Cagayán (/kɑːɡəˈjɑːn/ kah-gə-YAHN) (Ilokano: Probinsia ti Cagayan; Ibanag: Probinsiya nat Cagayan; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Cagayan) is a province of the Philippines in the Cagayan Valley region in the northeast of Luzon Island, and includes the Babuyan Islands to the north. The province borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao to the west, and Kalinga and Isabela to the south. Its capital is the city of Tuguegarao.

Cagayán was one of the early provincias that existed during the Spanish Colonial Period. Called La Provincia de Cagayan, its borders essentially covered the entire Cagayan Valley, which included the present provinces of Isabela, Quirino, Nueva Vizcaya, Batanes and portions of Kalinga and Apayao. The former capital was Nueva Segovia, which also served as the seat of the Diocese of Nueva Segovia.[3] Today, only 9,295.75 square kilometres (3,589.11 sq mi)[1] remain of the former vastness of the province. The entire region, however, is still referred to as Cagayan Valley.

In 2013, Cagayán was host to the 27th (Survivor: Blood vs. Water) and 28th (Survivor: Cagayan) seasons of the American reality game show, Survivor.

Province of Cagayán
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 18°00′N 121°48′E / 18°N 121.8°ECoordinates: 18°00′N 121°48′E / 18°N 121.8°E
RegionCagayan Valley (Region II)
FoundedJune 29, 1583
 • GovernorManuel Mamba (LP)
 • Vice GovernorBoy Vargas (UNA)
 • Total9,295.75 km2 (3,589.11 sq mi)
Area rank5th out of 81
Highest elevation
(Mount Cetaceo)
1,811 m (5,942 ft)
(2015 census)[2]
 • Total1,199,320
 • Rank22nd out of 81
 • Density130/km2 (330/sq mi)
 • Density rank63rd out of 81
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays820
 • Districts1st to 3rd districts of Cagayan
Time zoneUTC+8 (PHT)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)78
ISO 3166 codePH
Spoken languages


Present-day chroniclers hold that the name was originally derived from the tagay, a plant that grows abundantly in the northern part of the province. The term Catagayan, "the place where the tagay grows" was shortened to Cagayan.[3] Perhaps more conventionally, etymological scholars hold that cagayan comes from an ancient word that means "river". Variations of this word—karayan, kayan, kayayan, and kalayan—all mean river.[3][4]


Pre-colonial period

Cagayan has a prehistoric civilization with rich and diverse culture. According to archaeologists, the earliest man in the Philippines probably lived in Cagayan thousands of years ago. Evidences to this effect are now convincing beyond scientific doubt to consider it as an incontestable fact.

In the classical era, Gattaran and Lal-lo used to be the home of hunter-gatherers who specialized in hunting mollusks. These hunter-gatherers have stockpiled their leftover mollusk shells in numerous sites in Gattaran and Lal-lo, until eventually, the shells formed into largest stock of shell-midden sites in the entire Philippines.

From available evidences, the Atta or Negrito - a short dark-skinned nomad - was the first man in Cagayan. They were later moved to the uplands by the Malays who eventually became the Ibanags, Itawes, Yogads, Gaddangs, Irayas and Malawegs - the natives of Cagayan - who actually came from one ethnicity. These are the people found by the Spaniards in the different villages along the rivers all over Cagayan. The Spaniards rightly judged that these various villagers came from a single racial stock and decided to make the Ibanag language the lingua franca, both civilly and ecclesiastically for the entire people of Cagayan which they called collectively as the Cagayanes which later was transliterated to become Cagayanos.

Even before the Spaniards came to Cagayan, the Cagayanos have already made contact with various civilizations like the Chinese, Japanese and even Indians, as evidenced by various artifacts and even the presence of minor to moderate foreign linguistic elements in the languages of the natives.

Various other racial strains, mainly the Ilocanos, Pangasinenses, Kapampangans and Tagalogs, as well as Visayans, Moros and even foreigners like the Chinese, Indians, Arabs, Spaniards and others were further infused to the native Cagayanes to become the modern Cagayano that we know today.

Cagayan is also the site of a Wokou state when the Japanese pirate-lord Tay Fusa,[5] set up his Japanese pirate kingdom in Cagayan before it was destroyed during the 1582 Cagayan battles.

Spanish colonial period

In 1581, Captain Ivan Sabala arrived in Cagayan with a hundred fully equipped soldiers and their families by order of Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñaloza, the fourth Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines. The expeditionary force was sent to explore the Cagayan Valley, to convert the natives to Catholicism, and to establish ecclesiastical missions and towns throughout the valley.

On 29 June 1583, Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo traced the northern coastline of Luzon and set foot on the Massi (Pamplona), Tular, and Aparri areas.

La Provincia de Cagayan

In 1583, through a Spanish Royal Decree, the entire northeastern portion of Luzon (specifically, all territories east of the Cordillera mountains and those north of the Caraballo mountains) including the islands in the Balintang Channel were organized into one large political unit called the La Provincia de Cagayan. The provincia's territorial delineation encompassed the present provinces of Batanes, Isabela, Quirino, Nueva Vizcaya, including portions of Kalinga and Apayao. Its capital was Nueva Segovia (the present municipality of Lal-lo).[3]

The Spanish friars soon established mission posts in Camalaniugan and Lal-lo (Nueva Segovia), which became the seat of the Diocese established by Pope Clement VIII on August 14, 1595. The see was moved in 1758 to Vigan because of its relative distance. The Spanish influence can still be seen in the massive churches and other buildings that the Spaniards built for the spiritual and social welfare of the people.

In 1839, Nueva Vizcaya was established as a politico-military province and was separated from Cagayan. Later, Isabela was founded as a separate province on May 1, 1856, its areas carved from southern Cagayan and eastern Nueva Vizcaya territories.[3]

During the late 18th century, the New Spain government encouraged the expansion of trade and development of commodity crops. Among these was tobacco, and lands in Cagayan became the center of a vertical integrated monopoly: tobacco was grown there and shipped to Manila, where it was processed and made into cigarettes and cigars. The development of the related bureaucracy and accounting systems was done under the leadership of José de Gálvez, who as visitor-general to Mexico from 1765 to 1772 developed the monopoly there and increased revenues to the Crown. He worked in the Philippines as Minister of the Indies from 1776 to 1787, constructing a similar monopoly there under Governor-General Basco y Vargas (1778–1787).[6] The Spanish development of this industry affected all their economic gains in the Philippines.[6]

The establishment of the civil government of Cagayan through the 1583 Spanish Royal Decree is commemorated in the annual Aggao Nac Cagayan celebrations of the Provincial Government of Cagayan and its people.

Cagayan province 1918 map
An old map of Cagayan during the 1918 Census

American period

When the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1898, ending the Spanish–American War, the United States took over the Philippines. It influenced the culture, most notably in agriculture and education, as well as in public works and communications. A naval base also increased interaction between local Filipinos and American sailors and administrators. At the close of the 18th century, there were 29 municipalities in the province of Cagayan. After the Philippines came under American sovereignty in 1902, more municipalities were founded. Since then, due to centralization and shifting of populations, the number of municipalities is back to 29.

World War II

During the Second World War, with air raids by Japanese fighters and bombers, the province of Cagayan suffered much destruction by bombing and later invasion. Japanese Imperial forces entered Cagayan in 1942. While under the Japanese Occupation, several pre-war infantry divisions and regular units of the Philippine Commonwealth Army were re-established during the period on January 3, 1942 to June 30, 1946. They established general headquarters, camps and garrisoned troops in the province of Cagayan, and began operations against the Japanese Occupation forces in the Cagayan Valley. This included sending troops to the provinces of Cagayan and Isabela, and helping the local soldiers of the 11th and 14th Infantry Regiment of the USAFIP-NL, the local guerrilla fighters and the U.S. liberation forces. They fought against the Japanese Imperial forces from 1942 to 1945.

The Battle of Cape Engaño on October 26, 1944, was held off Cape Engaño. At that time American carrier forces attacked the Japanese Northern Force. This became the concluding action of the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Japanese lost 4 carriers, 3 light cruisers and 9 destroyers.

In 1945, the combined United States and Philippine Commonwealth ground troops, together with the recognized guerrillas, took Cagayan. Part of the action were the Filipino soldiers of the 1st, 2nd, 12th, 13th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, 1st Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary and the 11th and 14th Infantry Regiment of the United States Armed Forces in the Philippines – Northern Luzon or USAFIP-NL from the Battle of Cagayan Valley during the Second World War.

Map of northern Luzon Island, Philippines, with the Sierra Madre and Cordillera mountain ranges indicated - ZooKeys-266-001-g001
Northern Luzon topographical map showing Cagayan

Post-war era

The Hotel Delfino siege was a bloody coup attempt that took place on March 4, 1990, when suspended Cagayan governor Rodolfo Aguinaldo and his armed men of 200 seized Hotel Delfino in Tuguegarao. They held as hostage Brigadier General Oscar Florendo, his driver and four members of the civilian staff, and several other people for several hours. The government launched a gunfight to kill Aguinaldo and his men. Killed in the action was one of Aguinaldo's men, Brig. Gen. Florendo and 12 others, with 10 persons wounded. Aguinaldo was slightly wounded but eventually escaped and hid in the mountains.


Ph fil cagayan

Situated within the Cagayan Valley region, the province is bounded by the Philippine Sea on the east; on the south by Isabela province; on the west by the Cordillera Mountains; and on the north by the Balintang Channel and the Babuyan Group of Islands. About 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the northeastern tip of the province is the island of Palaui; a few kilometers to the west is Fuga Island. The Babuyan Group of Islands, which includes Calayan, Dalupiri, Camiguin, and Babuyan Claro, is about 60 nautical miles (110 km) north of Luzon mainland.

The eastern coast forms the northern portion of the Sierra Madre mountain range, while the western limits are generally hilly to low in elevation. The central area, dominated by a large valley, forms the lower basin of the country's longest river, the Cagayan.[3] The mouth is located at the northern town of Aparri.

The province of Cagayan comprises an aggregate land area of 9,295.75 square kilometres (3,589.11 sq mi)[7] which constitutes approximately three percent of the total land area of the country, making it the second largest province in the region.

Administrative divisions

Cagayan comprises 28 municipalities and one city divided into three congressional districts. It has 820 barangays. Tuguegarao City (as of December 18, 1999) is the provincial capital, regional seat, and center of business, trade, and education and the only city in the province.

  •  †  Provincial capital and component city
  •      Municipality
City or municipality[A] District[7] Population ±% p.a. Area[7] Density Brgy. Coordinates[B]
(2015)[2] (2010)[8] km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Abulug 2nd 2.7% 32,497 30,675 1.10% 162.60 62.78 200 520 20 18°26′37″N 121°27′26″E / 18.4436°N 121.4573°E
Alcala 1st 3.2% 38,883 37,773 0.55% 187.20 72.28 210 540 25 17°54′09″N 121°39′24″E / 17.9024°N 121.6567°E
Allacapan 2nd 2.8% 33,571 31,662 1.12% 306.80 118.46 110 280 27 18°13′33″N 121°33′16″E / 18.2259°N 121.5545°E
Amulung 3rd 4.0% 47,860 45,182 1.10% 242.20 93.51 200 520 47 17°50′14″N 121°43′24″E / 17.8371°N 121.7234°E
Aparri 1st 5.5% 65,649 61,199 1.35% 286.64 110.67 230 600 42 18°21′26″N 121°38′14″E / 18.3572°N 121.6371°E
Baggao 1st 6.9% 82,782 78,188 1.09% 920.60 355.45 90 230 48 18°16′16″N 121°40′48″E / 18.2710°N 121.6799°E
Ballesteros 2nd 2.9% 34,299 32,215 1.20% 120.00 46.33 290 750 19 18°24′36″N 121°30′55″E / 18.4100°N 121.5152°E
Buguey 1st 2.5% 30,175 28,455 1.12% 164.50 63.51 180 470 30 18°17′11″N 121°50′05″E / 18.2865°N 121.8347°E
Calayan 2nd 1.4% 16,702 16,200 0.58% 494.53 190.94 34 88 12 19°15′43″N 121°28′33″E / 19.2619°N 121.4758°E
Camalaniugan 1st 2.1% 24,923 23,404 1.20% 76.50 29.54 330 850 28 18°16′30″N 121°40′28″E / 18.2750°N 121.6744°E
Claveria 2nd 2.5% 29,921 30,482 −0.35% 194.80 75.21 150 390 41 18°36′32″N 121°05′02″E / 18.6089°N 121.0839°E
Enrile 3rd 3.0% 35,834 32,553 1.85% 184.50 71.24 190 490 22 17°33′39″N 121°41′22″E / 17.5609°N 121.6895°E
Gattaran 1st 4.7% 56,661 54,848 0.62% 707.50 273.17 80 210 50 18°03′41″N 121°38′36″E / 18.0614°N 121.6433°E
Gonzaga 1st 3.2% 38,892 36,303 1.32% 567.43 219.09 69 180 25 18°15′34″N 121°59′37″E / 18.2594°N 121.9937°E
Iguig 3rd 2.3% 27,862 25,559 1.66% 108.10 41.74 260 670 23 17°45′09″N 121°44′17″E / 17.7525°N 121.7380°E
Lal-lo 1st 3.7% 44,506 41,388 1.39% 702.80 271.35 63 160 35 18°12′05″N 121°39′39″E / 18.2015°N 121.6607°E
Lasam 2nd 3.3% 39,135 36,994 1.08% 213.70 82.51 180 470 30 18°03′52″N 121°36′05″E / 18.0645°N 121.6015°E
Pamplona 2nd 2.0% 23,596 23,236 0.29% 173.30 66.91 140 360 18 18°27′49″N 121°20′28″E / 18.4637°N 121.3412°E
Peñablanca 3rd 4.1% 48,584 42,736 2.47% 1,193.20 460.70 41 110 24 17°37′32″N 121°47′07″E / 17.6255°N 121.7854°E
Piat 2nd 2.0% 23,597 22,961 0.52% 139.60 53.90 170 440 18 17°47′30″N 121°28′37″E / 17.7918°N 121.4770°E
Rizal 2nd 1.5% 17,994 18,592 −0.62% 124.40 48.03 140 360 29 17°50′45″N 121°20′45″E / 17.8457°N 121.3458°E
Sanchez-Mira 2nd 2.0% 24,541 23,257 1.03% 198.80 76.76 120 310 18 18°33′33″N 121°14′05″E / 18.5591°N 121.2347°E
Santa Ana 1st 2.7% 32,906 30,458 1.48% 441.30 170.39 75 190 16 18°27′27″N 122°08′33″E / 18.4576°N 122.1425°E
Santa Praxedes 2nd 0.3% 4,154 3,646 2.51% 109.97 42.46 38 98 10 18°33′47″N 120°59′24″E / 18.5631°N 120.9901°E
Santa Teresita 1st 1.6% 19,038 17,600 1.51% 166.98 64.47 110 280 13 18°14′55″N 121°54′33″E / 18.2487°N 121.9091°E
Santo Niño (Faire) 2nd 2.3% 27,219 26,126 0.78% 512.90 198.03 53 140 31 17°53′02″N 121°34′09″E / 17.8838°N 121.5692°E
Solana 3rd 6.9% 82,502 76,596 1.42% 234.60 90.58 350 910 38 17°39′03″N 121°41′27″E / 17.6508°N 121.6907°E
Tuao 3rd 5.1% 61,535 57,620 1.26% 215.50 83.21 290 750 32 17°44′05″N 121°27′19″E / 17.7346°N 121.4552°E
Tuguegarao City 3rd 12.8% 153,502 138,865 1.93% 144.80 55.91 1,100 2,800 49 17°36′45″N 121°43′58″E / 17.6125°N 121.7327°E
Total 1,199,320 1,124,773 1.23% 9,295.75 3,589.11 130 340 820 (see GeoGroup box)
  1. ^ Former names are italicized.
  2. ^ Coordinates mark the city/town center, and are sortable by latitude.


The 28 municipalities and 1 city of the province comprise a total of 820 barangays, with Ugac Sur in Tuguegarao City as the most populous in 2010, and Centro 15 (Poblacion) in Aparri as the least. If cities are excluded, Maura in Aparri has the highest population.[8]



Population census of Cagayan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1990 829,867—    
1995 895,050+1.43%
2000 993,580+2.26%
2007 1,072,571+1.06%
2010 1,124,773+1.74%
2015 1,199,320+1.23%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[2][8][8]

The population of Cagayan in the 2015 census was 1,199,320 people,[2] with a density of 130 inhabitants per square kilometre or 340 inhabitants per square mile.

The majority of people living in Cagayan are of Ilocano descent, mostly from migrants coming from the Ilocos Region. Originally, the more numerous group were the Ibanags, who were first sighted by the Spanish explorers and converted to Christianity by missionaries, the reason why the Ibanag language had spread throughout the valley region prior to the arrival of the migrating Ilocanos. Cagayan is predominantly Roman Catholic with 85% of the population affiliated and the Aglipayan Church has a very strong minority in the province.

Aside from Ilocanos and Ibanags, Malawegs, Itawits, Gaddangs, groups of nomadic Aetas, as well as families of Ibatans who have assimilated into the Ibanag-Ilocano culture make Cagayan their home. More recently, a new group from the south, the Muslim Filipinos, have migrated to this province and have made a community for themselves. In addition to this, Tagalog-speaking peoples from Central Luzon and Southern Luzon have also settled in the area, as well as a few Pangasinans and Kapampangans from the central plains.

Major languages spoken are Ilocano followed by Ibanag, Yogad and Gaddang. Ilocanos and Ibanags speak Ilocano with an Ibanag accent, as descendants of Ilocanos from first generation in Cagayan who lived within Ibanag population learned Ibanag; same situation with Ilocano tinged by Gaddang, Paranan, Yogad, and Itawis accents when descendants of Ilocanos from first generation in Isabela who lived within Gaddang, Paranan, Yogad, and Itawis populations learned their languages. People especially in the capital and commercial centers speak and understand English and Tagalog/Filipino. Tagalogs, Ilocanos, and Ibanags speak Tagalog with an Ibanag accent, as descendants of Tagalogs from first generation in Isabela who lived within Ibanag population learned Ibanag.

Endangered Languages

There are two endangered indigenous languages in Cagayan. These are the Dupaninan Agta language (with less than 1400 remaining speakers) and the Central Cagayan Agta (with less than 799 remaining speakers) language. Both of which are listed as Vulnerable according to the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Endangered Languages. All remaining speakers of the language are part of the community's elders. Without a municipality-wide teaching mechanism of the two endangered languages for the youth where the languages are present, the language may be extinct within 3-5 decades, making them languages in grave peril unless a teaching-mechanism is established by either the government or an educational institution in the municipalities of Gattaran, Cagayan and Baggao, Cagayan.[11]


Agricultural products are rice, corn, peanut, beans, and fruits. Livestock products include cattle, hogs, carabaos, and poultry. Fishing various species of fish from the coastal towns is also undertaken. Woodcraft furniture made of hardwood, rattan, bamboo, and other indigenous materials are also available in the province.[3]

Claveria Cagayan
Fishing boat in Claveria

The Northern Cagayan International Airport is a planned airport in Lal-lo. The airport will be built to support the Cagayan Special Economic Zone in northern Cagayan, which also serves seaborne traffic through Port Irene. The airport project will involve the construction of a 2,200-meter runway, with a width of 45 meters, following the standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Once completed, the planned international airport can accommodate large aircraft such as the Airbus A319-100 and Boeing regional jets of comparable size.[12]


Since Cagayan faces the Philippine Sea, an extensive shoreline sprawls along the northern coastal towns of Sanchez Mira,Pamplona, Santa Praxedes, Claveria, Buguey, Aparri, Ballesteros, Abulug, and the islands of Palaui, Fuga, and island municipality of Calayan. Sanchez Mira, Claveria, and Santa Praxedes have facilities for excursion stays while Fuga Island is being developed as a world-class recreation and tourism center. Activities include whale watching at the Calayan Islands, and scuba diving, snorkeling and fishing in Palaui Island of Santa Ana. The airstrip at Claveria could be used as a jump-off point to Fuga Island.

The Sambali Festival is celebrated throughout the province in commemoration of its founding. Hotels include the Governors Garden Hotel, Hotel Candice, Hotel Roma and Hotel Kimikarlai all in Tuguegarao City.

Claveria is host to several scenic attractions which include: the Lakay-Lakay Lagoon, the rocky formation along the Camalaggaon Caves, the Roadside Park overlooking the Claveria Bay, Macatel Falls with its clear waters that run in abundance throughout the year, the Pata Lighthouse, and the Claveria Beach Resort along the white sand coasts.[13]

Notable people

  • Juan Ponce EnrileJustice Secretary and then Defense Minister under the Marcos dictatorship and President of the Senate of the Philippines from November 2008 to June 2013, until he resigned due to his involvement in the pork barrel scandal.
  • Diosdado P. Banatao — entrepreneur and engineer working in the high-tech industry.
  • Maja Ross Andres Salvador — a popular actress of ABS-CBN, born and raised in Brgy. Canayun, Abulug, Cagayan.
  • Samuel Bagasin — retired general of AFP, former undersecretary of the Dept. of National Defense, from Nagrangtayan, Sanchez Mira, Cagayan.
  • Eulogio Baluitan Balao — former Secretary of the Dept. of National Defense and former Senator of the Republic of the Philippines, from Tuguegarao City.
  • Ricky Villanueva – former darts professional player born and raised in Lubbock, Texas.
  • Sofronio Aguirre Bancud - Catholic Bishop, fifth bishop of the Diocese of Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija. Born in Tuguegarao
  • Ricardo Baccay - Catholic Bishop, Third Bishop of the Diocese of Alaminos, Pangasinan and former Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of Tuguegarao. Born in Tuguegarao.
  • Lilia Cuntapay - An actress, also known as the "Queen of Philippine Horror Films", from Gonzaga, Cagayan.

See also


  1. ^ a b "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d Census of Population (2015). "Region II (Cagayan Valley)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Lancion, Jr., Conrado M.; de Guzman, Rey (cartography) (1995). "The Provinces". Fast Facts about Philippine Provinces (The 2000 Millenium ed.). Makati, Metro Manila: Tahanan Books. pp. 48, 49, 84, 118. ISBN 971-630-037-9. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  4. ^ Etymology discussion Dr. Lawrence A. Reid, Researcher Emeritus of the Department of Linguistics, University of Hawai'i.
  5. ^ The Dutch Discovery of Japan: The True Story Behind James Clavell's Famous Novel SHOGUN by Dirk J. Barreveld (Page 308)
  6. ^ a b Jane Baxter, Chris Poullaos, Practices, Profession and Pedagogy in Accounting: Essays in Honour of Bill Birkett, Sydney University Press, 2009, pp.152-161
  7. ^ a b c "Province: Cagayan". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region II (Cagayan Valley)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  9. ^ "Weather forecast for Province of Cagayan, Philippines". Storm247. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  10. ^ Table 4. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Cagayan, 2000
  11. ^
  12. ^ Business Mirror: 1B Airport in Cagayan "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-01-10. Retrieved 2011-11-23.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Retrieved November 23, 2011.
  13. ^ Paraiso Philippines: Cagayan, retrieved November 23, 2011.

External links


Aparri, (Ibanag: Ili nat Aparri; Ilokano: Ili ti Aparri; Tagalog: Bayan ng Aparri), officially the Municipality of Aparri, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Cagayan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 65,649 people.It sits at the mouth of the Cagayan River, the longest river in the Philippines, about 55 miles north of Tuguegarao, the provincial capital.

Aparri has an approximate income of ₱90 million. The valley has been one of the largest tobacco-producing sections in the Philippines, and the town has a considerable coastwise trade.It has a meteorological station located in Barangay Punta where the Cagayan River meets the Babuyan Channel.

It also administers Fuga Island, which is part of the Babuyan Group and is much closer to Claveria.In the near future,it is become the next city in the province of Cagayan.

Atta language

Atta is an Austronesian dialect cluster spoken by the Aeta (Agta) Negritos of the northern Philippines.

Cagayan River

The Cagayan River, also known as the Rio Grande de Cagayan, is the longest river in the Philippines and the largest river by discharge volume of water (followed by Rio Grande de Mindanao). It has a total length of approximately 350 kilometres (220 mi) and a drainage basin covering 27,753 square kilometres (10,715 sq mi). It is located in the Cagayan Valley region in northeastern part of Luzon Island and traverses the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, Isabela and Cagayan.

Cagayan Valley

Cagayan Valley (Ilokano: Tanap ti Cagayan; Ibanag: Tana' na Cagayan; Itawit: Tanap yo Cagayan; Gaddang: Tanap na Cagayan; Tagalog: Lambak ng Cagayan) (designated as Region II) is an administrative region in the Philippines located in the northeastern portion of Luzon. It is composed of five provinces: Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino. The region has four cities: Cauayan, Ilagan, Santiago, and Tuguegarao.

Most of the region lies in a large valley in northeastern Luzon, between the Cordilleras and the Sierra Madre mountain ranges. The eponymous Cagayan River, the country's largest and second longest, runs through its center and flows out from its source in the Caraballo Mountains in the south to the Luzon Strait in the north, in the town of Aparri, Cagayan. The region encompasses the outlying islands of the Babuyan and Batanes to the north.

Cagayan Valley is the second largest region of the Philippines in terms of land area, second only to MIMAROPA.

Cagayan Valley languages

The Cagayan Valley languages are a group of languages spoken in the Philippines. They are:









Eastern Addasen

Western Addasen


Faire Atta

Pamplona Atta

Pudtol Atta


North Ibanag

South Ibanag



Central Cagayan Agta



Cagayan-Baliwon Gaddang



Cagayan de Oro

Cagayan de Oro, officially the City of Cagayan de Oro (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Cagayan de Oro) or simply referred to as CDO, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in Northern Mindanao, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 675,950 people.It is a chartered city and capital of the province of Misamis Oriental where governance is independent and separate from the province. It also serves as the regional center and business hub of Northern Mindanao (Region X), and part of the growing Metropolitan Cagayan de Oro area, which includes the city of El Salvador, the towns of Opol, Alubijid, Laguindingan, Gitagum at the western side, and the towns of Tagoloan, Villanueva, Jasaan, Claveria at the eastern side.

The City of Cagayan de Oro is located along the north central coast of Mindanao island facing Macajalar Bay and is bordered by the municipalities of Opol to the west, Tagoloan to the east, and the provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte to the south of the city. According to the 2015 census, the city has a population of 675,950, making it the 10th most populous city in the Philippines.Cagayan de Oro is also famous for its white water rafting or kayaking adventures, one of the tourism activities being promoted along the Cagayan de Oro River.

Callao Cave

Callao Cave is one of the limestone caves located in the municipality of Peñablanca, Cagayan province, in the Philippines. The seven-chamber show cave is one of 300 caves that dot the area and the best known natural tourist attraction of the province. The town is named as Peñablanca (Spanish for white rocks) for the presence of white limestone rocks in the area. Callao Cave is located in the Barangays of Magdalo and Quibal in Peñablanca about 24 km (15 mi) northeast of Tuguegarao City, the capital of the Province of Cagayan.

A new species of human living between 50,000 to 67,000 years ago, Homo luzonensis, discovered in the cave was confirmed in 2019.Callao and the other caves are situated in the western foothills of the Northern Sierra Madre Mountains of the Philippines. They are situated within the Peñablanca Protected Landscape and Seascape, which stretches from the caves to the eastern shores of the Pacific Ocean.

Central Cagayan Agta language

Central Cagayan Agta, also known as Labin Agta, is an Aeta language of northern Cagayan Province, Philippines. It is spoken by the Aeta Negritos in inland areas located to the east and northeast of Baggao (Ethnologue).

Homo luzonensis

Homo luzonensis is an extinct species of primitive human in the genus Homo. In 2007, a third metatarsal bone (MT3) was discovered in Callao Cave, Luzon, Philippines by Philip J. Piper and initially identified as modern human by Florent Détroit. This find was dated using uranium series ablation to an age of 66,700 ± 1000 years before present, while associated faunal remains and a hominin tooth found in 2011 delivered dates of around 50,000 years ago.In 2019, an article by Florent Détroit et al. in the academic journal Nature described the subsequent discovery of "twelve additional hominin elements that represent at least three individuals that were found in the same stratigraphic layer of Callao Cave as the previously discovered metatarsal" and identified the fossils as belonging to a newly discovered species, Homo luzonensis, on the basis of differences from previously identified species in the genus Homo. This included H. floresiensis and H. sapiens. However, some scientists think additional evidence is required to confirm the fossils as a new species, rather than a locally adapted population of other Homo populations, such as H. erectus.

Legislative districts of Cagayan de Oro

The Legislative districts of Cagayan de Oro are the representations of the highly urbanized city of Cagayan de Oro in the various national legislatures of the Philippines. The city is currently represented in the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines through its first and second congressional districts.

Minori Cave

Minori Cave is part of the Callao limestone formation, located in Barangay Quibal, Municipality of Peñablanca, Cagayan Province in Northern Luzon. The said cave has two openings. One, designated as Mouth B, is located at 17° 43' 17" N latitude and 121° 49' 42" E longitude. The other opening, Mouth A is located 17° 43' 21" N latitude and 121° 49' 44" E longitude. The cave has an average elevation of about 200 m (656.2 ft) above sea level, and length and width of 147 m (482.3 ft) and 7 to 11 m (23.0 to 36.1 ft), respectively. The cave is divided into four chambers with mouth A as chamber A and mouth B as chamber D. Chambers B and C are in between the two mouths.

Misamis Oriental

Misamis Oriental (Cebuano: Sidlakang Misamis) is a province located in the region of Northern Mindanao in the Philippines. Its capital and provincial center is the city of Cagayan de Oro, which is governed independently from the province.

Northern Mindanao

Northern Mindanao (Cebuano: Amihanang Mindanao; Tagalog: Hilagang Mindanao) is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region X. It comprises five provinces: Camiguin, Misamis Oriental, Lanao del Norte, Bukidnon and Misamis Occidental and two cities classified as highly urbanized, all occupying the north-central part of Mindanao island, and the island-province of Camiguin. The regional center is Cagayan de Oro. Lanao del Norte was transferred to Northern Mindanao from Region XII (then called Central Mindanao) by virtue of Executive Order No. 36 in September 2001.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cagayan de Oro

The Archdiocese of Cagayan de Oro (Latin: Archidioecesis Cagayana) is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines. It is a metropolitan see on the island of Mindanao which comprises the civil provinces of Misamis Oriental, Camiguin and the municipality of Malitbog, Bukidnon. Today, it is headed by Archbishop Antonio J. Ledesma, S.J and its seat is located at Saint Augustine Metropolitan Cathedral in Cagayan de Oro City.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tuguegarao

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tuguegarao is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Catholic Church in the Philippines. Tuguegarao is a river delta city that became center of the Archdiocese in the Province of Cagayan, on the island of Luzon. Its seat is located at the Saint Peter's Metropolitan Cathedral.

Sierra Madre (Philippines)

The Sierra Madre is the longest mountain range in the Philippines. Running in the north-south direction from the provinces of Cagayan to the north and Quezon to the south, the mountains form the eastern backbone of Luzon Island, the largest island of the archipelago. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east. The Pacific coast of Luzon along the Sierra Madre is less developed as the lofty and continuous mountains forms a bold and an almost inaccessible shore, exposed to the full force of the northeast monsoon and the waves of the Pacific Ocean. Some of communities east of the mountain range and along the coast are so remote they are only accessible by plane or boat.

The country's largest protected area, the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, is situated at the northern part of the range in the province of Isabela. The park is in the UNESCO tentative list for World Heritage List inscription. Environmentalists, scholars, and scientists have been urging the government to include the other parks within the Sierra Madre mountains for a UNESCO site that would encompass the entire Sierra Madre mountain range from Cagayan to Quezon province.

Telephone numbers in the Philippines

Telephone numbers in the Philippines follow an open telephone numbering plan and an open dial plan. Both plans are regulated by the National Telecommunications Commission, an attached agency under the Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT).

The Philippines is assigned an international dialling code of 63 by ITU-T. Telephone numbers are fixed at seven digits, with area codes fixed at one, two, or three digits (a six-digit system was used until the mid-1990s; four to five digits were used in the countryside). Mobile phone numbers are always 10 digits (three digits for the service provider, plus a seven-digit number).

When making long-distance calls in the Philippines, the prefix 0 for domestic calls and 00 for international calls are used.


Tuguegarao, officially Tuguegarao City (Ibanag: Siyudad nat Tugegaraw; Itawit: Siyudad yo Tugegaraw; Ilokano: Siudad ti Tuguegarao; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Tuguegarao [tʊgɛ̝gäˈɾɐw]) and referred to by locals as Tugue, is a 3rd class component city in the Philippines. It is the capital of the province of Cagayan and the regional and institutional center of Cagayan Valley (Region II). With a population of 153,502, according to the 2015 census, it is a major urban center in the Northeastern Luzon, a primary growth center and one of the fastest growing cities in the Philippines.

Dubbed as the “Gateway to the Ilocandia and the Cordilleras,” the city, on the southern border of the province, is located where the Pinacanauan River empties into the Cagayan River and is surrounded by the Sierra Madre Mountains to the east, Cordillera Mountains to the west, and the Caraballo Mountains to the south.

The highest temperature ever recorded in the Philippines—42.2 °C (108.0 °F)—hit Tuguegarao on August 19, 1912 and May 11, 1969.

Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan

Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan is a private, Catholic university run by the Society of Jesus in Cagayan de Oro, Northern Mindanao, Philippines. Founded in 1933 as the Ateneo de Cagayan, it became a university in 1958, when it was given its present name in honor of the Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier.

Climate data for Cagayan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 27.9
Average low °C (°F) 20.6
Average rainy days 8 4 3 2 6 6 7 8 10 9 11 11 85
Source: Storm247[9]
Places adjacent to Cagayan
Province of Cagayan
Component city

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