Caere (also Caisra and Cisra) is the Latin name given by the Romans to one of the larger cities of Southern Etruria, the modern Cerveteri, approximately 50-60 kilometres north-northwest of Rome. To the Etruscans it was known as Cisra, to the Greeks as Agylla and to the Phoenicians as Kyšryʼ.
Caere was one of the most important and populous Etruscan city-states, in area 15 times larger than today's town, and only Tarquinia was equal in power at its height around 600 BC. Caere was also one of the cities of the Etruscan League.
Its sea port and monumental sanctuary at Pyrgi was important for overseas trade.
Today, the area of Cerveteri is best known for its Etruscan necropolis and archaeological treasures.
The ancient city was situated on a hill about 7 km from the sea, a location which made it a wealthy trading town derived originally from the iron ore mines in the Tolfa hills. It had three sea ports including Pyrgi and Punicum. It was bounded by the two rivers Mola and Manganello, and lay 80 metres above sea level on an outcrop of rocky tuff.
The earliest evidence of settlement of the site come from finds of urns at two areas (Cava della Pozzolana and Sorbo) from the 8th and 9th centuries BC and archaeology has revealed the presence of stable employment in the area with housing and related Etruscan necropolis settlements.
Trade between the Greeks and Etruscans became increasingly common in the middle of the 8th century BC, with standardised urns and pottery common in graves of the time. The town became the main Etruscan trading centre during the 7th century BC, and trade increased with other Greek colonies in Southern Italy and Sicily, and with the Corinthians. Locally manufactured products began to imitate imported Greek pottery especially after the immigration of Greek artists into Etruria.
In the Orientalizing Period from around 700 BC the early prosperity of the city is demonstrated in the graves of this period which often contain eastern imports and rich gold finds, notably in the extremely rich Regolini-Galassi tomb with its many fine gold offerings. From 530-500 BC Greek artists were active in the city and worked there for a generation producing color-painted hydras.
Burials of the time became increasingly grand, with jewellery and other products of particularly fine manufacture, illustrating the continuing good fortunes of the city. At the height of its prosperity in the 6th century BC, the people of Caere (with the Carthaginians) emerged marginally victorious from clashes with the Phocaean Greeks.
Caere had a good reputation among the Greeks for its values and sense of justice, since it abstained from piracy. It was the only Etruscan city to erect its own treasury at Delphi, the "Agillei Treasury" dedicated to Pythian Apollo. Since this was generally not allowed to non-Greeks, the legends regarding earlier Greek colonization efforts of the wider area of Caere and Rome seem to have played an important role in allowing such a bold, from a political point of view, act. (Delphi was also a political and intrigue centre for the whole Eastern Mediterranean and Near East area).
Caere appears for the first time in documented history in 540 BC concerning the Battle of Alalia in which captured prisoners were stoned to death in the city, an act that was later attributed as the cause of an ensuing plague. In recompense, athletic contests were held every year in the city to honour the dead.
In spite of the difficulties affecting Etruria during the period, trade once again flourished through the 5th century BC, arguably due to the particularly good relations with the Rome, a traditional ally of the city.
Caere was not spared by the crisis that affected the great centres of southern Etruria during the second half of the 5th c. BC, after the defeat at sea at the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC. A recovery can be perceived, however, at the beginning of the 4th century BC, when strong relationships with Rome continued. The town sheltered the Roman refugees including the priests and Vestal Virgins after the Gallic attack and fire of 390 BC, and the Roman aristocracy was educated in Caere.
The Roman Tabulae Caeritum dates from this time, which listed those citizens of Caere who were classed as Roman citizens and liable for military service, without being able to vote. It is supposed to have been the first community to receive this privilege.
In 353 BC Caere, allied to the Tarquinii, lost a war with Rome and with it some of its territory, including the coastal area and ports so important for trade.
From about 300 BC Caere came under Roman rule. Although the exact sequence of their submission can no longer be reconstructed today, there had been numerous feuds. Rome is said to have had a 100-year truce with Caere as a result, and virtually all Etruria was in Roman hands from about 295 BC.
The city lost its wealth and power completely by the first century AD.
Saint Adeodatus participated as bishop of this episcopal see, in a synod at Rome called by Pope Symmachus in 499, shortly before the seat of the bishopric was moved, because of malaria, from Caere Vetus (today's Cerveteri) to the new settlement of Caere Nova (today's Ceri). The territory of the Diocese of Caere became part of the Diocese of Porto around the 11th century.
During the period 700-300 BC the inhabitants constructed an impressive necropolis known today as Banditaccia, which is still not fully excavated but has already yielded the "Sarcophagus of the Spouses".
Belenois solilucis, the yellow caper white, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is found in Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. The habitat consists of lowland to sub-montane forests.
The larvae feed on Capparis tomentosa, Ritchiea and Maerua species.Bucchero
Bucchero (Italian pronunciation: [ˈbukkero]) is a class of ceramics produced in central Italy by the region's pre-Roman Etruscan population. This Italian word is derived from the Latin poculum, a drinking-vessel, perhaps through the Spanish búcaro, or the Portuguese púcaro.Regarded as the "national" pottery of ancient Etruria, bucchero ware is distinguished by its black fabric as well as glossy, black surface achieved through the unique "reduction" method in which it was fired. After the leather-hard unfired ware was arranged in the kiln and the fire started, the vent holes were closed, thus reducing the supply of oxygen required in a normal kiln firing. In the smoke-filled atmosphere of the kiln, the oxygen-starved flames drew oxygen molecules from the iron oxide of the pottery. This process caused the fabric of the clay to change color from its natural red to black. Thus, in contrast to the black-glazed Campanian ware of the Greek colonists in southern Italy, the lustrous, shiny, black surface of many bucchero pots was achieved by diligent burnishing (polishing) or, occasionally, through the application of a thin slip (clay emulsion).Caeretan hydria
A Caeretan hydria is a type of ancient Greek painted vase, belonging to the black-figure style.
Caeretan hydriai are a particularly colourful type of Greek vase painting. Their geographic origin is disputed by scholars, but in recent years the view that they were produced by two potter-painters who had emigrated from East Greece to Caere in Etruria has gained ground. Based on their style, they were for the longest time considered as either Etruscan or Corinthian products. However, added inscriptions in Ionic Greek support the hypothesis of immigration. The workshop only lasted for one generation. By now, about 40 vases of the style are known, all produced by the two masters and their assistants. None were discovered outside Etruria. The majority were excavated in Caere, after which site they were named by Carl Humann and Otto Puchstein. They are dated to between about 530 and 510/500 BC.
The hydriai have a height of 40 to 45 cm. Attached to the body are off-set widely swaying necks; the body itself features broad shoulders. Low ring-bases shaped like upturned chalices are attached at the bottom. The technical quality of the vases is rather low. Many are warped or show signs of bad firing. Additionally, many have dints that must be derived from rough handling before firing. The painting of the body is separated in four zones: the shoulder, a figural and an ornamental zone on the belly, and a bottom area. Except the figural zone on the belly, all other areas bore ornamental decoration. Only a single piece with two figural zones on the belly is known.
The striking feature of the vases is their colourful decoration. In this regard they differ from all other styles of black-figure vase painting. The style resembles Ionian vase painting and multicoloured wooden panels found in Egypt. Their figural decoration is on the belly. Men are depicted with red, black or white skin, women virtually always in white. Contours and interior detail were incised, as is common in black-figure vases. Areas covered in black shiny slip were often covered with an additional layer of white shiny slip, so that the underlying black would be visible in incised details. The front imagery is always dynamic, the back often heraldic in nature.
The ornamentation is a major constituent of the hydriai, it is not upstaged by the figural motifs. Stencild were used to create the ornaments; they are not incised. The feet, handle attachments and inside of the mouth are decorated with alternating red and black flames. Because of the two-layer slip, the flames are black-rimmed. The necks are decorated with maeanders, spiral crosses or polychrome budded tendrils, a single known piece features a bucranium. The shoulders were painted with flame patterns or black ivy tendrils and berries. Black, white and red rays are placed above the foot. Under the handles, there are single palmettes.
The study of Caeretan Hydriai was advanced especially by Jaap M. Hemelrijk. He also distinguished the two masters to whom the vases are ascribed, but his distinction of potters and painters of ornaments have not prevailed. He called the two artists the Busiris Painter and the Eagle Painter. The latter is considered the superior representative of the style. They were especially interested in mythological motifs, usually indicating an eastern influence. On the name vase of the Busiris Painter, Herakles is trampling the Egyptian pharaoh Busiris. Herakles generally occurs frequently, e.g. with Nessos, Acheloos, the Nemean Lion, Alkyoneus or Pholos. Hermes is depicted stealing cattle. There are also images of Odysseus and Polyphemus, Europa, Dionysos and the return of Hephaistos to Mount Olympus. Besides, there are scenes from everyday life, e.g. palaistra scenes, hunts, sacrifices and warriors. Some vases show rare motifs, e.g. Keto accompanied by a white seal. In once case, both painters collaborated on a single vase.
Apart from the hydriai, a single alabastron by the Eagle Painter is known. Stylistically closely related to the Caeretan hydriai are striped neck amphorae.Caltoris brunnea
Caltoris brunnea, the dark branded swift is a butterfly in the family Hesperiidae. It was described by Samuel Constantinus Snellen van Vollenhoven in 1876. It is found in the Indomalayan realm in Burma and in Java as subspecies C. b. caere (de Nicéville, 1891).Larvae have been recorded feeding on Bambusa species and Imperata cylindrica.Ceri
Ceri (Italian pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛːri]) is a small town in the Lazio (central Italy), a frazione of the comune of Cerveteri, in the Metropolitan City ofof Rome. It occupies a fortified plateau of tuff at a short distance from the city of Cerveteri.Cerveteri
Cerveteri (Italian: [tʃerˈvɛːteri]) is a town and comune of northern Lazio in the region of the Metropolitan City of Rome. Known by the ancient Romans as Caere, and previously by the Etruscans as Caisra or Cisra, and as Agylla (or Άγυλλα) by the Greeks, its modern name derives from Caere Vetus used in the 13th century to distinguish it from Caere Novum (the current town).
It is the site of the ancient Etruscan city which was one of the most important Etruscan cities with an area more than 15 times larger than today's town.
Caere was one of the city-states of the Etruscan League and at its height, around 600 BC, its population was perhaps around 25,000 - 40,000 people.Chalkidian pottery
Chalcidian pottery is an important style of black-figure Greek vase painting.
The style's name is derived from the occasional presence of mythological inscriptions on the vases, which are executed in the Chalcidian alphabet. Andreas Rumpf and Adolf Kirchhoff, who coined the term, as well as other archaeologists initially assumed the pottery to originate from Euboea. Nowadays, it is believed to have been produced in Rhegion, perhaps also in Caere. The question has not yet been conclusively resolved. An argument against a South Italian origin is the fact that some vases bear trade marks not otherwise used in that part of Magna Graecia. The Chalkidian alphabet was not only used in Chalkis, but also elsewhere in Euboea and in Etruria. The possibility of an Etrurian origin is contradicted by the fact that Etruscan pottery was not usually exported to the South of Italy. The painting style has no recognisable Euboean characteristics and is thus unlikely to originate from there. Chalcidian vase painting shows influences from Attic, Corinthian and Ionian vase painting. The vases were found mainly in Italian sites such as Caere, Vulci and Rhegion, but also in Ampurias (Spain], Izmir, Massalia and Skyros. The style was succeeded by Pseudo-Chalkidian vase painting.
The production of Chalcidian vases started suddenly around 560 BC. No predecessors have been recognised so far. It ended after about 50 years, around 510 BC. Today, about 600 vases are known; 15 painters or groups of painters can be recognised. Key characteristic of the vases the high quality of the pottery. The shiny slip that usually covers turned deep black after firing. The base clay was orange. Their painters made generous use of red and white paints, as well as incision for internal detail. The leading shape is the neck amphora, providing about a quarter of all known Chalcidian vases, followed by Eye-cups, oinochoai and hydriai; rarer shapes include kraters, skyphoi and pyxides. Lekanes and Etruscan-style cups occur exceptionally. The construction of the vases is straightforward and simple. A typical feature is the Chalcidian cup foot, sometimes imitated in Attic black-figure and (rarely) red-figure vases (Chalcidianising cups).
The most important among the recognised artists of the older generation is the Inscription Painter, among the later ones the Phineus Painter. The Inscription Painter had probably invented the style, whereas the Phineus Painter ran one of the most productive workshops, responsible for at least 170 of the known pieces. He may also have been the last representative of the style. The images are usually decorative, rather than narrative, in character. Horsemen, animal friezes, heraldic images or groups of humans occur. A large lotus-palmette cross is also often included. Mythological imagery is rare, but of outstanding quality when it occurs. Only 30 vases with mythological motifs are known. They depict the deeds of Herakles, scenes from the Trojan War, or the voyage of the Argo. Depictions of gods are rare, limited to two images of the return of Hephaistos to Mount Olympus. More common are nymphs, silenus or running gorgons. The figures appear elastic and lively. The most common ornaments are chains of buds and rosettes.Class of Cabinet des Médailles 218
The term Class of Cabinet des Médailles 218, or Class of Cab. Méd. 218 or Class of C.M. 218 describes both a group of Attic black-figure vase painters, and a type of vase they produced. They belong to the final third of the sixth century BC.
The class painted variants of the Nikosthenic amphora. The vases' profiles are more flowing and less angular than the more common styles, making them more Greek in character. Two of the vases were produced by the potter Pamphaios and painted by Oltos. Like all Nikosthenic amphorae, works of the Class of Cabinet des Médailles 218 were found exclusively at Caere. This indicates that following the tradition of Nikosthenes, they produced exclusively for export to Etruria. The group's conventional name is derived from its name vase, inventory 218 at the Cabinet des Médailles of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris.Etruscan cities
Etruscan cities were a group of ancient settlements that shared a common Etruscan language and culture, even though they were independent city-states. They flourished over a large part of the northern half of Italy starting from the Iron Age, and in some cases reached a substantial level of richness and powerfulness. They were eventually assimilated first by Italics in the south, then by Celts in the north and finally in Etruria itself by the growing Roman Republic.
The Etruscan names of the major cities whose names were later Romanised survived in inscriptions and are listed below. Some cities were founded by Etruscans in prehistoric times and bore entirely Etruscan names. Others, usually Italic in origin, were colonised by the Etruscans, who in turn Etruscanised their name.
The estimates for the populations of the largest cities (Veii, Volsinii, Caere, Vulci, Tarquinia, Populonia) range between 25,000 and 40,000 each in the 6th century BC.Etruscan history
Etruscan history is the written record of Etruscan civilization compiled mainly by Greek and Roman authors. Apart from their inscriptions, from which information mainly of a sociological character can be extracted, the Etruscans left no surviving history of their own, nor is there any mention in the Roman authors that any was ever written. Remnants of Etruscan writings are almost exclusively concerned with religion.Nikosthenic amphora
A Nikosthenic amphora is a type of Attic vase invented in the late 6th century BC by the potter Nikosthenes, aimed specifically for export to Etruria. Inspired by Etruscan Bucchero types, it is the characteristic product of the Nikosthenes-Pamphaios workshop.
Characteristic features are the angular body of the amphora and the broad flat handles. The Etruscan predecessors were black-painted, whereas the Attic vases were decorated in the black-figure style. Nearly all know examples were found in Caere, while the majority of Nikosthenes products in other shapes were discovered in Vulci. This suggests that the type was specifically made for sale in or to Caere, which indicates that Nikosthenes must have been a gifted salesman and that an efficient system of intermediate traders must have existed. Niksothenes created or introduced several vase shapes, but the Nikosthenic amphora is his most famous innovation.
The clay of the Nikosthenic amphorae is bright orange-red, and thus provides a perfect base for black-figure vase painting. Their decoration follows quite varied patterns. Sometimes, they are subdivided in two or three separate friezes, mostly of plant and animal motifs. In other cases, images cover the whole vase body.
Apparently most, perhaps even all, Nikosthenic amphorae were painted by Painter N, which has been suggested to be identical with Nikosthenes. Production began around 530m to 520 BC and continued under Nikosthenes' successor Pamphaios – at that stage in the red-figure style – to cease between 500 and 490 BC.Nuance Communications
Nuance is a U.S. based multinational computer software technology corporation, headquartered in Burlington, Massachusetts, United States on the outskirts of Boston, that provides speech recognition, and artificial intelligence. Current business products focus on server and embedded speech recognition, telephone call steering systems, automated telephone directory services, and medical transcription software and systems. The company also maintains a small division which does software and system development for military and government agencies based in Westborough, Massachusetts, allegedly called Twined (Previously marked by a large wooden sign that has been removed).
Nuance merged with its competitor in the commercial large-scale speech application business, ScanSoft, in October 2005. ScanSoft was a Xerox spin-off that was bought in 1999 by Visioneer, a hardware and software scanner company, which adopted ScanSoft as the new merged company name. The original ScanSoft had its roots in Kurzweil Computer Products.OmniPage
OmniPage is an optical character recognition (OCR) application available from Nuance Communications.
OmniPage was one of the first OCR programs to run on personal computers.
It was developed in the late 1980s and sold by Caere Corporation, a company headed by Robert Noyce. The original developers were Philip Bernzott, John Dilworth, David George, Bryan Higgins, and Jeremy Knight.
Caere was acquired by ScanSoft in 2000.
ScanSoft acquired Nuance Communications in 2005, and took over its name.OmniPage supports more than 120 different languages.Pyrgi
Pyrgi was an ancient Etruscan port in Latium, central Italy, to the north-west of Caere. Its location is now occupied by the borough of Santa Severa.
Remains of its defensive walls exist in polygonal blocks of limestone and sandstone, neatly jointed. They enclosed a rectangular area some 200 m in width and at least 220 m in length. The south-west extremity has probably been destroyed by the sea. It contained a rich temple of Leucothea, the foundation of which was ascribed to the Pelasgi. It was plundered by Dionysius in 384 BC. Later it became dependent on Caere, though it is not probable that it was originally merely the harbour of Caere; Alsium was c. 8 km (5 mi) to the south.
The Romans established a colony here, which is first mentioned in 191 BC. Later still it supplied fish to Rome, and became a favorite summer resort, as did also Punicum (Santa Marinella), 8 km (5 mi) to the north-west, where are many remains of villas. Both were stations on the coast road (Via Aurelia).In 1957 excavations found the remains of a large temple with a triple-cella arrangement. The Pyrgi Tablets, containing texts in Phoenician and Etruscan languages, were found here in 1964.Pyrgi Tablets
The Pyrgi Tablets, found in a 1964 excavation of a sanctuary of ancient Pyrgi on the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy (today the town of Santa Severa), are three golden leaves that record a dedication made around 500 BC by Thefarie Velianas, king of Caere, to the Phoenician goddess ʻAshtaret. Pyrgi was the port of the southern Etruscan town of Caere. Two of the tablets are inscribed in the Etruscan language, the third in Phoenician.These writings are important in providing both a bilingual text that allows researchers to use knowledge of Phoenician to interpret Etruscan, and evidence of Phoenician or Punic influence in the Western Mediterranean. They may relate to Polybius's report (Hist. 3,22) of an ancient and almost unintelligible treaty between the Romans and the Carthaginians, which he dated to the consulships of L. Iunius Brutus and L. Tarquinius Collatinus (509 BC).
The tablets are now held at the National Etruscan Museum, Villa Giulia, Rome.Roman–Etruscan Wars
The Roman–Etruscan Wars were a series of wars fought between ancient Rome (including both the Roman Kingdom and the Roman Republic) and the Etruscans, from the earliest stages of the history of Rome. Information about many of the wars is limited, particularly those in the early parts of Rome's history, and in large part is known from ancient texts alone.Sarcophagus of the Spouses
The Sarcophagus of the Spouses (Italian: Sarcofago degli Sposi) is considered one of the great masterpieces of Etruscan art. It is a late sixth-century BC Etruscan anthropoid sarcophagus from Caere, and is in the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia, Rome. It is 1.14 m high by 1.9 m wide, and is made of terracotta which was once brightly painted. It depicts a married couple reclining at a banquet together in the afterlife, and was found in 19th-century excavations at the necropolis of Cerveteri (ancient Caere). The portrayal of a married couple sharing a banqueting couch is distinctly an Etruscan style; in contrast, Greek vases depicting banquet scenes reflect the custom that only men attended dinner parties.A similar sarcophagus, also from Cerveteri and often called the Sarcophagus of the Spouses, is in the Louvre in Paris (Cp 5194). Other Etruscan sarcophagus covers show couples, but these are the best known.Tarquinia
Tarquinia (Italian: [tarˈkwiːnja]), formerly Corneto, is an old city in the province of Viterbo, Lazio, Italy known chiefly for its ancient Etruscan tombs in the widespread necropoleis or cemeteries which it overlies, for which it was awarded UNESCO World Heritage status.
In 1922 it was renamed after the ancient city of Tarquinii (Roman) or Tarch(u)na (Etruscan). Although little is visible of the once great wealth and extent of the ancient city, archaeology is increasingly revealing glimpses of past glories.Titus Tarquinius
Titus was the eldest son of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last king of Rome. During his father's reign, he accompanied his younger brother Aruns and his cousin Lucius Junius Brutus to consult the Oracle at Delphi to have interpreted an omen witnessed by the king.In 509 BC, upon the overthrow of the monarchy, Titus went into exile at Caere with his father and his brother Aruns.In around 496 BC he fought with his father and the Latins against Rome at the Battle of Lake Regillus. During the battle, Marcus Valerius Volusus, who had been the Roman consul in 505 BC, charged Titus in an attempt to slay him, but was himself killed by Titus' men.