Caenophrurium

Caenophrurium (also written as Cænophrurium, Cenophrurium and Coenophrurium; Greek: Καινοφρούριον, Kainophrourion) was a settlement in the Roman province of Europa (the southeasternmost part of Thrace), between Byzantium and Heraclea Perinthus. It appears in late Roman and early Byzantine accounts. Caenophrurium translates as the "stronghold of the Caeni", a Thracian tribe.

Location

Classical scholars have at times identified various towns in Thrace as corresponding to Caenophrurium. Recent scholarship locates Caenophrurium near the modern Turkish village of Sinekli, in Silivri district, Istanbul Province.[1][2]

The Barrington Atlas includes Caenophrurium as one of 24 komes (towns) and choria (villages) in the province of Europa.[3][4] These were smaller settlements than the 14 cities of the province listed by Hierocles in his Synecdemus (c. 527–528): the provincial capital (Heraclea Perinthus) and 13 others.[4]

Some confusion as to the exact location of Caenophrurium appears to derive from the fact that references to the settlement are all made in passing, either as a waystation between other towns, or as the location for the murder of the Emperor Aurelian. These original sources are:

  • The Antonine Itinerary, probably dating from the late third century
  • Lactantius's De Mortibus Persecutorum, written in late 314 or early 315
  • Flavius Eutropius's Historiae Romanae Breviarium, written during the reign of the Emperor Valens, 364–378
  • The Life of Aurelian, c. 361–425, part of the Historia Augusta, a largely fictional history of Roman emperors
  • The Tabula Peutingeriana, 13th-century copy of a Roman map from the early 5th century, based on Roman itineraries

Several routes in the Antonine Itinerary list Caenophrurium as a stage on the Via Egnatia, 18 miles east of Heraclea Perinthus and 27 or 28 miles east of Melantias (probably modern Yarımburgaz).[5][6] Logically, this might place Caenophrurium on the Marmara coast near Silivri. Instead, it appears that Caenophrurium was actually sited inland, 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the north of the main Via Egnatia, on a smaller northern route from Byzantium to Bizye.[7]

Other writers have identified Caenophrurium with Tzirallum (modern Çorlu), but this seems unlikely as several sources list Tzirallum and Caenophrurium as separate places. For example, the Antonine Itinerary lists Caenophrurium as two stages and 36 miles closer to Byzantium than Tzirallum,[5] and the Tabula Peutingeriana shows the locations separately.[8][9]

Lewis and Short's A Latin Dictionary of 1879 identified Caenophrurium as "a town in Thrace, on the road from Apollonia to Selymbria, now Bivados".[10] As well as the Historia Augusta's Life of Aurelian and Lactantius's De Mortibus Persecutorum, they cite Flavius Eutropius 9, 15 as a source.[10] Apollonia corresponds to modern Sozopol, in Bulgaria, and Selymbria is Silivri, on the Marmara coast. However, Bivados appears to be Epibatos, now the modern Turkish village of Selimpaşa, about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) east of Silivri. As with Çorlu, this appears to be a misidentification.

Murder of Aurelian

Aurelian
The emperor Aurelian, who was murdered in Caenophrurium in 275 AD.

In 275, the Emperor Aurelian marched towards Asia Minor, preparing a campaign against the Sassanid Empire. However, Aurelian never reached Persia, as he was murdered while waiting in Thrace to cross into Asia Minor. As an administrator, Aurelian had been very strict and handed out severe punishments to corrupt officials or soldiers. A secretary of Aurelian (called Eros by Zosimus) had told a lie on a minor issue. In fear of what the Emperor might do, he forged a document listing the names of high officials marked by the emperor for execution, and showed it to collaborators. When Aurelian reached Caenophrurium in September 275 the notarius Mucapor and other high-ranking officers of the Praetorian Guard, fearing punishment from the Emperor, murdered him.[1]

Notes

  1. ^ a b The Life of Aurelian, Chapters 35–37
  2. ^ Drakoulis 2013, p. 241
  3. ^ Talbert 2000, p. 52 C2
  4. ^ a b Drakoulis 2013, p. 239
  5. ^ a b Cuntz 1929, Stages 138,3; 230,9; 323,6; 332,7.
  6. ^ Miller 1919, pp. 539, 589
  7. ^ Drakoulis 2013, p. 238
  8. ^ Tabula Peutingeriana
  9. ^ Talbert 2010, p. 223,234,247,249
  10. ^ a b Lewis & Short 1879

References

  • Cuntz, Otto, ed. (1929), "Imperatoris Antonini Augusti Itineraria Provinciarum", Itineraria Romana: Volume I (in Latin), Leipzig: Teubner
  • Drakoulis, Dimitris P. (2013), "European and Asiatic settlements of the Bosporus hinterland in the Early Byzantine period" (PDF), The Bosporus: Gateway between the Ancient West and East (1st Millennium BC – 5th Century AD), Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Black Sea Antiquities, Istanbul, 14th–18th September 2009, BAR International Series 2517, Archaeopress, pp. 237–247, ISBN 9781407311357
  • Külzer, Andreas (2008), Ostthrakien (Europe), Tabula Imperii Byzantini: Volume 12 (in German), Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften
  • Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles, eds. (1879), "Caenophrūrĭum", A Latin Dictionary
  • "The Life of Aurelian", Historia Augusta (in Latin and English)
  • Miller, Konrad (1916), Itineraria Romana: Römische Reisewege an der Hand der Tabula Peutingeriana dargestellt [Itineraria Romana: Roman routes shown in the Tabula Peutingeriana] (in German), Stuttgart: Stecker and Schröder
  • Pauly, August; Wissowa, Georg; Kroll, Wilhelm, eds. (1921), "Katoikoi–Komödie", Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft (in German), Halbband 21, Band XI, 1, Stuttgart
  • Tabula Peutingeriana
  • Talbert, Richard J.A., ed. (2000), Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, with Map-by-Map Directory, Princeton University Press, ISBN 9780691031699
  • Talbert, Richard J.A. (2010), Rome's World: The Peutinger Map Reconsidered, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521764803

Coordinates: 41°14′N 28°13′E / 41.233°N 28.217°E

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Aurelian

Aurelian (Latin: Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215 – September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273. The following year he conquered the Gallic Empire in the west, reuniting the Empire in its entirety. He was also responsible for the construction of the Aurelian Walls in Rome, and the abandonment of the province of Dacia.

His successes were instrumental in ending the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century, earning him the title Restitutor Orbis or "Restorer of the World". Although Domitian was the first emperor who had demanded to be officially hailed as dominus et deus (master and god), these titles never occurred in written form on official documents until the reign of Aurelian.

Caeni

Kainoi (Greek: Καινοί) or Caeni is the name of a Thracian tribe. They are mentioned by Livy.

One town on the Roman Via Egnatia was Caenophrurium, that is the Stronghold of the Caeni.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Cyaneae

Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Hisarlik

Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Phellus

Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).

Rhodiapolis

Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Serbia in the Roman era

The territory of Central Serbia was under Roman (and later Byzantine) rule for about 600 years, from the 1st century BC until the Slavic arrival of the 6th century.

It was administratively divided into Moesia (later Moesia Superior, corresponding to Serbia proper, Pannonia (later Pannonia Inferior) and Dardania (corresponding to eastern and western Serbia proper, respectively)).

The Danube River influenced the extension of the Roman Empire, and its confluents, such as Sava and Morava, affected the growth of frontier fortresses and towns, whose remains present the extent of the Roman Empire with architecture that presents the crown of Roman culture. Many authors and explorers wrote about traces of the Roman Empire on the Danube coast. One of the localities, Felix Romuliana, was ranked on the list of cultural heritage of UNESCO in July 2007.

The location has been invaded by many peoples over the centuries. The northern Serbian city of Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) was among the top 4 cities of the late Roman Empire, serving as its capital during the Tetrarchy.

Contemporary Serbia comprises the classical regions of Moesia, Pannonia, parts of Dalmatia, Dacia and Macedonia.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Tyana

Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Via Egnatia

The Via Egnatia (Greek: Ἐγνατία Ὁδός Egnatía Hodós) was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC. It crossed Illyricum, Macedonia, and Thrace, running through territory that is now part of modern Albania, North Macedonia, Greece, and European Turkey as a continuation of Via Appia.

Starting at Dyrrachium (now Durrës) on the Adriatic Sea, the road followed a difficult route along the river Genusus (Shkumbin), over the Candaviae (Jablanica) mountains and thence to the highlands around Lake Ohrid. It then turned south, following several high mountain passes to reach the northern coastline of the Aegean Sea at Thessalonica. From there it ran through Thrace to the city of Byzantium (later Constantinople, now Istanbul). It covered a total distance of about 1,120 km (696 miles/746 Roman miles). Like other major Roman roads, it was about six metres (19.6 ft) wide, paved with large polygonal stone slabs or covered with a hard layer of sand.

Çorlu

Çorlu (pronounced [ˈtʃoɾɫu] (listen)) is a northwestern Turkish city in inland Eastern Thrace that falls under the administration of the Province of Tekirdağ. It is a rapidly developing industrial centre built on flatland located on the highway D.100 and off the motorway O-3/E80 between Istanbul and Turkey's border with Greece and Bulgaria.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

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