Cagliari (UK: /ˌkæliˈɑːri, ˈkæljəri/, US: /kælˈjɑːri/;[4][5] Italian: [ˈkaʎʎari] (listen); Sardinian: Casteddu [kasˈteɖːu];[a] Latin: Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.[6] Cagliari's Sardinian name Casteddu literally means castle. It has about 155,000 inhabitants,[7] while its metropolitan city (including Cagliari and 16 other nearby municipalities) has more than 431,000 inhabitants. According to Eurostat, the population of the Functional urban area, the commuting zone of Cagliari, rises to 476,974.[8] Cagliari is the 26th largest city in Italy and the largest city on the island of Sardinia.

An ancient city with a long history, Cagliari has seen the rule of several civilisations. Under the buildings of the modern city there is a continuous stratification attesting to human settlement over the course of some five thousand years, from the Neolithic to today. Historical sites include the prehistoric Domus de Janas, very damaged by cave activity, a large Carthaginian era necropolis, a Roman era amphitheatre, a Byzantine basilica, three Pisan-era towers and a strong system of fortification that made the town the core of Spanish Habsburg imperial power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Its natural resources have always been its sheltered harbour, the often powerfully fortified hill of Castel di Castro, the modern Casteddu, the salt from its lagoons, and, from the hinterland, wheat from the Campidano plain and silver and other ores from the Iglesiente mines.

Cagliari was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1324 to 1848, when Turin became the formal capital of the kingdom (which in 1861 became the Kingdom of Italy). Today the city is a regional cultural, educational, political and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments.[9] It is also Sardinia's economic and industrial hub, having one of the biggest ports in the Mediterranean Sea, an international airport, and the 106th highest income level in Italy (among 8,092 comuni), comparable to that of several northern Italian cities.[10]

It is also the seat of the University of Cagliari,[11] founded in 1607, and of the Primate Roman Catholic archdiocese of Sardinia,[12][13] since the 5th century AD.


Comune di Cagliari
from top left: St. Anne's Church, view of the port, Bastione of Saint Remy, statue of King Charles Felix of Sardinia and Cala Fighera
from top left: St. Anne's Church, view of the port, Bastione of Saint Remy, statue of King Charles Felix of Sardinia and Cala Fighera
Flag of Cagliari

Coat of arms of Cagliari

Coat of arms
Location of Cagliari
Cagliari is located in Italy
Location of Cagliari in Italy
Cagliari is located in Sardinia
Cagliari (Sardinia)
Coordinates: 39°13′40″N 09°06′40″E / 39.22778°N 9.11111°ECoordinates: 39°13′40″N 09°06′40″E / 39.22778°N 9.11111°E
Metropolitan cityCagliari (CA)
 • MayorMassimo Zedda (SI)
 • Total85.01 km2 (32.82 sq mi)
4 m (13 ft)
 • Total154,106
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
Dialing code070
ISTAT code092009
Patron saintSt. Saturninus
Saint dayOctober 30
WebsiteOfficial website


Monte Claro culture pottery

Early history

Mosaico Karalitani Ostia
Karalitan ship owners and traders, mosaic in Ostia Antica

The Cagliari area has been inhabited since the Neolithic. It occupies a favourable position between the sea and a fertile plain and is surrounded by two marshes (which provides defence against attacks from the inland). There are high mountains nearby, to which people could evacuate if the settlement had to be given up. Relics of prehistoric inhabitants were found in the hill of Monte Claro (Monte Claro culture) and in Cape Sant'Elia (several domus de janas).

Punic era inscription from the National Archeological Museum
Necropoli di Tuvixeddu
Necropolis of Tuvixeddu
Roman Amphitheatre of Cagliari
Is Centu Scalas ("a hundred steps"), the Roman amphitheatre of Cagliari

Karaly (Punic: 𐤊𐤓𐤋‬𐤉, KRLY)[14] was established around the 8th/7th century BC as one of a string of Phoenician colonies in Sardinia, including Tharros.[15] Its founding is linked to its position along communication routes with Africa as well as to its excellent port. The Phoenician settlement was located in the Stagno di Santa Gilla, west of the present centre of Cagliari. This was also the site of the Roman Portus Scipio, and when Arab pirates raided the area in the 8th century it became the refuge for people fleeing from the city. Other Phoenician settlements have been found at Cape Sant'Elia.

In the late 6th century BC Carthage took control of part of Sardinia, and Cagliari grew substantially under their domination, as testified by the large Tuvixeddu necropolis and other remains. Cagliari was a fortified settlement in what is now the modern Marina quarter, with an annexed holy area in the modern Stampace.

Sardinia and Cagliari came under Roman rule in 238 BC, shortly after the First Punic War, when the Romans defeated the Carthaginians. No mention of it is found on the occasion of the Roman conquest of the island but, during the Second Punic War, Caralis was the headquarters of the praetor, Titus Manlius Torquatus, from whence he conducted his operations against Hampsicora and the Carthaginians.[16] At other times it was also the Romans' chief naval station on the island and the residence of its praetor.[17]

The Romans built a new settlement east of the old Punic city, the vicus munitus Caralis (i.e. the fortified community of Caralis) mentioned by Varro Atacinus. The two urban agglomerations merged gradually during the second century BC; to this process is perhaps attributable the plural name Carales.[18]

Florus calls it the urbs urbinum or capital of Sardinia. He represents it as taken and severely punished by Gracchus,[19] but this statement is wholly at variance with Livy's account of the wars of Gracchus, in Sardinia, according to which the cities were faithful to Rome, and the revolt was confined to the mountain tribes.[20] In the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, the citizens of Caralis were the first to declare in favor of the former, an example soon followed by the other cities of Sardinia;[21] and Caesar himself touched there with his fleet on his return from Africa.[22] A few years later, when Sardinia fell into the hands of Menas, the lieutenant of Sextus Pompeius, Caralis was the only city which offered any resistance, but was taken after a short siege.[23]

Cagliari continued to be regarded as the capital of the island under the Roman Empire, and though it did not become a colony, obtained the status of Municipium.[24]

Remains of Roman public buildings were found to the west of Marina in Piazza del Carmine. There was an area of ordinary housing near the modern Via Roma, and richer houses on the slopes of the Marina distinct. The amphitheatre is located to the west of the Castello.

A Christian community is attested in Cagliari at least as early as the 3rd century, and by the end of that century the city had a Christian bishop. In the middle decades of the 4th century bishop Lucifer of Cagliari was exiled because of his opposition to the sentence against Athanasius of Alexandria at the Synod of Milan. He was banished to the desert of Thebais by the emperor Constantius II.[25]

Claudian describes the ancient city of Karalis as extending to a considerable length towards the promontory or headland, the projection of which sheltered its port. The port affords good anchorage for large vessels, but besides this, which is only a well-sheltered standby, there is a large salt-water lake or lagoon, called the Stagno di Cagliari, adjoining the city and communicating by a narrow channel with the bay, which appears from Claudian to have been used in ancient times as an inner harbor or basin.[26] The promontory adjoining the city is evidently that noticed by Ptolemy (Κάραλις πόλις καὶ ἄκρα), but the Caralitanum Promontorium of Pliny can be no other than the headland, now called Capo Carbonara, which forms the eastern boundary of the Gulf of Cagliari and the southeast point of the whole island. Immediately off it lay the little island of Ficaria,[27] now called the Isola dei Cavoli ("Cabbage Island" in Italian, Isula de is Càvurus "Crab Island" in Sardinian).

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire Cagliari fell, together with the rest of Sardinia, into the hands of the Vandals, but appears to have retained its importance throughout the Middle Ages.

Saint Peter of the fishermen church, 12th century

Judicate of Cagliari

Pluteo di età mediobizantina con grifo e pegaso. Museo Archeologico nazionale di Cagliari
Griffin and Pegasus pluteo, Byzantine Middle Ages. National Archaeological Museum of Cagliari

Subsequently, ruled by the Vandals and then part of the Byzantine Empire, Cagliari became the capital of a gradually independent Judicate. However, there is some evidence that during this period of independence from external rule, the city was deserted because it was too exposed to attacks by Moorish pirates coming from north Africa and Spain. Apparently many people left Caralis and founded a new town named Santa Igia in an area close to the Santa Gilla swamp to the west of Cagliari, but relatively distant from the sea.

The Judicate of Cagliari comprised a large area of the Campidano plain, the Sulcis-Iglesiente and the mountain region of Ogliastra.

11th to 13th century

During the 11th century, the Republic of Pisa began to extend its political influence over the Judgedom of Cagliari. Pisa and the maritime republic of Genoa had a keen interest in Sardinia because it was a perfect strategic base for controlling the commercial routes between Italy and North Africa.

In 1215 the Pisan Lamberto Visconti, judike of Gallura, forced the judikessa Benedetta of Cagliari to give him the mount located east of Santa Igia.[28] Soon (1216–17) Pisan merchants established there a new fortified city, known as Castel di Castro, which can be considered the ancestor of the modern city of Cagliari.[28]

In 1258, after the defeat of William III, the last king of Cagliari, the Pisans and their Sardinian allies (Arborea, Gallura and Logudoro) destroyed the old capital of Santa Igia.[28] The Judgedom of Cagliari was then divided into three parts: the northwest third went to Gallura; the central portion was incorporated into Arborea; Sulcis and Iglesiente, on the southwest, were given to the Pisan della Gherardesca family, while the Republic of Pisa maintained control over its colony of Castel di Castro.[29]

Some of the fortifications that still surround the current district of Castello were built by the Pisans, including the two remaining white limestone towers (early 14th century) designed by the architect Giovanni Capula. Together with the district of Castello, Castel di Castro comprised the districts of Marina (which included the port), and later Stampace and Villanova. Marina and Stampace were guarded by walls, in contrast to Villanova, which was mostly home to peasants.

14th to 17th centuries

In the second decade of the 14th century the Crown of Aragon conquered Sardinia after a series of battles against the Pisans. During the siege of Castel di Castro (1324-1326), the Aragonese, led by the infant Alfonso, built a stronghold on a more southern hill, that of Bonaria.

Braun hogenberg Cagliari 1572
View of Cagliari from Civitates orbis terrarium (1572) by Georg Braun

When the fortified city was finally conquered by the Catalan-Aragonese army, Castel di Castro (Castel de Càller or simply Càller in Catalan) became the administrative capital of the newborn Kingdom of Sardinia, one of the many kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon, which later came under the rule of the Spanish Empire. After the expulsion of the Tuscans,[30] the Castello district was repopulated by the Catalan settlers of Bonaria while the indigenous population was, as in the past, concentrated in Stampace and Villanova.

The kings of Aragon and later the kings of Spain, were represented in Cagliari by a viceroy, who resided in the Palazzo Regio.

Interior view of the Royal Palace of Cagliari

In the 16th century the fortifications of the city were strengthened with the construction of the bastions and the rights and benefits of the Catalan-Aragonese were extended to all citizens. The intellectual life was relatively lively and in the early years of the 17th century the University was founded.

18th century

In 1718,[31] after a brief rule by the Austrian Habsburgs, Cagliari and Sardinia came under the House of Savoy. As rulers of Sardinia, the Savoys took the title of kings of the Sardinian kingdom. During the Savoyard Era, until 1848, the institutions of the Sardinian kingdom remained unchanged, but with the "Perfect Fusion" in that year, all the possessions of the House of Savoy House, comprising Savoy, Nice (now part of France), Piedmont and from 1815 Liguria, were merged into a unitary state. Although Sardinian by name, the kingdom had its parliament in Turin, where the Savoys resided, and its members were mainly aristocrats from Piedmont or the mainland.

In the late 18th century during the Napoleonic wars France tried to conquer Cagliari because of its strategic role in the Mediterranean sea (Expédition de Sardaigne). A French army landed on Poetto beach and advanced towards Cagliari, but the French were defeated by Sardinians who had decided to defend themselves against the revolutionary army. The people of Cagliari hoped to receive some concession from the Savoys in return for their defence of the town. For example, aristocrats from Cagliari asked for a Sardinian representative in the parliament of the kingdom. When the Savoyards refused any concession to the Sardinians, the inhabitants of Cagliari rose up against them and expelled all the representatives of the kingdom along with the Piedmontese rulers.[32] This insurgence is celebrated in Cagliari during Sa die de sa Sardigna ("The day of Sardinia") on the last weekend of April. However, the Savoys regained control of the town after a brief period of autonomous rule.

Modern age

Triumphal arch King Umberto I, better known as Bastione Saint Remy
Cagliari porto
View of Via Roma and the port

Starting in the 1870s, in the wake of the unification of Italy, the city experienced a century of rapid growth. Many buildings were erected by the end of the 19th century during the term of office of mayor Ottone Bacaredda. Numerous buildings combined influences from Art Nouveau together with the traditional Sardinian taste for floral decoration; an example is the white marble City Hall near the port. Bacaredda is also known for his strong repression of one of the earliest worker strikes at the beginning of the 20th century.

During the Second World War Cagliari was heavily bombed by the Allies in February 1943. In order to escape from the danger of bombardments and difficult living conditions, many people were evacuated from the city into the countryside. In total the victims of the bombings were more than 2000[33] and about 80% of the buildings were damaged. The city received the Gold Medal of Military Valour.[33]

After the Italian armistice with the Allies in September 1943, the German Army took control of Cagliari and the island, but soon retreated peacefully in order to reinforce their positions in mainland Italy. The American Army then took control of Cagliari. Airports near the city (Elmas, Monserrato, Decimomannu, currently a NATO airbase) were used by Allied aircraft to fly to North Africa or mainland Italy and Sicily.

After the war, the population of Cagliari grew again and many apartment blocks and recreational areas were erected in new residential districts.

Coats of Arms of Cagliari

Stemma di Cagliari pisana

13th century

STEMMA DI CAGLIARI NELLA CORONA D'ARAGONA dal gonfalone dell'università, 1606

From the 14th to 17th century

Cagliari-Stemma sabaudo da L'archivio comunale di Cagliari

From the 18th century to the present


The so-called Sella del Diavolo

And suddenly there is Cagliari: a naked town rising steep, steep, golden-looking, piled naked to the sky from the plain at the head of the formless hollow bay. It is strange and rather wonderful, not a bit like Italy. The city piles up lofty and almost miniature, and makes me think of Jerusalem: without trees, without cover, rising rather bare and proud, remote as if back in history, like a town in a monkish, illuminated missal. One wonders how it ever got there. And it seems like Spain—or Malta: not Italy. It is a steep and lonely city, treeless, as in some old illumination. Yet withal rather jewel-like: like a sudden rose-cut amber jewel naked at the depth of the vast indenture. The air is cold, blowing bleak and bitter, the sky is all curd. And that is Cagliari. It has that curious look, as if it could be seen, but not entered. It is like some vision, some memory, something that has passed away. Impossible that one can actually walk in that city: set foot there and eat and laugh there. Ah, no! Yet the ship drifts nearer, nearer, and we are looking for the actual harbour.

The city of Cagliari is situated in the south of Sardinia, overlooking the centre of the eponymous gulf, also called Golfo degli Angeli ("Bay of Angels") after an ancient legend. The city is spread over and around the hill of the historic district of Castello and nine other limestone hills of the middle-to-late Miocene, unique heights of a little more than 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level on the long plains of Campidano. The plain is actually a Graben formed during the Alpine orogeny of the Cenozoic, which separated Sardinia from the European continent, roughly where the Gulf of Lion is now. The Graben filled in the course of tectonic movements associated with the breakup of the ancient island Paleozoic skeleton.[35]

Castello San Michele (CA)
San Michele hill with the castle on the top
Cagliari panorama
View over the historical district of Villanova

The repeated intrusion of the sea left calcareous sediments that formed a series of hills that mark the territory of Cagliari. Castello is where the fortified town arose in the Middle Age near the harbour of the port, other hills are those of Mount Urpinu, the St. Elias hill, also known as the Sella del Diavolo ("Saddle of the Devil") for its shape, Tuvumannu and Tuvixeddu, the site of the ancient Punic and Roman necropolis, the small Bonaria hill, where the basilica stands, and the San Michele hill, with the eponymous castle on top. The modern city occupies the flat spaces between the hills and the sea to the south and southeast, along the Poetto beach, the lagoons and ponds of Santa Gilla and Molentargius, and the remains of more recent marine intrusions, in an articulate landscape with many landmarks and panoramas of the bay, the plain, and the mountains that surround it on the east (The Seven Brothers and Serpeddì) and west (the mountains of Capoterra). On the cold, clear days of winter, the snowy peaks of Gennargentu can be seen from the highest points of the city.


The city has four historic neighbourhoods: Castello, Marina, Stampace and Villanova and several modern districts (such as San Benedetto, Monte Urpinu and Genneruxi at the east, Sant'Avendrace at the west, Is Mirrionis/San Michele at north and Bonaria, La Palma and Poetto at the south), grown when part of the ancient walls had been demolished in the middle of the 19th century. The comune of Cagliari has one circoscrizione, the town of Pirri (about 30.000 inhabitants), former village of the Campidano absorbed in the fast growth after the Second World War.

Parks and recreation

Cagliari Giardini pubblici
Old public gardens

Cagliari is one of the "greenest" Italian cities. Every inhabitant of Cagliari has access to 87.5 square metres (942 sq ft) of public gardens and parks.[36]

Its mild climate allows the growth of numerous subtropical plants, such as Jacaranda mimosifolia, Ficus macrophylla, with some huge specimens in Via Roma and in the University Botanic Gardens, Erythrina caffra with its stunning red flowers, Ficus retusa, which provides shade for several of the city's streets, Araucaria heterophylla, the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), the Canary Islands palm (Phoenix canariensis) and the Mexican Fan Palm (Washingtonia robusta).

Major city parks include:

Monte Urpinu Cagliari
Cagliari, panorama from Monti Urpinu Park
Parco di Monte Claro (CA)
Park of Monte Claro

The Molentargius - Saline Regional Park[37] is located near the city. Some mountain parks, such as Monte Arcosu or Maidopis, with large forests and wildlife (Sardinian deer, wild boars, etc.) are also nearby.

Poetto spiaggia
Aerial view of Poetto Beach


The main beach of Cagliari is the Poetto. It stretches for about 8 kilometres (5 mi), from Sella del Diavolo ("Devil's Saddle") up to the coastline of Quartu Sant'Elena. Poetto is also the name of the district located on the western stretch of the strip between the beach and Saline di Molentargius ("Molentargius's Salt Mine").

Another smaller beach is that of Calamosca near the Sant'Elia district. On the coast between Calamosca and Poetto beaches, among the cliffs of the Sella del Diavolo, lies Cala Fighera, a small bay.

Cagliari is close to other seaside locations such as Santa Margherita di Pula, Chia, Geremeas, Solanas, Villasimius and Costa Rei.


Unusual snowy Cagliari, 1910
Snow in Cagliari, 1910

Cagliari has a Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen climate classification) with hot, dry summers and very mild winters. The summer extreme values can be slightly over 40 °C (104 °F), sometimes with very high humidity, while in winter, under special and rare conditions, the temperature drops slightly below zero. Heavy snowfalls occur on average every thirty years.

The average temperature of the coldest month, January, is about 10 °C (50 °F), and of the warmest month, August, about 25 °C (77 °F). But heat waves can occur, due to African anticyclone, starting in June. From mid-June to mid-September, rain is a rare event, limited to brief afternoon storms. The rainy season starts in September, and the first cold days come in December.

Winds are frequent, especially the mistral and sirocco; in summer a marine sirocco breeze (called s'imbattu in Sardinian language) lowers the temperature and brings some relief from the heat.


Cagliari plane
Aeral view of part of the Cagliari Metropolitan Area
Historical census datacurrent boundaries
Commune population 1931–1991

According to ISTAT,[41] in 2014 there were 154,356 people residing in Cagliari (+3.0% compared with 2011), of whom 71,522 were male and 82,834 female for a sex ratio of 0.86. Minors (children aged 18 and younger) totalled 12.92% of the population, compared to pensioners at 24.81%. The average age of Cagliari residents is 47.44. The ratio of the population over 65 years of age to that under the age of 18, is 53.39%. The elderly population, defined as being over 65 years of age, has increased by 21.95% over the last 10 years. The current birth rate in Cagliari is 6.29 births per 1,000 inhabitants. The average number of people of any age per household is 2.11 and the percentage of households composed of a single person is 42.53%. The population of Cagliari is structured like that of other first world countries, especially as to the prevalence of an elderly population. The trend of these rates in the Cagliari metropolitan area is proportionally reversed in the suburbs, where most younger families move.

As of 2012, 4.26% (6,658 people) of the population was foreign, of which the largest group were Filipinos (21.33%), followed by Ukrainians (11.93%), Romanians (10.93%), Chinese (9.49%) and Senegalese (9.49%).

In 1928, during the fascist regime, the neighbouring municipalities of Pirri, Monserrato, Selargius, Quartucciu and Elmas, were merged with that of Cagliari. Mussolini's regime wanted to streamline the local administration by eliminating many small towns and at the same time show that Italy was a major power with many large cities. After the war these small municipalities gradually regained their autonomy, except for the former town of Pirri.

The first table shows the inhabitants of the town in its present borders, the second one the commune population including the merged municipalities.

Metropolitan City

Map of comune of Cagliari (metropolitan city of Cagliari, region Sardinia, Italy) - 2016
Map of the metropolitan city of Cagliari, the capital in red

The Metropolitan City of Cagliari has been established in 2016 by a Sardinia Regional Law and totals about 431,000 inhabitants according to ISTAT. It is composed of 17 municipalities along the coast of the gulf and up to 20 kilometres (12 mi) of the inner Campidano plain.

It covers an area on the plain of Campidano between large basins (Santa Gilla lagoon and salt mills of about 30 km2 (3200 acres), ponds (Molentargius, 16,22 km2 (40,10 acrees) and the depopulated mountains up to 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) above sea level. The mountains are largely covered by forests mostly managed by the Ente Foreste of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia. To the west these amount to 256 square kilometres (99 sq mi) on the Capoterra and Pula mountains. Monte Arcosu WWF Natural Reserve has another 36 square kilometres (14 sq mi), and to the east on Mount Serpeddì and Sette Fratelli there are a total of 132 square kilometres (51 sq mi) of forest.

The Metropolitan City is defined by municipalities where the population increased between the last two censuses, in a region where the population is otherwise generally decreasing. These municipalities welcome immigrants to the urban area whose main nucleus, the city of Cagliari, has a high number of elderly people.

In the last century, the population of the municipalities of the metropolitan area increased by 354% and in the last 50 years by 158% (1911: 128,444; 1961: 288,683; 2011: 454,819). For the whole of Sardinia this increase was respectively 88% and 15% (1911: 868,181; 1961: 1,419,362; 2011: 1,639,362). The urbanisation towards the area of Cagliari was, in percentage terms, impressive, making the capital of the island a metropolis surrounded by rural areas increasingly depopulated. This urbanisation is also reflected in the concentration in Cagliari of most of the economic activities and wealth.


Cagliari - Sella del Diavolo - Capo Sant'Elia
The crystal clear sea in the Sella del Diavolo locality
Cagliari Via Roma La Rinascente
Cagliari Via Roma La Rinascente

According to 2014 data from the Italian Ministry of Economic Affairs,[42] the inhabitants of Cagliari benefited a per capita income of 23,220 euros (being the fifth Regional Capital), that is the 122% of the national average, while all of Sardinia benefited only 16,640 euros, being the 13th Region and 86% of the national average. The metropolitan area benefited an average income of 19,185 euros, 103% of the national average. With the 26% of the island population the Cagliari Metropolitan City produces the 31% of its GDP. As the capital city of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, Cagliari is the administrative hub and headquarters of the region as well as of the provincial offices of the Italian central administration. Cagliari is also the main trade and industrial centre of the island, with numerous commercial sites and factories within its metropolitan boundaries.

The Cagliari-Sarroch port system was the third in Italy for goods movements in 2014.[43]

The first department store, (La Rinascente) opened in 1931 in the centre of the city, and it is still open today. Nowadays there are many commercial centres in the metropolitan area (Le Vele, Santa Gilla, La Corte del Sole, Marconi) hosting many European chain stores such as Auchan, Metro AG, Lidl, MediaWorld, Euronics, Jysk, IKEA,[44] Carrefour and Bata Shoes. Cagliari is also home to an Amazon warehouse.[45]

Cagliari is the main operational headquarters of the Banco di Sardegna, which belongs to the BPER Group and is listed on Borsa Italiana, of the Banca di Cagliari. Banca di Credito Sardo was based in Cagliari until it was absorbed by the parent company Intesa Sanpaolo.

The Macchiareddu-Grogastru area between Cagliari and Capoterra is one of the most important industrial areas of Sardinia, in conjunction with a large international container terminal port at Giorgino.[46] Beside having one of the biggest container terminals on the Mediterranean Sea, Cagliari also has one of the largest fish markets in Italy offering for sale a vast array of fish to both the public and traders. The communications provider Tiscali also has its headquarters in Cagliari.

Multinational corporations like Coca-Cola, Heineken, Unilever, Bridgestone and Eni Group have factories in town. One of the six oil refinery supersites in Europe, Saras, is located within the metropolitan area at Sarroch.

Lungomare Poetto - Cagliari
The Poetto Beach.

Tourism is one of the major industries of the city, although historical venues such as its monumental Middle Ages and Early modern period defence system, its Carthaginian, Roman and Byzantine ruins are less highlighted compared to the recreational beaches and coastline. Cruise ships touring the Mediterranean often stop for passengers at Cagliari, and the city is a traffic hub to the nearby beaches of Villasimius, Chia, Pula and Costa Rei, as well as to the urban beach of Poettu. Pula is home to the archaeological site of the Punic and Roman city of Nora. Especially in summer many clubs and pubs are goals for young locals and tourists. Pubs and night-clubs are concentrated in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, a narrow street in Stampace district, in the Marina district, near the port and in the Castello district, The clubs are mostly to be found on the Poetto Beach (in summer) or in Viale Marconi (in winter). In Cagliari there are 180 B&B and 22 hotels that totals 3,300 beds. There are many others hotels in seaside resort of his gulf.

Main sights

Considerable remains of the ancient city of Karalis are still visible, including those of the Tuvixeddu necropolis (the largest Punic necropolis still in existence), the Roman amphitheatre, traditionally called Is centu scalas ("One hundred steps"), and of an aqueduct used to provide generally scarce water. Still visible are also some ancient cisterns of vast extent, the ruins of a small circular temple, and numerous sepulchres on a hill outside the modern town that appear to have formed the necropolis of the ancient city.[47] The amphitheatre stages open-air operas and concerts during the summer.

Basilica di S.Saturnino
San Saturnino Basilica, 5th century

The Palaeo-Christian Basilica of San Saturnino, dedicated to a martyr killed under Diocletian's reign, Saturninus of Cagliari, patron saint of the city, was built in the 5th century. Of the original building the dome and the central part remain, to which two arms (one with a nave and two aisles) were added later. A Palaeo-Christian crypt is also under the church of San Lucifero (1660), dedicated to Saint Lucifer, a bishop of the city. The church has a Baroque façade with ancient columns and sculpted parts, some of which came from the nearby necropolis.

Eastern walls of Castello
Facciata 1 - ridotta
Church of San Michele

The old medieval town (called Castello in Italian, Casteddu de susu in Sardinian, "the upper castle") lies on top of a hill with a view of the Gulf of Cagliari (also known as Angels' Gulf). Most of its city walls are intact and include two early 14th-century white limestone towers, the Torre di San Pancrazio and the Torre dell'Elefante, typical examples of Pisan military architecture. The local white limestone was also used to build the walls of the city and many other buildings, besides the towers. The exact period of construction of a fortress on this hill is unknown at present, due to the superposition of layers of buildings along the history. Some scholars[48] have suggested a first urbanization of the quarter in the Punic era on the basis of similarity of the planimetry with the contemporary Carthaginian fortress of Monte Sirai. Recently, archaeological excavations have identified Punic and Roman buildings under the ramparts of the fortress.[49] Already the Roman poet Varro called the city "Vicus munitus", a fortified city, and sixteenth-century authors describe a Roman acropolis perhaps still visible in their day.[50][51]

D. H. Lawrence, in his memoir of a voyage to Sardinia, Sea and Sardinia, that he undertook in January 1921, described the effect of warm Mediterranean sunlight on the white limestone city and compared Cagliari to a "white Jerusalem".

Cattedrale Cagliari
The Cathedral (left) and the old city hall (right)

The cathedral was restored in the 1930s, returning the former Baroque façade into a Medieval Pisan-style façade more akin to the original appearance of the church in the 13th century. The bell tower is original. The interior has a nave and two aisles, with a pulpit (1159–1162) sculpted for the Cathedral of Pisa but later donated to Cagliari. The crypt houses the remains of martyrs found in the Basilica of San Saturno (see below). Near the cathedral is the palace of the provincial government. Before 1900 it was the island's governor's palace.

Sant'Anna (Cagliari)
Collegiata di Sant'Anna

The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Bonaria (from which the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, gets its name) was built by the Catalans in 1324–1329 when they were besieging the Pisans in Castello. It has a small Gothic portal in the façade and the interior houses a wooden statue of the Madonna, which, after having been thrown off a Spanish ship, landed at the foot of Bonaria hill. Bonaria hill is also the location of the Monumental Cemetery of Bonaria.

The Chiesa della Purissima is a Catalan Gothic church built in the 16th century in the Castello distinct.

The other early districts of the town (Marina, Stampace and Villanova) retain much of their original character. In Stampace the Torre dello Sperone, another tower built by the Pisans in the late 13th century, is located, as well as two important monumental churches: the Collegiata di Sant'Anna and the Chiesa di San Michele, both built in the 18th century in a baroque style. Many more churches, both old and modern, can be found throughout the city.

The Promenade Deck and the Terrazza Umberto I were designed in 1896 by the engineers Joseph Costa and Fulgenzio Setti. The entire building was built of white and yellow limestone in a classical style with Corinthian columns. It was opened in 1901. A staircase with two flights provides access from Constitution Square. It is interrupted by a covered walkway and ends beneath the Arc de Triomphe, in the Terrazza Umberto I. In 1943, during World War II, the staircase and the Arch of Triumph were severely damaged by aerial bombardment, but after the conflict they were faithfully reconstructed.

From the Terrazza Umberto I the Bastion of Santa Caterina can be accessed via a short flight of steps. Here there was once an old Dominican convent, destroyed by fire in 1800. According to tradition, the conspiracy to kill the Viceroy Camarassa in 1666 was set up in the surroundings of the monastery.

Liberty Cagliari
Art Nouveau in Cagliari

The Promenade Deck was inaugurated in 1902. At first it was used as a banqueting hall, then during the First World War as an infirmary. In the 1930s, during the period of sanctions, it was an exhibition of autarky. During World War II it served as a shelter for displaced people whose homes had been destroyed by bombs. In 1948 it hosted the first Trade Fair of Sardinia. After many years of decay, the Promenade was restored and re-evaluated as a cultural space reserved especially for art exhibitions.

The modern districts built in the late 19th and early 20th century contain examples of Art Deco architecture, as well as controversial examples of Fascist neoclassicism architecture, such as the Court of Justice (Palazzo di Giustizia) in Republic Square. The Court of Justice is near the biggest city park, Monte Urpinu, with its pine trees, artificial lakes, and a vast area with a hill. The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Cagliari, the city's botanical garden, is also of interest.


18th-century University Library

The city has numerous libraries and is also home to the State Archive, containing thousands of handwritten documents from the foundation of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1325 AD) to the present. In addition to numerous local and university department libraries, the most important libraries are the old University Library,[52] with thousands of ancient books, the Provincial Library,[53] the Regional Library,[54] and the Mediateca of the Mediterranean,[55] which contains the municipal archive and library collection.

In the first century B.C. a famous singer and musician from Cagliari, Tigellius, lived in Rome and was satirized by Cicero and Horace. The history of Sardinian literature begins in Cagliari in the first century A.D. In the funerary monument of Atilia Pomptilla, carved into the rock of the necropolis of Tuvixeddu, poems are engraved in Greek and Latin dedicated to his dead wife. Some of them, particularly those in the Greek language, have literary merit.

The first Sardinian literary author known was Bishop Lucifer of Cagliari, who wrote severe pamphlets against the Arian heresyin the fourth century A.D. Only in the eleventh century A.D. did the first texts of an administrative nature appear in the modern Sardinian language, together with hagiographs of local martyrs written in Latin.

Life in Cagliari has been depicted by many writers, starting with the late Roman poet Claudian. In the late 16th century, the local humanist Roderigo Hunno Baeza dedicated to his town a didactic Latin poem, Caralis Panegyricus.[56] At the beginning of the 17th century Juan Francisco Carmona wrote a hymn to Cagliari in Spanish; Jacinto Arnal De Bolea published in 1636, in Spanish, the first novel set in Cagliari, entitled El Forastero.[57] David Herbert Lawrence wrote about the city in his Sea and Sardinia.

Modern writers connected to Cagliari include Giuseppe Dessì, Giulio Angioni, Giorgio Todde, Sergio Atzeni, (who set many of his novels and short stories, such as Bakunin's Son, in ancient and modern Cagliari), Flavio Soriga.

Lirico Cagliari
The new Teatro Lirico (opera house)

Cagliari was the birthplace or residence of the composer Ennio Porrino, of the film, theatre and TV director Nanni Loy, and of the actors Gianni Agus, Amedeo Nazzari and Pier Angeli (born Anna Maria Pierangeli).

Excluding the Roman era amphitheater, the first theater was inaugurated in Cagliari in 1767: the Teatro Zapata, later becoming the Civic Theatre. Devastated by bombing in 1943, it was recently restored, but the roof was not rebuilt, and today it serves as an open-air theatre. The Politeama Regina Margherita, inaugurated in 1859, was destroyed by fire in 1942 and never rebuilt.

Although opera had, and in part still has, a solid tradition the city, it was left without a true theater until 1993 when a new opera house, the Teatro Lirico, was inaugurated.[58] Inside there is a music compound with a music conservatory with its own auditorium, and a music park. Cagliari is and was home to opera singers such as the tenors Giovanni Matteo Mario (Giovanni Matteo De Candia, 1810–1883) and Piero Schiavazzi (1875–1949), the baritone Angelo Romero (born 1940), the contralto Bernadette Manca di Nissa, born 1954 and the soprano Giusy Devinu (1960–2007). The Italian pop singer Marco Carta was also born in Cagliari, in 1985.

The old Teatro Massimo was only recently renovated and is now the seat of the Teatro Stabile of Sardinia.[59] The Municipal Auditorium, in the former 17th-century church of Santa Teresa, is the seat of the Scuola di Arte Drammatica (School of Dramatic Art) di Cagliari,[60] while the Teatro delle Saline ("Saltworks Theatre"),[61] is home of Akroama, Teatro Stabile di Innovazione ("Permanent Theater of Innovation").[62]

Finally, some comic and satirical theater companies are active in the city, the most well known being the "Compagnia Teatrale Lapola",[63] which offers an urban version of the traditional campidanese comic theater.[64]

Founded by Bepi Vigna, Antonio Serra and Michele Medda, a comic book school, the Centro Internazionale del Fumetto ("Comic Strip International Centre")[65] has been active for several decades. Its founders invented and designed the comic characters Nathan Never and Legs Weaver.

Museums and galleries

Cittadella dei Musei CA
Cittadella dei Musei
Galleria d'arte (CA)
Galleria comunale d'Arte
The mother of the killed - Francesco Ciusa, Civic art Gallery
"The mother of the killed" by Francesco Ciusa, Civic Art Gallery

The Polo museale di Cagliari "Cittadella dei musei" (Citadel of Museums) is home to:

  • Museo archeologico nazionale di Cagliari (National Archeological Museum of Cagliari), the most important archeological museum of Sardinia, which contains finds from the Neolithic period (6000 B.C.) to the Early Middle Ages about 1000 A.D.[66]
  • Museo civico d'arte siamese Stefano Cardu (Civic Siamese Art Museum "Stefano Cardu") the most important European collection of Siamese art, gathered by a Cagliaritan collector at the beginning of the 20th century.[67]
  • Museo delle cere anatomiche Clemente Susini (Anatomical Waxwork Museum "Clemente Susini").[68] This collection of anatomical waxworks is considered one of the finest in the world, and perfectly describes the human body, testifying to the state of medical and surgical knowledge at the beginning of the 19th century. The collection was created by the sculptor Clemente Susini and includes faithful reproductions of dissections of cadavers performed in the School of Anatomy in Florence 1803-1805 A.D.
  • Pinacoteca nazionale (National Picture Gallery)[69]
  • Galleria comunale d'arte (Civic art Gallery) with an important exposition of modern Italian painting offered to the city by its collector (Ingrao Collection), and an exposition of Sardinian artists.[70]
  • Collezione sarda Luigi Piloni (University Sardinian Collection "Luigi Piloni")[71]
  • ExMà, MEM, Castello di San Michele, and Il Ghetto exposition centers[72]
  • Museo di Bonaria (Basilical Church Museum of Bonaria),[73] with an interesting ex-voto collection
  • Museo del Duomo (Cathedral Museum);[74]
  • Museo del tesoro di Sant'Eulalia (Treasure Museum of Saint Eulalia of Barcelona;[75] with its important Roman era underground area.
  • Orto botanico di Cagliari University Botanical Gardens[76]

Feast of Sant'Efis

Mazziere del Comune di Cagliari
Municipal mace bearer
Costumi sardi
Traditional folk costume of Cagliari during the Feast of St. Ephysius

The Feast of St. Ephysius (Sant'Efisio in Italian, Sant'Efis in Sardinian) is the most important religious event of Cagliari, taking place every year on May 1. During this festival, thousands of people from folk groups all over Sardinia wear their traditional costumes. The saint is escorted by the traditional ancient Milicia, the deputy mayor (Alter Nos), numerous confraternities, and a convoy of chariots pulled by oxen in a procession to Nora (near modern Pula), 35 km (22 mi) from Cagliari, where, according to tradition, he was beheaded. In addition to being one of the oldest, it is also the longest Italian religious procession, with about 70 km (43 mi) of walks over four days, and the largest in the Mediterranean area.

A plague was spreading throughout Sardinia, starting in 1652, and the epidemic infected Cagliari in particular, killing some ten thousand inhabitants. According to legend, in 1656 St. Ephysius appeared to the Spanish Viceroy, Francisco Fernández de Castro Andrade, Count of Lemos to request a procession on 1 May, in order to free the city from the plague. The Municipality of Cagliari swore that, if the plague disappeared, a procession would be held every day in the saint's honor, starting from the Stampace district and ending at Nora where the saint was martyred. In September the plague ended, and the procession and festival was therefore regularly held starting the following year on May 1. The procession was held even during the last war; a statue of the saint was placed on a lorry and, through city ruins of the devastated by the bombs, arrived safely in Nora.

Other events

Other feasts and events in Cagliari include:

  • The Carnival
  • Holy Week and Easter celebrations
  • Sea processions of St. Francis of Paola, held in May, and Nostra Signora di Bonaria, in July
  • Cagliari Fair, in early May
  • Audi MedCup regatta


The native language of Cagliari, declared official along with Italian,[77] is Sardinian (sardu), a Romance language, specifically the Campidanese dialect (campidanesu) in its local variant (casteddaju).

The variant of Cagliari in its high register has traditionally represented the linguistic model of reference for the entire southern area of the island, and the high social variant used by the middle class in the whole Campidanese domain, as well as the literary model of reference for writers and poets. This language is less spoken by the younger generations in the city, who use Italian instead as that language is compulsory in education and the mass media. Italian has increasingly become predominant in social relations, both formal and informal, relegating Sardinian to a mostly marginal role in everyday life. Young people often have only passive competence in the language, gathered from elderly relatives who still speak it, as their parents often speak only Italian, or they may use a juvenile slang (italianu porceddinu) that mixes both Sardinian and Italian.

Since Cagliari was the metropolis of the ancient Roman province, it absorbed innovations coming from Rome, Carthage, and Constantinople, and its language probably reflected late Latin urban dialects of the 5th-century core cities of the empire.

Sea food Cagliari
Seafood offered in a Cagliari restaurant


Cagliari has some unique gastronomic traditions: unlike the rest of the island its cuisine is mostly based on the wide variety of locally available seafood. Although it is possible to trace influences from Catalan, Sicilian and Genoese cuisine, Cagliaritan food has a distinctive and unique character.

Excellent wines are also part of Cagliaritanians' dinners, like the Cannonau, Nuragus, Nasco, Monica, Moscau, Girò and Malvasia, produced in the nearby vineyards of the Campidano plain.


The main newspaper of Sardinia is L'Unione Sarda, it was founded in Cagliari in 1889. It was one of the first European newspapers to have its own website in 1994. It has a circulation of about 85,000 copies.

The main regional headquarters of RAI, the Italian state-owned radio and television network, is in Cagliari. There are also two regional television and radio companies as well as numerous information sites on the internet.


Internal view of the Sardegna Arena, home of Serie A football club Cagliari Calcio since 2017

Cagliari is home to the football team Cagliari Calcio, winner of the Italian league championship in 1970, when the team was led by Gigi Riva. Founded in 1920, the club played at the Stadio Sant'Elia in the city from 1970 until it was closed in the summer of 2017, causing the club to temporarily relocate to the provisional Sardegna Arena. Sant'Elia was the venue for three 1990 FIFA World Cup matches.[78]

Cagliari is an ideal location for water sports such as surfing, kitesurfing, windsurfing and sailing due to strong and reliable favourable winds. Field hockey is also popular, with two teams in the Italian top division, G.S. Amsicora and C.U.S. Cagliari, the first of which won the league title more often than any other Italian team in the men's championship (20) and is also the protagonist in the women's division.

Sport venues in Cagliari include:

  • Sardegna Arena
  • Tennis Club Cagliari[79]
  • Rockfeller sports hall
  • Rockfeller skating rink
  • Via dello Sport gymnastics hall
  • Terra Maini Olympionic pool
  • Amsicora Stadium[80]
  • Rari Nantes pool[81][82]
  • Esperia pool
  • Riccardo Santoru athletics stadium
  • Civic pool
  • Acquasport pool
  • Poettu hippodrome[83]
  • Mario Siddi fencing gymnasium
  • Mulinu Becciu tennis table hall
  • Facilities of the University Sports Center, C.U.S. Cagliari[84]


Palazzo Civico Baccaredda
Cagliari city hall, Bacaredda Palace

Cagliari is the hub of the administration offices of the Sardinia Autonomous Region and of Cagliari Province. It is also the home of several local offices of the Italian central administration.

It is the seat of the Superintendency of Cultural and Environmental Heritage,[85] of the Sardinia Archival Superintendency[86] and of the Archeological Superintendency[87] of the Cultural Heritage Ministry,[88] of the Sardinia and Provincial seat of the Employment and Social Policies Ministry, of the regional offices of the Finance and Economy Ministry,[89] and of some branch offices of the Health Ministry.

Cagliari is home to all criminal, civil, administrative and accounting courts for Sardinia of the Ministry of Justice up to the High Court of Assizes of Appeal. It was home to a prison, Buon Cammino, built in the late 19th century, famous because no one has ever managed to escape. A new modern prison has been built in the nearby town of Uta.

Traditionally, votes in Cagliari are oriented towards the center-right wing. Since World War II, all the mayors belonged to the Christian Democracy party with the exception of Salvatore Ferrara, from the Socialist Party, allied with the former. After the collapse of the traditional parties in the 1990s, the mayors belonged to the party or the coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi. The current economic and political crisis that affects Italy has prompted the electorate toward a large abstention and to elect a young mayor, Massimo Zedda, who belongs to a centre-left alliance. In the last municipal elections in June 2016, Massimo Zedda was confirmed in the first round with 50.86% of the votes.


"Aula Magna" of the University of Cagliari

Cagliari is home to the University of Cagliari,[11] the largest public university in Sardinia, founded in 1626. It currently includes six faculties: Engineering and Architecture, Medicine and Surgery, Economics, Juridical and Political Sciences, Basic Sciences, Biology and Pharmacy, Humanistic Studies.

It is attended by about 35,000 students.[90] All science faculties of the university, as well as the university hospital, have been transferred to a new "University Citadel", located in Monserrato. Cagliari's downtown houses the engineering and the humanities divisions and, in the Castle, the seat of the Rector, in an 18th-century palace with a library of thousands of ancient books.

Cagliari is also the seat of the Pontifical Faculty of Theology of Sardinia and of the European Institute of Design.

Health care

Ospedale San Michele - scale antincendio
San Michele Hospital

Life expectancy in Cagliari is high: 79.5 years for men and 85.4 for women (provincial level).

There has been a public hospital in Cagliari since the 17th century. The first modern structure was built in the middle of the 19th century, designed by the architect Gaetano Cima. This hospital is still operating, although all its departments will eventually be transferred to the new University Hospital[91] in Monserrato.

Among the other public hospitals, the Giuseppe Brotzu (San Michele) Hospital[92] was recognized in 1993 as a High Specialization Nationally Relevant Hospital, particularly for liver, heart, pancreas and bone marrow transplants.

Other public hospitals in the city include: the Santissima Trinità or commonly Is Mirrionis; the Binaghi, specialised in pulmonology; Marino specialised in traumatology, hyperbaric medicine and spinal cord injuries; Businco specialised in oncology; and Microcitemico, specialised in thalassemia, Genetic diseases and rare diseases. There are in addition many private hospitals.

Despite its dry climate, thanks to the regional system of dams, every inhabitant of Cagliari may have 363 litres (96 US gal) per day of safe drinking water.

Waste sorting is still at a low level: only 33.4 percent of waste is separated.


Cagliari - Statua Carlo Felice
The statue of King Carlo Felice in Piazza Yenne, the starting point for all of Sardinia's main roads


Area Check Cagliari
Check-in area of Cagliari-Elmas International Airport

The city is served by the Cagliari-Elmas International Airport,[93] located a few kilometres from the centre of Cagliari. A railway line connects the city to the airport; walkways join the railway station to the air terminal. The terminal is also connected to the city by highway SS 130 and by a bus service run by the ARST company[94] to the central bus station in Matteotti square, in the centre of the city.

There are other airports not too far from the city: Deciomannu Airport, a NATO military airport and three fields for air sports, Serdiana (used in particular for skydiving[95]), Castiadas and Decimoputzu.


Cable-stayed bridge of the Monserrato University Campus interchange
Cable-stayed bridge of the Monserrato University Campus interchange SS 554

The following national roads begin in Cagliari:

  • Strada Statale 131 Italia.svg Italian traffic signs - strada europea 25.svg Carlo Felice to Sassari - Porto Torres (motorway-like until Oristano) and to Olbia (SS131 Central Nuorese Branch).
  • Strada Statale 130 Italia.svg Iglesiente, to Iglesias and Carbonia.
  • Strada Statale 125 Italia.svg Orientale Sarda, which connects Cagliari to Tortolì and Olbia, ending in Palau, across from Corsica.
  • Strada Statale 195 Italia.svg Sulcitana, connecting Cagliari with Sulcis along the coast.
  • Strada Statale 554 Italia.svg Cagliaritana
  • Strada Statale 387 Italia.svg del Gerrei, to Ballao and Ogliastra.
  • Provincial Road 17 connects Poetto Villasimius.


The port of Cagliari is divided in two sector, the old port and the new international container terminal. The port system of Cagliari-Sarroch is the third for freight traffic in Italy with a movement of about 34 million tons.[96] Cagliari has scheduled services by passenger ship to Civitavecchia, Naples, Palermo and Trapani. In Cagliari there are also two other small touristic ports, Su Siccu (Lega Navale) and Marina Piccola.


D2.08 Bf Genneruxi, ET 06

The Ferrovie dello Stato railway station in Cagliari has services to Iglesias, Carbonia, Olbia, Golfo Aranci, Sassari and Porto Torres.[97]

The nearby commune of Monserrato is the terminal railway station of a narrow gauge line to Arbatax and Sorgono.

Urban and suburban mobility

Bus and trolleybus services, managed by CTM[98] (more than 30 lines) and ARST,[99] connect internal destinations in the city and in the metropolitan area; Cagliari is one of the few Italian cities with an extensive trolleybus network, whose fleet has been partially renovated in 2012. A metro-like tram service on its own rail, MetroCagliari, operates between Piazza Repubblica and the new University campus near Monserrato (line 1) and from Monserrato San Gottardo and Settimo San Pietro (line 2). A line between Piazza Repubblica and Piazza Matteotti, the city transport hub (with train, urban and extra-urban bus stations), is planned. Trenitalia, the primary train operator in Italy, operates a metro train service between Cagliari Central Station and Decimomannu, which connects the airport with the city center. A public bike-sharing service is operating with pick-up points at Via Sonnino - Palazzo Civico, Piazza Repubblica, Piazza Giovanni 23, and Marina Piccola.

Twin towns – sister cities

Cagliari is twinned with:


In Cagliari there are at present (2018) the following consulates:[100]


  1. ^ Long name (defunct): Casteddu de Càlaris.



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  • Mastino, Attilio (2006), "Carales", Brill's New Pauly Encyclopedia of the Ancient World, Leiden: Brill.

Further reading

In English:

  • Andrews Robert, The Rough Guide to Sardinia, Publisher: Rough Guide Ltd, 2010, ISBN 1848365403.
  • Dyson, Stephen L. - Roland Jr. Robert, Archaeology and History in Sardinia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages: Shepherds, Sailors, and Conquerors, 2007.
  • Freytag-Berndt, Sardinia Travel Map.
  • Lawrence D. H., Sea and Sardinia
  • Parker, Philip M., The 2011 Economic and Product Market Databook for Cagliari, Italy, Icon Group International, 2011 ISBN 9781157065692
  • Stein Eliot, Sardinia: Cagliari & the South, Publisher: Footprint Travel Guides, United Kingdom, 2012, ISBN 1908206535

In Italian:

  • Alziator Francesco, La città del sole, editrice La Zattera, Cagliari, 1963.
  • Atzeni Enrico, Cagliari preistorica, editrice CUEC, Cagliari, 2003.
  • Barreca Ferrucio, La Sardegna fenicia e punica, editore Chiarella, Sassari, 1984
  • Boscolo Alberto, La Sardegna bizantina e altogiudicale, editotr Chiarella, Sassari, 1982
  • Francesco Cesare Casula (1994). La storia di Sardegna. Sassari: Delfino Editore. ISBN 88-7138-063-0.
  • Cossu Giuseppe, Della città di Cagliari, notizie compendiose sacre e profane, Stamperia Reale, Cagliari 1780
  • Del Piano Lorenzo, La Sardegna nell'ottocento, editore Chiarella, Sassari, 1984
  • Gallinari Luciano, Il Giudicato di Cagliari tra XI e XIII secolo. Proposte di interpretazioni istituzionali, in Rivista dell'Istituto di Storia dell'Europa Mediterranea, n°5, 2010
  • Hunno Baeza Roderigo, Il Caralis Panegyricus, edited by Francesco Alziator, Tipografia, Mercantile Doglio, Cagliari, 1954.
  • Manconi Francesco, La Sardegna al tempo degli Asburgo, Il Maestrale, Nuoro, 2010, ISBN 9788864290102
  • Manconi Francesco, Una piccola provincia di un grande impero, CUEC, Cagliari, 2012, ISBN 8884677882
  • Manconi Francesco (edited by), La società sarda in età spagnola, Edizioni della Torre, Cagliari, 2003, 2 vol.
  • Mastino Attilio, Storia della Sardegna Antica, Il Maestrale, Nuoro, 2005, ISBN 9788889801635
  • Maxia Agata Rosa, La grammatica del dialetto cagliaritano, editrice Della Torre, Cagliari, 2010
  • Meloni Piero, La Sardegna Romana, Chiarella, Sassari, 1980
  • Porru Vincenzo Raimondo, Saggio di gramatica sul dialetto sardo meridionale, Stamperia Reale, Cagliari, 1811.
  • Scano Dionigi, Forma Karalis, a cura del Comune di Cagliari, pref. di E. Endrich, Cagliari, Società Editrice Italiana, 1934, (oggi in ed. anast. Cagliari, La zattera, 1970; Cagliari, 3T, 1989).
  • Sole Carlino, La Sardegna sabauda nel settecento, edizione Chiarella, Sassari, 1984
  • Sorgia Giancarlo, La Sardegna spagnola, editore Chiarella, Sassari, 1983
  • Spano Giovanni, Guida della città e dintorni di Cagliari, ed. Timon, Cagliari, 1861
  • Spanu Luigi, Cagliari nel seicento, editrice Il Castello, Cagliari, 1999
  • Thermes Cenza, Cagliari, amore mio : guida storica, artistica, sentimentale della citta di Cagliari, editrice 3T, Cagliari, 1980-81.
  • Thermes Cenza, E a dir di Cagliari..., editrice G. Trois, Cagliari, 1997.
  • Zedda Corrado, Pinna Raimondo, Fra Santa Igia e il Castro Novo Montis de Castro. La questione giuridica urbanistica a Cagliari all'inizio del XIII secolo, Archivio Storico Giuridico Sardo di Sassari", n.s., 15 (2010–2011), pp. 125–187
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

External links

1993–94 UEFA Cup

The 1993–94 UEFA Cup was won by Internazionale on aggregate over Austria Salzburg.

Juventus were the defending champions, but got eliminated in the quarter-finals by Cagliari.

2014–15 Serie A

The 2014–15 Serie A (known as the Serie A TIM for sponsorship reasons) was the 113th season of top-tier Italian football, the 83rd in a round-robin tournament, and the fifth since its organization under a league committee separate from Serie B. It began on 30 August 2014.

A total of 20 teams compete in the league: 17 sides from the 2013–14 season and three promoted from the 2013–14 Serie B campaign. Juventus were the defending champions, successfully defending their title for the fourth consecutive time. On 2 May 2015, Juventus won the scudetto for the fourth consecutive time.

59th Infantry Division Cagliari

The 59th Infantry Division Cagliari was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II. It was formed 5 April 1939 in Vercelli and dissolved 8 September 1943 in southern Peloponnese. Garrisoned in Vercelli, the division was made up almost entirely of men from northern Piedmont, especially from Vercelli and Ivrea. The only difference between line infantry divisions and mountain infantry divisions was that the latter's artillery was carried by pack mules instead of the standard horse-drawn carriages. Italy's real mountain warfare divisions were the six alpine divisions manned by the "Alpini" mountain troops.

Cagliari Calcio

Cagliari Calcio, commonly referred to as Cagliari (Italian: [ˈkaʎʎari] (listen)), is an Italian football club based in Cagliari, Sardinia. The club currently plays in Serie A.

They won their only Scudetto in 1969–70, when they were led by the Italian national team's all-time leading scorer, Luigi Riva. The triumph was also the first by a club from south of Rome. Cagliari's colours are blue and red.

As of 2018–19, the team is temporarily playing their home games at the 16,000 Sardegna Arena, adjacent to the future new stadium site.

The club's best European performance was in the 1993–94 UEFA Cup, losing in the semi-finals to Internazionale.

Cagliari Elmas Airport

Cagliari Elmas Airport (IATA: CAG, ICAO: LIEE) is an international airport located in the territory of Elmas, near Cagliari, on the Italian island of Sardinia.

Davide Astori

Davide Astori (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdaːvide aˈstɔːri, aˈstoːri]; 7 January 1987 – 4 March 2018) was an Italian professional footballer who played as a central defender.

After playing youth football for Pontisola and Milan, Astori started his senior career at Serie C clubs Pizzighettone and Cremonese, playing one season for each while on loan from Milan. In 2008, Cagliari signed him in a co-ownership deal, before signing him fully from Milan, for whom he never made a first team appearance, in 2011. He later spent loan spells at Roma and Fiorentina, before signing with the latter club permanently in 2016; he was subsequently named the team's captain in 2017.

Astori made his international debut for Italy in 2011 and represented his country on 14 occasions, scoring one goal, which came in the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup third place play off, where he won a bronze medal.

On 4 March 2018, Astori was found dead in his hotel room prior to a league match. His autopsy revealed cardiac arrest as his cause of death.

Diego López (footballer, born August 1974)

Luis Diego López Breijo (American Spanish: [lwizˈðjeɣo ˈlopes]; born 22 August 1974) is a Uruguayan retired footballer who played as a defender, and is the coach of Peñarol.

His career as a defender was intimately connected with Cagliari in Italy, for which he appeared in over 300 competitive games in 12 years. He later worked with the club as a manager, in several categories.

López represented Uruguay in two Copa América tournaments.

Gianfranco Zola

Gianfranco Zola (Italian pronunciation: [dʒaɱˈfraŋko dˈdzɔːla]; born 5 July 1966) is an Italian former footballer who played predominantly as a forward. He is a football manager and coach and is the assistant manager of Chelsea.

He spent the first decade of his playing career playing in Italy, most notably with Napoli, alongside Diego Maradona and Careca, where he was able to win the Serie A title, and at Parma, where he won the Italian Super Cup and the UEFA Cup. He later moved to English side Chelsea, where he was voted the Football Writers' Player of the Year in the 1996–97 season. During his time at the club, he won the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, the UEFA Super Cup, two FA Cups, the League Cup, and the Community Shield. In 2003, he was voted Chelsea's greatest player ever. He was capped 35 times for Italy from his debut in 1991, appearing at the 1994 World Cup, where Italy finished in second place, and Euro 1996.

After a stint with Italy under-21s, Zola began his club managerial career with West Ham United of the Premier League in 2008 in the Premier League, before being sacked in 2010. He was manager of Watford from July 2012 until he announced his resignation on 16 December 2013. From December 2014 to March 2015 he managed Cagliari in Serie A. He returned to Chelsea as the assistant of new Chelsea manager Maurizio Sarri on 18 July 2018, ahead of the 2018–19 Premier League season.


Girò is a red Italian wine grape variety that is grown on Sardinia and used mostly in the production of fortified wines in the Giro di Cagliari Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC). The grape was once widely planted throughout Sardinia but its plantings were decimated when the phylloxera epidemic hit the island at the end of the nineteenth century. At the turn of the 21st century there were 552 hectares (1,364 acres) of the grape planted throughout Italy, mostly in the Sardinian provinces of Cagliari and Oristano.

Judicate of Cagliari

The Judicate of Cagliari (Sardinian: Judicadu de Caralis/Calaris, Italian: Giudicato di Cagliari) was one of the four Sardinian judicates of the Middle Ages, kingdoms of Byzantine origins.

The Judicate of Cagliari covered the entire south and central east portion of the island and was composed of thirteen subdivisions called curatoriae. To its north and west lay Arborea and north and on the east lay Gallura and Logudoro.

List of Serie B champions and promotions

This article is a list of Serie B champions and promotions since its establishment – including the competition under previous names.

List of foreign Serie A players

This is a list of foreign players (i.e. non-Italian players) in Serie A. The following players:

have played at least one Serie A game for the respective club (seasons in which and teams for, a player, did not collected any caps in Serie A , have NOT to be listed).

have not been capped for the Italian national team on any level, independently from the birthplace, except for players born in San Marino and active in the Italian national team before the first official match of the Sammarinese national team played on 14 November 1990 and players of Italian formation born abroad from Italian parents (so called 'Oriundi').

have been born in Italy and were capped by a foreign national team. This includes players who have dual citizenship with Italy.Players are sorted by the State:

they played for in a national team on any level. For footballers that played for two or more national teams it prevails:

the one he played for on A level.

the national team of birth.

If they never played for any national team on any level, it prevails the state of birth. For footballers born in dissolved states prevails the actual state of birth (e.g.: Yugoslavia -> Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, etc.).These are all the teams that have had at least a foreign player while playing in a Serie A season and in bold are the ones currently playing for the 2018–19 season :

Alessandria, Ancona, Ascoli, Atalanta, Avellino, Bari, Benevento, Bologna, Brescia, Cagliari, Carpi, Catania, Catanzaro, Cesena, Chievo, Como, Cremonese, Crotone, Empoli, Fiorentina, Foggia, Frosinone, Genoa, Inter, Juventus, Lazio, Lecce, Lecco, Legnano, Livorno, Lucchese, Mantova, Messina, Milan, Modena, Napoli, Novara, Padova, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Piacenza, Pisa, Pistoiese, Pro Patria, Reggiana, Reggina, Roma, Salernitana, Sampdoria, Sassuolo, Siena, SPAL, Torino, Treviso, Triestina, Udinese, Varese, Venezia, Verona, Vicenza.

These are the only teams that have participated in Serie A but have not had a foreign player :

Casale, Pro Vercelli, Ternana

In bold: players still active in Serie A and their respective teams in current season.

List of railway stations in Sardinia

This is the list of the railway stations in Sardinia.

Luigi Riva

Luigi "Gigi" Riva (Italian: [luˈiːdʒi ˈdʒiːdʒi ˈriːva]; born 7 November 1944) is an Italian former professional footballer who played as a centre-forward.

Considered to be one of the best players of his generation, as well as one of the greatest strikers of all time, Riva enjoyed a remarkable scoring record for Cagliari, thanks to his composure in front of goal, powerful left foot and aerial ability; his speed, strength and eye for goal led the Italian journalist Gianni Brera to nickname him "Rombo di Tuono" (Roar of Thunder). Aside from his debut season with Legnano, Riva remained with the Sardinian club for his entire career: he helped Cagliari achieve promotion to the Italian top-flight for the first time in 1964, and later led the club to their only Serie A title in 1969–70.At international level, Riva won the 1968 UEFA European Championship and was runner-up at the 1970 FIFA World Cup with the Italian national team; he also took part at the 1974 FIFA World Cup. With 35 goals in 42 appearances (in all official competitions) between 1965 and 1974, he is Italy's all-time leading goalscorer.After retiring in 1976, Riva briefly served as the president of Cagliari during the 1986–87 season, and was later the team manager and director of the Italian national team from 1988 until 2013.

Massimiliano Allegri

Massimiliano Allegri (Italian pronunciation: [massimiˈljaːno alˈleːɡri, - alˈlɛː-]; born 11 August 1967) is an Italian professional football manager and former player currently in charge of Serie A club Juventus.

As a player, Allegri was a midfielder who spent his career playing for various Italian clubs. After beginning his managerial career in 2003 with several smaller Italian sides, he later played a key role in Sassuolo's rise through the lower Italian divisions and subsequently led Cagliari to their best Serie A finish in nearly 15 years, winning the Panchina d'Oro Award for best Serie A coach in 2009. His performances as head coach of Cagliari earned him a move to Milan in 2010, where he remained until January 2014; in the 2010–11 season, Allegri helped Milan to their first Serie A title since the 2003–04 season.After joining Juventus in 2014, he won four consecutive domestic doubles between 2015 and 2018, the only coach to achieve this feat in the top 5 European leagues.

As of September 2018, he was the coach with the highest points-per-game ratio (2,30) in the history of Juventus.

Radja Nainggolan

Radja Nainggolan (born 4 May 1988) is a Belgian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Italian club Inter Milan.

Nicknamed Il Ninja, he spent most of his professional career in Italy, representing Piacenza, Cagliari, Roma and Inter Milan and making over 290 Serie A appearances.

A Belgium international for eight years, Nainggolan played 30 times for his country (scoring six goals) and represented it at Euro 2016.


Sardinia ( sar-DIN-ee-ə; Italian: Sardegna [sarˈdeɲɲa]; Sardinian: Sardìgna [saɾˈdiɲɲa] or Sardìnnia [saɾˈdinja]; Sassarese: Sardhigna; Gallurese: Saldigna; Algherese: Sardenya; Tabarchino: Sardegna) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and before Cyprus). It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica.

Sardinia is politically a region of Italy, whose official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna (Autonomous Region of Sardinia), and enjoys some degree of domestic autonomy granted by a specific Statute. It is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari being the region's capital and also its largest city. Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages (Sassarese, Corsican Gallurese, Algherese Catalan and Ligurian Tabarchino) spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian.Due to the variety of its ecosystems, which include mountains, woods, plains, largely uninhabited territories, streams, rocky coasts and long sandy beaches, the island has been defined metaphorically as a micro-continent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have extolled the beauty of its untouched landscape, which houses the vestiges of the Nuragic civilization.

Stadio Sant'Elia

Stadio Comunale Sant'Elia was a football stadium in Cagliari, Italy. It is best known for having been the home of Cagliari Calcio. It hosted three matches during the 1990 FIFA World Cup. The stadium had an initially capacity of 60,000 spectators, reduced to 40,919 in 1990, and then 23,834 and finally 16,000 spectators with a provisional stand.

Its construction began in 1970, following Cagliari Calcio's first and so far only Scudetto, thus taking the place of the old Amsicora Stadium.

The stadium could accommodate up to about 60,000 spectators (the record attendance being approximately 70,000, was recorded against Saint Etienne). The stadium subsequently underwent major changes and restructuring for the 1990 FIFA World Cup. The maximum capacity of Sant'Elia was reduced to 40,919 spectators.

The Sant'Elia was also used for sporting events outside football such as the Terra Sarda athletics meet.

Before the 2002–03 season, also due to the reduced number of fans following the poor form of the team, long reduced to yo-yoing between Serie A and B, the stadium was restructured again. Over the athletics track, a new stand was built, behind the goals so as to reduce the distance between the terrace and the playing field, with the central terraces remaining intact. The new format of the stadium, which almost halved its maximum capacity to 23,486 seats, came under harsh criticism.

Cagliari Calcio president Massimo Cellino had plans to build a new stadium for the football team to play in, however the council and mayor Emilio Floris refused to give consent for the project to go ahead, despite the fact that Cellino was willing to finance the new stadium himself.

Nonetheless, plans were drawn up and a draft was revealed in September 2007, with Cellino and Cagliari Calcio meeting all expenses. The project provided a stadium with 25,000 seats, with construction beginning in August 2009 and expected completion a year later. However, late in 2009, Cagliari Calcio proposed a revamped plan for the Karalis Arena in order to be added to the list of the Euro 2016 candidature. The new stadium would accommodate about 30,000 spectators and have new Skybox, restaurants and café.Due to disagreements with the new local administration headed by mayor Massimo Zedda and growing safety concerns regarding the venue, Cagliari left Stadio Sant'Elia in the final weeks of the 2011–12 Serie A season, playing the remaining few home games at Stadio Nereo Rocco, Trieste. For the 2012–13 Serie A season, Cagliari played its home games outside its home city, at Stadio Comunale Is Arenas in Quartu Sant'Elena, thus ultimately putting an end to its long-standing association with Stadio Sant'Elia.However, Cagliari cancelled their contract at Stadio Is Arenas in April 2013 after having safety issues with local authorities all season, which forced them to play behind closed doors in several matches. It was announced on 19 October 2013 that Cagliari would return to the Stadio Sant’Elia for the remainder of 2013-14 Serie A season.On 1 August 2014, after a deal with the local council, new Cagliari President Tommaso Giulini announced that Stadio Sant’Elia would be expanded to hold at least 11,650 fans for the 2014-15 Serie A season. The goal was to reach a capacity of 16,000 (or even 18,000) by 21 December 2014 (home match against Juventus).On 24 October 2014, the Provincial Supervision Committee gave the go-ahead for opening Curva Sud which has a capacity of 4,000 seats. Thus, it was expected that the stadium would have a total capacity of 16,000 when Cagliari Calcio took on AC Milan on 29 October.On 18 December 2015 Cagliari Calcio presented a project of a new stadium which would have a capacity of 21,000, shops, and a restaurant. The project was approved by the local council on 21 February 2017 and by the region on 1 March 2017. Work started in April 2017 and the new stadium will be completed by 2020. During the construction of the new stadium Cagliari plays at the Sardegna Arena, a provisional stadium built near old Sant'Elia.

University of Cagliari

The University of Cagliari (Italian: Università degli Studi di Cagliari) is a university in Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. It was founded in 1606 and is organized in 11 faculties.

It symbol is: The coats of arms of this University are, in the middle, the image of the Very Saint Conception, and at the foot a tiara of Pontiff with letter H that means the name of Saint Hylarius Pope, and below, two Prelate Mitres, in the one on the right hand, a letter L which means the name of Saint Lucifer with Primatial Cross, and in the other hand, the letter E which means the name of Saint Eusebius with his pastoral insignia, and then at the right side of the Virgin, the coats of arms of this Kingdom (of Sardinia), and at left side, the one of this city of Cagliari.

Climate data for Cagliari Elmas Airport (1971–2000) (Elmas about 8 km (5 mi) northwest of Cagliari, 7 km (4 mi) from sea)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 14.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.9
Average low °C (°F) 5.5
Average rainfall mm (inches) 49.7
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.8 6.8 6.8 7.0 4.4 2.1 0.8 1.3 4.3 6.5 7.4 7.4 61.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 136.4 139.2 186.0 213.0 269.7 288.0 334.8 310.0 246.0 198.4 147.0 127.1 2,596
Source: Servizio Meteorologico,[38] Hong Kong Observatory[39] for data of sunshine hours
Climate data for Cagliari (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 14.4
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.9
Average low °C (°F) 5.4
Average rainfall mm (inches) 40.7
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 6 6 7 4 2 1 1 5 6 8 8 61
Mean monthly sunshine hours 150 163 209 218 270 311 342 321 243 209 150 127 2,726
Regional capitals of Italy
Cities in Italy by population

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