologians. They are listed by century. If a particular theologian crosses over two centuries, he or she may be listed in the latter century or in the century with which he or she is best identified.

Timeline of Christianity

The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era (AD) to the present. Question marks ('?') on dates indicate approximate dates.

The year one is the first year in the Christian calendar (there is no year zero), which is the calendar presently used (in unison with the Gregorian calendar) almost everywhere in the world. Traditionally, this was held to be the year Jesus was born; however, most modern scholars argue for an earlier or later date, the most agreed upon being between 6 BC and 4 BC.

6 Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed as Iudaea Province under direct Roman administration, capital at Caesarea, Quirinius became Legate (Governor) of Syria, conducted Census of Quirinius, opposed by Zealots (JA18, Luke 2:1–3, Acts 5:37)

7-26 Brief period of peace, relatively free of revolt and bloodshed in Iudaea & Galilee

9 Pharisee leader Hillel the Elder dies, temporary rise of Shammai

14-37 Tiberius, Roman Emperor

18-36 Caiaphas, appointed High Priest of Herod's Temple by Prefect Valerius Gratus, deposed by Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius

19 Jews, Jewish proselytes, astrologers, expelled from Rome

26-36 Pontius Pilate, Prefect (governor) of Iudaea, recalled to Rome by Syrian Legate Vitellius on complaints of excess violence (JA18.4.2)

28 or 29 John the Baptist begins his ministry in the "15th year of Tiberius" (Luke 3:1–2), saying: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" (Matthew 3:1–2), a relative of Jesus (Luke 1:36), a Nazirite (Luke 1:15), baptized Jesus (Mark 1:4–11), later arrested and beheaded by Herod Antipas (Luke 3:19–20), it's possible that, according to Josephus' chronology, John was not killed until 36 (JA18.5.2)Jesus begins his ministry after his baptism by John and during the rule of Pilate, preaching: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" (Matthew 4:12–17). While the historicity of the gospel accounts is questioned to some extent by some critical scholars and non-Christians, the traditional view states the following chronology for his ministry: Temptation, Sermon on the Mount, Appointment of the Twelve, alleged Miracles, Temple Money Changers, Last Supper, Arrest, Trial, Passion, Crucifixion on Nisan 14th (John 19:14, Mark 14:2, Gospel of Peter) or Nisan 15th (Synoptic Gospels), entombment by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, professed Resurrection by God and claimed Resurrection appearances of Jesus to Mary Magdalene and other women (Mark 16:9, John 20:10–18), Simon Peter (Luke 24:34), and others, (1Cor.15:3–9), Great Commission, Ascension, Second Coming Prophecy to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment, and establishment of the Kingdom of God and the Messianic Age.

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