In heraldry, cadency is any systematic way to distinguish arms displayed by members of the nuclear family of the holder of a coat of arms, when those family members have not been granted arms in their own right. Cadency is necessary in heraldic systems in which a given design may be owned by only one person at any time, generally the head of the senior line of a particular family. As arms may be used by sons or wives 'by courtesy' whilst their father or husband is still living, some form of differencing may be required so as not to usurp those arms, known as the undifferenced or "plain coat". Historically arms were only heritable by males and therefore cadency marks have no relevance to daughters, except in the modern era in Canadian and Irish heraldry. These differences are formed by adding to the arms small and inconspicuous marks called brisures, similar to charges but smaller. They are placed on the fess-point, or in-chief in the case of the label. Brisures are generally exempt from the rule of tincture. One of the best examples of usage from the medieval period is shown on the seven Beauchamp cadets in the stained-glass windows of St Mary's Church, Warwick.
Historically, it was recognised that there was a need to difference the arms of the head of the family from those of cadets. This need was recognised in Europe during the 14th century; various means to accomplish this were utilized.
Presently, differencing arms for those entitled to is generally rarely done in Continental Europe. It is only in Scotland where the need to difference cadets is enforced.
In heraldry's early period, uniqueness of arms was obtained by a wide variety of ways, including:
Systematic cadency schemes later developed in England and Scotland, but while in England they are voluntary (and not always observed), in Scotland they are enforced through the statutorily required process of matriculation in the Public Register.
The English system of cadency allows nuclear family members to personally use the arms of the head of that family 'by courtesy'. This involves the addition of a brisure, or mark of difference to the original coat of arms. The brisure identifies the bearer's family relationship to the actual bearer of the arms, although there is some debate over how strictly the system should be followed, the accepted system is shown below:
|Wife||First son||Second son||Third son||Fourth son||Fifth son||Sixth son||Seventh son||Eighth son||Ninth son|
†also known as an octofoil
The arms of the first Earl Russell, who was the third son of the sixth Duke of Bedford, were given a mullet argent over the central escallop to differentiate them from his paternal arms. The arms of the first Baron Ampthill, who was third son of the ninth Duke of Bedford, were also marked with a mullet for difference, but in a different tincture.
Daughters have no special brisures, and normally use their father's arms on a lozenge, together with any marks of cadency their father may use. This is because English heraldry has no requirement that women's arms be unique. On marriage, they impale their father's arms to the sinister with those of their husband to the dexter, unless the woman happens to be a heraldic heiress, into which case her father's arms are borne on an inescutcheon on her husband's arms.
In England, arms are generally the property of their owner from birth – subject to the use of the appropriate mark of cadency. In other words, it is not necessary to wait for the death of the previous generation before arms are inherited.
The eldest son of an eldest son uses a label of five points. Other grandchildren combine the brisure of their father with the relevant brisure of their own, which would in a short number of generations lead to confusion (because it allows an uncle and nephew to have the same cadency mark) and complexity (because of an accumulation of cadency marks to show, for example, the fifth son of a third son of a second son). However, in practice cadency marks are not much used in England and, even when they are, it is rare to see more than one or, at most, two of them on a coat of arms.
At times arms with a cadency mark may be used on a hereditary basis: for instance, the arms of the Earls Russell are those of the Duke of Bedford differenced by a mullet, as the 1st Earl was the third son of the 6th Duke.
Although textbooks on heraldry (and articles like this one) always agree on the English system of cadency set out above, most heraldic examples (whether on old bookplates, church monuments, silver and the like) ignore cadency marks altogether. Oswald Barron, in an influential article on Heraldry in the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, noted:
Now and again we see a second son obeying the book-rules and putting a crescent in his shield or a third son displaying a molet, but long before our own times the practice was disregarded, and the most remote kinsman of a gentle house displayed the "whole coat" of the head of his family.— 
Nor have cadency marks usually been insisted upon by the College of Arms (the heraldic authority for England, Wales and formerly Ireland). For example, the College of Arms website (as of June 2006), far from insisting on any doctrine of "One man one coat" suggested by some academic writers, says:
… The arms of a man pass equally to all his legitimate children, irrespective of their order of birth. Cadency marks may be used to identify the arms of brothers, in a system said to have been invented by John Writhe, Garter, in about 1500. Small symbols are painted on the shield, usually in a contrasting tincture at the top. …— 
It does not say that such marks must be used.
I have never favoured the system of cadency unless there is a need to mark out distinct branches of a particular family. To use cadency marks for each and every generation is something of a nonsense as it results in a pile of indecipherable marks set one above the other. I therefore adhere to the view that they should be used sparingly.
In a second letter published at the same time, he wrote:
Unfortunately, compulsion is not the way ahead for twenty-first century heraldry. However, official recognition and certification of any Armorial Bearings can only be effected when the person in whose favour the Arms are being recognized or certified appears in the appropriate book of record at the College of Arms. I believe it right in England and Wales for a branch to use cadency marks sparingly and only if they wish to do so.— 
The system is very different in Scotland, where every male user of a coat of arms may only use arms recorded (or "matriculated") in the Public Register with a personal variation, appropriate to that person's position in their family, approved by the Lord Lyon (the heraldic authority for Scotland). This means that in Scotland no two men can ever simultaneously bear the same arms, even by accident, if they have submitted their position to the Scottish heraldic authorities (which not all do in practice, in Scotland as in England); if they have not done so, the matter falls under statute law and may result in proceedings in the Lyon Court, which is part of the Scots criminal justice system. To this extent, the law of arms is stricter in Scotland than in England where the only legal action possible is a civil action in the Court of Chivalry, which sits extremely rarely and is not an integrated part of the English justice system.
Scotland, like England, uses the label of three points for the eldest son (or heir presumptive) and a label of five points for the eldest son of the eldest son, and allows the label to be removed as the bearer of the plain coat dies and the eldest son succeeds.
For cadets other than immediate heirs, Scottish cadency uses a complex and versatile system, applying different kinds of changes in each generation. First, a bordure is added in a different tincture for each brother. In subsequent generations the bordure may be divided in two tinctures; the edge of the bordure, or of an ordinary in the base coat, may be changed from straight to indented, engrailed or invected; charges may be added. These variations allow the family tree to be expressed clearly and unambiguously. (The system outlined here is a very rough version that gives a flavour of the real thing).
In the Scots heraldic system (which has little to do with the clan system), only one bearer of any given surname may bear plain arms. Other armigerous persons with the same surname usually have arms derived from the same plain coat; though if actual kinship cannot be established, they must be differenced in a way other than the cadency system mentioned above. This is quite unlike the English system, in which the surname of an armiger is generally irrelevant.
Canadian cadency generally follows the English system. However, since in Canadian heraldry a coat of arms must be unique regardless of the bearer's sex, Canada has developed a series of brisures for daughters unique to Canada:
The actual practice in Canada is far from the rigidity suggested by the list of differences above – and is best seen in action in the Canadian Public Register – see for example the coats of various Armstrongs, Ravignats and Bradfords.
Personal arms registered at the Bureau of Heraldry may be differenced upon matriculation (which is voluntary). Current policy is that younger children's arms must be differenced if they are matriculated. Methods used include the English and Scottish systems, the substitution of different charges, the changing of lines, and the changing of tinctures and or adding a border to the shield.
The brisures used in the arms granted by the Chief Herald of the Republic of Ireland are identical to the brisures used by the system used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, but unlike the English system, which only uses these brisures for the sons of an armiger in order of birth, the Irish system applies them to all the children of the armiger, irrespective of sex, and, as illegitimacy has no place in Irish heraldry, these marks are assigned to (recognised) children born outside of marriage as well as inside.
There are no actual "rules" for members of the royal family, because their arms are theoretically decided ad hoc by the monarch. In practice, however, a number of traditions are practically invariably followed. At birth, members of the royal family have no arms. At some point during their lives, generally at the age of eighteen, they may be granted arms of their own. These will always be the "arms of dominion" of the monarch with a label argent for difference; the label may have three or five points. Since this is in theory a new grant, the label is applied not only to the shield but also to the crest and the supporters to ensure uniqueness. Though de facto in English heraldry the crest is uncharged (although it is supposed to be in theory), as it would accumulate more and more cadency marks with each generation, the marks eventually becoming indistinguishable, the crests of the royal family are always shown as charged.
Each Prince of Wales uses a plain white label and (since 1911) an inescutcheon of the ancient arms of the Principality of Wales. Traditionally, the other members of the family have used a stock series of symbols (cross of Saint George, heart, anchor, fleur-de-lys, etc.) on the points of the label to ensure that their arms differ. The labels of the Duke of Cambridge and Duke of Sussex have one or more scallop shells taken from the arms of their mother, Diana, Princess of Wales; this is sometimes called an innovation but in fact the use of maternal charges for difference is a very old practice, illustrated in the "border of France" (azure semé-de-lys or) borne by John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall (1316–36), younger son of Edward II of England and Isabella of France.
It is often said that labels argent are a peculiarly royal symbol, and that eldest sons outside the royal family should use labels of a different colour, usually gules.
During the Middle Ages, marks of cadency were used extensively by armigers in France, as can be seen in the Armorial de Gelre. By the eighteenth century, such marks were no longer used by the members of armigerous families, but were still used extensively by the members of the French Royal Family.
The French Revolution of 1789 had a profound impact on heraldry, and heraldry was abolished in 1790, to be restored in 1808 by Napoleon I. However, Napoleon's heraldic system did not use marks of cadency either; the decree of 3 March 1810 (art. 11) states: "The name, arms and livery shall pass from the father to all sons" although the distinctive marks of Napoleonic titles could pass only to the sons who inherited them.
No subsequent regime in France ever promulgated any legislation regarding marks of difference in heraldry, so they remain unused (except in the heraldry of Sovereign Houses, such as the former Royal family, as can be seen below, or the House of Lorraine).
|France moderne||Arms of the Dauphin of France|
Examples of cadency:
|Arms of Philip Hurepel, Count of Clermont||Arms of Robert I, Count of Artois||Arms of Alphonse, Count of Poitiers||Original arms of Charles, |
before becoming Count of Anjou and Maine
|Arms of Charles, Count of Anjou and Maine||Arms of John Tristan, Count of Valois||Arms of Pierre, Count of Alençon||Arms of Robert, Count of Clermont|
|Arms of Charles, Count of Anjou and Maine||Arms of Louis, Count of Evreux||Arms of Philip, Count of Poitiers||Arms of Charles, Count of La Marche|
The royal arms of France featured golden fleurs-de-lys on a blue field (Azure, semy-de-lys Or). King Charles V simplified it to three fleurs-de-lys on a blue field (Azure, three fleurs-de-lys Or).
The sons of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile used golden castles on a red background (derived from the arms of Castile) as charges to difference their arms: for Robert, a label; for Alphonse, a semy of castles; for Charles, a bordure. This initial system of differencing was dropped in favor of a longer-lasting simpler system. Charles, the youngest son of Louis VIII, changed his arms in favor of the arms of France with a plain label gules.
The simpler system primarily used four marks of difference: the label, the bordure, the bend, and the bordure engrailed. The tinctures used were gules; a compony of argent and gules; and argent. They occasionally came up with more unusual forms, such as a bordure-label gules and a bordure gules charged with eight plates.
|Arms granted to Philip the Bold (Duke of Touraine)||Arms of Philip the Bold as Duke of Burgundy||Arms granted to Charles, Duke of Berry, brother of Louis XI||Arms of Charles as Duke of Normandy||Arms of Charles as Duke of Guyenne|
Initially, the arms were attributed to the cadet. Thus, even when Philip the Bold exchanged his appanage of Touraine in favor of Burgundy, he retained the arms he had received as Duke of Touraine (but quartered it with the arms of Burgundy). Another example will be Charles, younger brother of Louis XI. By the seventeenth century, the arms became associated with titles. The bordure gules was associated with Anjou, and the label argent with Orléans. Thus, when a cadet exchanged his appanage, his arms changed.
German noble houses did not use cadency marks as systematically as their European peers . A nobleman's sons were not generally obliged or expected not to bear their father's arms and often did just so.
The most common means of differencing was the use of different heraldic crests to mark apart otherwise identical achievements borne by different branches of a family. Other, less frequent forms include counter-changing or the replacement of individual tinctures, or the addition of ordinaries. Bordures and labels were used occasionally, though not doctrinally. Perhaps the most prominent German family to adopt a system of bordures was the House of Hohenzollern.
As a result of the Holy Roman Empire's heavy fragmentation, which form saw more prominent use and when was also influenced by general trends and geographic proximity; for example, the heraldic tradition of the Low Countries and the Rhineland saw a great deal of influence by its French neighbor.
|Arms of the Queen
||Arms of Frederik,
Crown Prince of Denmark,
these arms are identical to
those of the Queen,but the
external ornaments are
|Arms of Prince Joachim,
identical to the arms of the
Queen and Prince Frederik,
but the inescutcheon is
parted per pale Oldenburg
and Laborde de Monpezat,
his father's family.
|Arms of the sisters of Queen|
Margrethe II, Princesses
Anne Marie (formerly Queen
of the Hellenes) and
Benedikte; also borne by the
Queen prior to her accession.
These arms are the same as
those of the late Frederik IX,
only with differing external
|Arms of the King. When the heir is male and bears the title Duke of Brabant; the heir uses the same arms, but the external ornaments are different.||Arms of princes descended in the male line from the Duke of Brabant, but not bearing this title themselves. Since the accession of King Philippe, these arms are borne by his sons.||Arms of princesses of Belgium. Since the accession of King Philippe; these arms are borne by his heir, Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant.|
The following heraldic system was adopted by a royal decree in 1815 and would last until 1907.
|Monarch||Prince of Orange (heir apparent)||Eldest son of the Prince of Orange||Second son of the monarch||Eldest daughter of the monarch|
Since 1907, the system has differed. Wilhelmina further decreed that in perpetuity her descendants should be styled "princes and princesses of Orange-Nassau" and that the name of the house would be "Orange-Nassau" (in Dutch "Oranje-Nassau"). Since then, individual members of the House of Orange-Nassau are also given their own arms by the reigning monarch, similar to the United Kingdom. This is usually the royal arms, quartered with the arms of the principality of Orange, and an in escutcheon of their paternal arms.
Since 1907, There is no system to delineate individual princes and princesses via their arms.
The Portuguese systems of differencing have their origins in the regulations of King Manuel I, who ruled Portugal from 1485 to 1521. There are two systems, one for the non-Royal families and the other for the Royal House.
The Portuguese system of differentiation for the noble non-Royal families is unlike any other cadency system. It is true that the bruiser personalises the arms, however, since the Portuguese have an arbitrary choice of surnames, they may select any family name from the father's or mother's side of their genealogical table and a coat of arms, which does not have to coincide with it. Thus, the system of differencing only serves to show from which ancestral line the arms are derived. The head of the lineage uses the arms without a difference, but should he be the head of more than one family, the arms are combined by quartering. The heir apparent to the arms of the head of a lineage never uses a mark of difference.
|Arms of the Duke of Braganza, head of the Royal house
||Arms of Isabel, Duchess of Braganza, wife of the Duke of Braganza||Arms of Don Alfonso, Prince of Beira and Duke of Barcelos, Eldest son of
the Duke of Braganza
|Arms of Infanta Maria Francisca, daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Braganza||Arms of Infante Dinis, Duke of Porto, younger son of the Duke of Braganza. The castle on the label is taken from the arms of his mother|
|Arms of the
|Arms of |
|Arms of King Carl XVI Gustaf||Arms of Crown Princess Victoria, Duchess of Västergötland, eldest daughter of Carl XVI Gustaf||Arms of Princess Estelle, Duchess of Östergötland, daughter of Princess Victoria||Arms of Prince Carl Phillip, Duke of Värmland, only son of Carl XVI Gustaf||Arms of Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland, younger daughter of Carl XVI Gustaf ||Arms of Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland, Victoria, daughter of Princess Madeleine|
Baton may refer to:
In stick-like objects:
Baton (conducting), a short thin stick used for directing a musical performance
Baton, a type of club (weapon)
Baton (law enforcement)
Baston (weapon), a type of baton used in Arnis and Filipino Martial Arts
Baton charge, a coordinated tactic for dispersing crowds of people
Baton (running), an object transferred by runners in a relay race
Baton (symbol), a symbolic attribute of military or other office
Baton twirling, a light metal rod used for keeping time, twirling, and juggling in marching band and parade performances
Baton sinister, a mark of cadency in heraldry
Baton, a smaller version of a baguette
Baton, in stick juggling, the central stick, which is manipulated with the side-sticks (control sticks)
Batons, in the keyboard of a carillon, the stick-like keys used to play the bells
Baton, another name for the suit of wands in the Italian and French tarot decks
Baton, another word for a batonette in the list of culinary knife cutsIn other uses:
BATON, a Type 1 block cipher, used by the United States to secure all types of classified information
Baton Bob, a costumed street performer currently based in Atlanta, Georgia
Baton Broadcasting, a Canadian broadcaster, now owned by CTVglobemedia
Baton Broadcasting System, a defunct television system owned by Baton Broadcasting Inc.
"Baton Bunny", a Bugs Bunny cartoon of the Looney Tunes series produced in 1958
BATON Overlay or Balanced Tree Over-lay Network, a distributed tree structure for Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems
Baton Records, a record label
Baton Rouge, the capital city of Louisiana, USABordure
In heraldry, a bordure is a band of contrasting tincture forming a border around the edge of a shield, traditionally one-sixth as wide as the shield itself. It is sometimes reckoned as an ordinary and sometimes as a subordinary.
A bordure encloses the whole shield, with two exceptions:
When two coats of arms are combined by impalement, the bordure usually stops at the partition line and does not run down it, as shown in the arms of Kemp as Archbishop of Canterbury in the 15th century; this rule is considered a relic of the older practice of dimidiation. However, a notable exception to this rule can be seen in the arms of Thomas de Holland, Duke of Surrey (a nephew of Richard II) from a drawing of his seal, 1399, showing a differencing of a full bordure ermine, and a full bordure argent.
A chief overlies a bordure, unless the bordure is added to a coat that previously included a chief, or so it is often said. In practice, the order in which things are to overlie each other can usually be inferred from the blazon. For example, in the arms of Amber Valley Borough Council, the blazon describes the bordure before the chief, and the bordure does not surround the chief; while in the arms of the British Columbia Institute of Technology, the blazon specifies a chief ... within a bordure.Like any ordinary or other charge, a bordure may be of a single plain tincture or divided. Like any ordinary, it may be smooth or subjected to any of the lines of variation; it may form a field for other charges. These variations are effectively exploited in the Scottish system of cadency.
Since it is very often used for cadency rather than to distinguish between original coats, the bordure is not strictly held to the rule of tincture; for example, many cadets of the French royal house, for example, bore red bordures on a blue field. Rarely a bordure is of the same tincture as the field on which it lies; in this case the term "embordured" is employed. This was a very unusual practice even centuries ago and is all but unheard-of today.
A bordure semy of some charge is shown as if it were charged with a great number of those charges, rather than the practice typical with a field, in which some of the charges are shown as "cut off" by the edges of the field. This large number is to be taken as semy, and not as the precise number shown.
The bordure has no diminutive, though a bordure diminished is occasionally employed – as in 'Or; a diminished bordure vert; on a chief indented azure, two fleurs de lys or' (127th Field Artillery, US). There is an example in blazon of "a narrow bordure" – Or; representations of two San human figures of red ochre, statant respectant, the hands of the innermost arms clasped, with upper arm, inner wrist, waist and knee bands argent; and a narrow border of red ochre (Republic of South Africa).Cadency labels of the British royal family
Heraldic labels are used to differentiate the personal coats of arms of members of the royal family of the United Kingdom from that of the monarch and from each other. In the Gallo-British heraldic tradition, cadency marks have been available to "difference" the arms of a son from those of his father, and the arms of brothers from each other, and traditionally this was often done when it was considered important for each man to have a distinctive individual coat of arms and/or to differentiate the arms of the head of a house from junior members of the family. This was especially important in the case of arms of sovereignty: to use the undifferenced arms of a kingdom is to assert a claim to the throne. Therefore, in the English royal family, cadency marks were used from the time of Henry III, typically a label or bordure alluding to the arms of the bearer's mother or wife. After about 1340, when Edward III made a claim to the throne of France, a blue label did not contrast sufficiently with the blue field of the French quarter of the royal arms; accordingly most royal cadets used labels argent: that of the heir apparent was plain, and all others were charged. Bordures of various tinctures continued to be used into the 15th century.Cadet (genealogy)
In genealogy, a cadet is a younger son, as opposed to the firstborn heir. Compare puisne.Canadian heraldry
Canadian heraldry is the cultural tradition and style of coats of arms and other heraldic achievements in both modern and historic Canada. It includes national, provincial, and civic arms, noble and personal arms, ecclesiastical heraldry, heraldic displays as corporate logos, and Canadian heraldic descriptions.
Derived mainly from heraldic traditions in France and the United Kingdom, Canadian heraldry also incorporates distinctly Canadian symbols, especially native flora and fauna, references to the First Nations and other aboriginal peoples of Canada, and uniquely Canadian elements such as the Canadian pale, derived from the Canadian flag. A unique system of cadency is used for daughters inheriting arms, and a special symbol for United Empire Loyalists.
In 1988, governance of both personal and corporate heraldry in Canada was patriated from the heraldic authorities in England and Scotland, with the formation of the Canadian Heraldic Authority, which now has exclusive jurisdiction over granting awards of arms in Canada. Coats of arms are used throughout Canada by all levels of government, in many cases including royal insignia as a mark of authority, as in the recently granted arms of the House of Commons and the Senate, and of Parliament as a combined body. Use of armorial bearings is not limited to governmental bodies; all citizens of Canada have the right to petition for an award of arms, as do other entities including businesses and religious institutions. The granting of arms is regarded as an honour from the Queen of Canada, via her Viceroy, the Governor General of Canada, and thus are bestowed only on those whom the Chief Herald has deemed worthy of receiving a grant of arms.Chief (heraldry)
In heraldic blazon, a chief is a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running horizontally across the top edge of the shield. Writers disagree in how much of the shield's surface is to be covered by the chief, ranging from one-fourth to one-third. The former is more likely if the chief is uncharged, that is, if it does not have other objects placed on it. If charged, the chief is typically wider to allow room for the objects drawn there.
The chief is one of the ordinaries in heraldry, along with the bend, chevron, fess, and pale. There are several other ordinaries and sub-ordinaries.Clarion (heraldry)
The clarion (also clarichord, clavicord, rest or sufflue), is a rare charge in heraldry of uncertain meaning and purpose. It originates from England and is still largely exclusive to that country, though latterly it has been imported to other Anglophone nations. In Canadian heraldry, it is the cadency mark of a ninth daughter.
It is generally said to represent a kind of wind instrument such as a panpipe or recorder, but does not resemble the trumpet-like clarion known to modern musicians. It may also be intended as an overhead view of a keyboard instrument such as a spinet. Alternatively it has been said to represent a 'rest', a device used by mediaeval knights to support a lance during jousting. In his Display of Heraldry John Guillim suggests that it may be a rudder. 'Clarion' is also the name given to a stop on an organ which imitates the sound of a trumpet.
A verse of poetry published in 1568 does not do much to clarify the issue:
The claricord hath a tunely kyndeAs the wyre is wrested hye and lowe
So it tuenyth to the players mynde
For as it is wrested so must it nedes showe
As by this reson ye may well know
Any Instrument mystunyd shall hurt a trew song
Yet blame not the claricord the wrester doth wrong.Translation:
The claricord has a tuneful nature
As the wire is tightened high and low
Thus is it tuned to the player's mind
For as it is tightened, so it must go
And by this reason, you must know
Any instrument mistuned shall hurt a true song
Yet blame not the claricord the tuner does wrong.Coat of arms of Balearic Islands
The Coat of arms of Balearic Islands (Spanish: Escudo de las islas Baleares) is described in the Spanish Law 7 of November 21, 1984, the Law of the coat of arms of the Autonomous Community of Balearic Islands. Previously, by Decree of the Interinsular General Council of August 7 and 16, 1978, adopted the coat of arms as official symbol of the Balearic Islands.The blazon of the arms is: Or, four pallets of gules differenced by a bendlet azure.The shape of the shield is traditional Iberian or curved and it is embellished with lambrequins Or.The historians Faustino Menéndez-Pidal and Juan José Sánchez Badiola find the first references to it in two rolls of arms from the latter half of the late 13th century – in Wijnbergen and in the Lord Marshal's Roll – which attributed the coat of arms to the king of Majorca. Other roll of arms, Hérault Vermandois, attributed the royal arms of Aragon and, in the late 14th century, Gelre Armorial shows it with same colors reversed, blazoned: Gules, four pallets of Or.The bendlet azure was the mark of cadency of the cadet branch of the House of Aragon that ruled the Kingdom of Majorca. It was only used abroad until the 16th century.The King James III's will (1349) depicts these arms. Later the arms were used by some members of the royal family of Majorca, the Crown of Aragon and the Monarchy of Spain. Cartography in the 17th and 18th centuries often shown the royal arms of Majorca. In the 19th century, is documented a marginal use as administrative symbol of the Balearic Islands. It was topped with the former royal crown (without arches). The crown has been removed from the present model.Compone
In heraldry, an ordinary componé, compony, gobony or anciently gobonne is composed of a row of panes of alternating tinctures, most often affecting the bordure.
Certain charges cannot be compony, for practical reasons, such as, in general, common charges, and the chief as they are generally not long and thin as a row of compony is.
Usually only two tinctures are used, but the arms of Formia, Italy, show an unusual bordure which could be blazoned compony of 24 vert, gules, argent, vert, argent, gules.
A variant is counter-compony, with two rows of panes.
A bordure compony can be used as a difference to delineate cadency and often indicates an illegitimate son, acknowledged but legally barred from inheritance of the feudal estates of his father. The first Earl of Somerset was later legitimized (allowed to inherit the feudal estates) by an act of Parliament, yet retained his original arms as also displayed by his legitimate descendants.
A bend or fess billety-counter-billety is, in effect, chequy of three rows of stretched (rather than square) panes, as in the arms of Cullimore in Canada: Azure; a fess billetty counter billetty gules and argent, between, in chief, two crescents and, in base, a wheel or; a bordure or for difference.Sometimes compony-like arrangements, such as in the arms of the Duke de Vargas Machuca, are not so described in blazon. The coat of arms of the 108th Aviation Regiment of the United States Army is blazoned bordered gyronny of ten; in most cases a bordure gyronny would not be distinguished from a bordure compony.English heraldry
English heraldry is the form of coats of arms and other heraldic bearings and insignia used in England. It lies within the so-called Gallo-British tradition. Coats of arms in England are regulated and granted to individuals by the English kings of arms of the College of Arms. An individual's arms may also be borne ‘by courtesy' by members of the holder's nuclear family, subject to a system of cadency marks, to difference those displays from the arms of the original holder. The English heraldic style is exemplified in the arms of British royalty, and is reflected in the civic arms of cities and towns, as well as the noble arms of individuals in England. Royal orders in England, such as the Order of the Garter, also maintain notable heraldic bearings.Heraldry
Heraldry () is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree. Armory, the best-known branch of heraldry, concerns the design and transmission of the heraldic achievement. The achievement, or armorial bearings usually includes a coat of arms on an shield, helmet, and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, badges, heraldic banners, and mottoes.Although the use of various devices to signify individuals and groups goes back to antiquity, both the form and use of such devices varied widely, and the concept of regular, hereditary designs, constituting the distinguishing feature of heraldry, did not develop until the High Middle Ages. It is very often fairly that the use of helmets with face guards during this period made it difficult to recognize one's commanders in the field when large armies gathered together for extended periods, necessitating the development of heraldry as a symbolic language but there is very little actual support for this view.The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as "the handmaid of history", "the shorthand of history", and "the floral border in the garden of history". In modern times, individuals, public and private organizations, corporations, cities, towns, and regions use heraldry and its conventions to symbolize their heritage, achievements, and aspirations.John Writhe
John Writhe (died 1504) was a long-serving English officer of arms. He was probably the son of William Writhe, who represented the borough of Cricklade in the Parliament of 1450–51, and is most remembered for being the first Garter King of Arms to preside over the College of Arms. Writhe is also notable for the contention that it was he who developed the system of heraldic cadency employed by English officers of arms to the present day.Label (heraldry)
In heraldry, a label (occasionally lambel, the French form of the word) is a charge resembling the strap crossing the horse's chest from which pendants are hung. It is usually a mark of difference, but has sometimes been borne simply as a charge in its own right.
The pendants were originally drawn in a rectangular shape, but in later years have often been drawn as dovetails. The label is almost always placed in the chief. In most cases the horizontal band extends right across the shield, but there are several examples in which the band is truncated.Martlet
A martlet in English heraldry is a heraldic charge depicting a stylised bird similar to a swift or a house martin, with stylised feet. It should be distinguished from the merlette of French heraldry, which is a duck-like bird with a swan-neck and chopped-off beak and legs.National Electoral Commission (Poland)
The National Election Commission (Polish: Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza, PKW) is the only one permanent election commission in Poland. The second permanent electoral organs are komisarze wyborczy (single komisarz wyborczy, election commissioner), which number is 51.
The PKW has 9 members, which are the judges of the Supreme Court of Poland (3), the Constitutional Tribunal (3) and the Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (3). Members of PKW are nominated by the heads of courts and are appointed by the President. There is no cadency of PKW - membership in Commission expires at 70. The head of court which the member of PKW is nominated for, can recall him on a requested reason.
The PKW is the supreme electoral commission in Poland. It has one chairman and two vice chairmans. PKW organises all elections in Poland:
election of the President of the Republic of Poland;
elections to Sejm and Senat (lower and upper houses of the Parliament);
local elections (to gminas/city/powiats councils, for wójt/burmistrz (mayor) and president of the city and sejmiki wojewódzkie (voivodeships councils; sejmik literally means small Sejm));
elections to the European Parliament in Poland;
national and local referendumsThe PKW appoints Okręgowe Komisje Wyborcze (OKW) (District Electoral Commissions) in elections of President, Sejm and Senat and European Parliament elections. In contrast to PKW, OKW are temporary.
In local elections the terytorialne komisje wyborcze (territorial electoral commissions) are created by the komisarz wyborczy. Each territorial electoral commission conducts elections to appropriate organs:
wojewódzka komisja wyborcza (voivodeship electoral commission) conduct elections to the sejmik województwa;
powiatowa komisja wyborcza (powiat electoral commission) conducts elections to the rada powiatu (powiat council);
gminna komisja wyborcza (commune electoral commission) conducts elections to the rada gminy (commune council) and wójt (mayor of the rural commune);
miejska komisja wyborcza (city electoral commission) conducts elections to the rada miasta (city council) and burmistrz/prezydent miasta.All territorial electoral commission are also temporary, in contrast to the elections commissioners.Renaud De Carteret I
Sir Renaud, (Reginald), De Carteret, Seigneur of Carteret., (1063–1125).
Renaud de Carteret is first found in a charter, dated 1125, from the Abbey of Mont St. Michel.
Renaud went on the 1st Crusade, 1096-99, with Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy.
In the archives of St. Lô exists a charter, dating from the 1st Crusade, on which is found the seal of Renaud de Carteret. This seal shows that during the latter part of the twelfth century the de Carterets discarded their non-heraldic "equestrian" seal, and took into use the following arms:
Blazon of Gules, en Fess Three Fusier Argent, Etiqueter Azure.
(Red Shield, a Horizontal Stripe with Three Silver Lozenges (fusils) with a Blue Label).
The 'Etiqueter Azure', or blue label, is a device of cadency ('brisure') used by a first son. A label is removed on the death of the father, and the son inherits the plain coat. This proves that his father was still alive in 1099.
Renaud is accredited with taking the Jersey parish of Saint Ouen by the sword and founding the Manor of St Ouen.Rule of tincture
The most basic rule of heraldic design is the rule of tincture: metal should not be put on metal, nor colour on colour (Humphrey Llwyd, 1568). This means that Or and argent (gold and silver, which may be represented by yellow and white) may not be placed on each other; nor may any of the colours (i.e. azure, gules, sable, vert and purpure, along with some other rarer examples) be placed on another colour. Heraldic furs (i.e. ermine, vair and their variants) as well as "proper" (a charge coloured as it normally is in nature -- although that may be as defined by heralds) are exceptions to the rule of tincture.Sandra Lewandowska
Sandra Magdalena Lewandowska (born 8 June 1977) is a Polish parliamentarian who served in the national Parliament (Sejm) of the Republic of Poland of the V Sejm cadency from September 2005 to October 2007. As a Member of Parliament, she was a Member of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry Committee, Enterprise Development Committee and Administration and Interior Affairs Committee. She was a Chairperson of Poland - USA Bilateral Parliamentary Group and a Member of Poland - Great Britain Bilateral Parliamentary Group. She specialized in Environmental Protection and Renewable Energy Resources. She was also a Vice-Chairperson of the Program Committee of the Polish Television S.A. in Opole 2006-2010.Scottish heraldry
Heraldry in Scotland, while broadly similar to that practised in England and elsewhere in western Europe, has its own distinctive features. Its heraldic executive is separate from that of the rest of the United Kingdom.
Conventional elements of coats of arms
black and white