Cadence

In Western musical theory, a cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is "a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of resolution [finality or pause]."[1] A harmonic cadence is a progression of (at least) two chords that concludes a phrase, section, or piece of music.[2] A rhythmic cadence is a characteristic rhythmic pattern that indicates the end of a phrase.[3]

A cadence is labeled more or less "weak" or "strong" depending on its sense of finality. While cadences are usually classified by specific chord or melodic progressions, the use of such progressions does not necessarily constitute a cadence—there must be a sense of closure, as at the end of a phrase. Harmonic rhythm plays an important part in determining where a cadence occurs.

Cadences are strong indicators of the tonic or central pitch of a passage or piece.[1] Edward Lowinsky proposed that the cadence was the "cradle of tonality".[4]

Perfect authentic cadence (V–I with roots in the bass parts and tonic in the highest voice of the final chord): ii–V–I progression in C major, four-part harmony (Benward & Saker 2003, p. 90).

Common classifications

In music of the common practice period, cadences are divided into four main types, according to their harmonic progression: authentic (typically perfect authentic or imperfect authentic), half, plagal, and deceptive. Typically, phrases end on authentic or half cadences, and the terms plagal and deceptive refer to motion that avoids or follows a phrase-ending cadence. Each cadence can be described using the Roman numeral system of naming chords.

Authentic cadence

An authentic cadence is a cadence from V to I (i.e. dominant to tonic). A seventh above the root is often added to create V7, and the V is often preceded by a cadential 6
4
chord
. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians says, "This cadence is a microcosm of the tonal system, and is the most direct means of establishing a pitch as tonic. It is virtually obligatory as the final structural cadence of a tonal work."[1] Authentic cadences are generally classified as either perfect or imperfect. The phrase perfect cadence is sometimes used as a synonym for authentic cadence but can also have a more precise meaning depending on the chord voicing.

Perfect authentic cadence

A perfect authentic cadence in Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 8, mvmt. III, mm. 16–17.[5]

In a perfect authentic cadence (PAC), the chords are in root position – that is, the roots of both chords are in the bass – and the tonic is in the highest voice of the final chord. This is generally considered the strongest type of cadence and often found at structurally defining moments.[6] Music theorist William Caplin writes that the perfect authentic cadence "achieves complete harmonic and melodic closure."[7]


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             b1 c 
             }
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemDown
              g1 g
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             d1 e
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
             g1 c, \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

Imperfect authentic cadence

There are three distinct types of imperfect authentic cadences (IAC):

  • Root position IAC (shown below): Similar to a perfect authentic cadence, but the highest voice is not the tonic.
  • Inverted IAC: Similar to a perfect authentic cadence, but one or both chords is inverted.
  • Leading tone IAC: The V chord is replaced with the viio/subV chord (but the cadence still ends on I).

   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             d1 e 
             }
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemDown
              g1 g
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             b1 c
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
             g1 c, \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

Evaded cadence

An evaded cadence goes from V4
2
to I6
.[8] Because the seventh must fall step wise, it forces the cadence to resolve to the less stable first inversion chord. To achieve this, a root position V usually changes to a V4
2
right before resolution, thereby "evading" the cadence. (See also inverted cadence below.)


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             b1 c1
             }
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemDown
              g1 g1
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             d1 c1
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
             g2 f e1 \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

Half cadence

A half cadence (also called an imperfect cadence or semicadence) is any cadence ending on V, whether preceded by II (V of V), ii, vi, IV, or I—or any other chord. Because it sounds incomplete or suspended, the half cadence is considered a weak cadence that calls for continuation.[9]


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             c1 b 
             }
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemDown
              g1 g
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             e1 d
             }
         \new Voice \relative c {
             \stemDown
             c1 g' \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

Several types of half cadences are described below.

Phrygian half cadence

A Phrygian half cadence in Bach's four-part chorale, Schau, lieber Gott, wie meine Feind[10]

A Phrygian half cadence is a half cadence iv6–V in minor, so named because the semitonal motion in the bass (sixth degree to fifth degree) resembles the half-step heard in the ii–I of the 15th-century cadence in the Phrygian mode. Due to its being a survival from modal Renaissance harmony this cadence gives an archaic sound, especially when preceded by v (v–iv6–V).[11] A characteristic gesture in Baroque music, the Phrygian cadence often concluded a slow movement immediately followed by a faster one.[12] With the addition of motion in the upper part to the sixth degree, it becomes the Landini cadence.[1]


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \minor \time 4/4
             f1 g
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
              c1 d
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \minor \time 4/4
             c1 b
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
             aes1 g \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

Lydian cadence

A Lydian cadence is similar to the Phrygian half cadence, involving iv6–V in the minor. The difference is that in the Lydian cadence, the whole iv6 is raised by a half step. In other words, the Phrygian half cadence begins with the first chord built on scale degree scale degree 4, while the Lydian half cadence is built on the scale degree scale degree 4.


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \minor \time 4/4
             fis1 g
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
              cis1 d
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \minor \time 4/4
             cis1 b
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
             a1 g \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

Burgundian cadences

Burgundian cadences became popular in Burgundian music. Note the parallel fourths between the upper voices.[13]


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             fis1 g
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
              c1 d
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             c1 b
             }
         \new Voice \relative c {
             \stemDown
             d1 g, \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

Plagal half cadence

The rare plagal half cadence involves a I–IV progression. Like an authentic cadence (V–I), the plagal half cadence involves an ascending fifth (or, by inversion, a descending fourth).[14] The plagal half cadence is a weak cadence, ordinarily at the ending of an antecedent phrase, after which a consequent phrase commences. One example of this use is in "Auld Lang Syne". But in one very unusual occurrence – the end of the exposition of the first movement of Brahms' Clarinet Trio, Op. 114—it is used to complete not just a musical phrase but an entire section of a movement.[15]

Plagal cadence

A plagal cadence is a cadence from IV to I. It is also known as the Amen cadence because of its frequent setting to the text "Amen" in hymns.


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             c1 c
             }
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemDown
              a1 g
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             c1 e
             }
         \new Voice \relative c {
             \stemDown
             f1 c' \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

William Caplin disputes the existence of plagal cadences in music of the classical era:

An examination of the classical repertory reveals that such a cadence rarely exists. ... Inasmuch as the progression IV–I cannot confirm a tonality (it lacks any leading-tone resolution), it cannot articulate formal closure .... Rather, this progression is normally part of a tonic prolongation serving a variety of formal functions – not, however a cadential one. Most examples of plagal cadences given in textbooks actually represent a postcadential codetta function: that is, the IV–I progression follows an authentic cadence but does not itself create genuine cadential closure."[16]

It may be noticed that the plagal cadence, "leaves open the possibility of interpretation as V–I–V" rather than I–IV–I.[9] The term "minor plagal cadence" is used to refer to the iv–I progression. Sometimes a combination of major and minor plagal cadence is used (IV–iv–I)

Deceptive cadence

A deceptive cadence in the second movement of Mozart's Piano Sonata No. 10[9]

A deceptive cadence (also called an interrupted cadence) is a cadence from V to vi. The most important irregular resolution,[17] most commonly V7–vi (or V7VI) in major or V7–VI in minor.[17][18] This is considered a weak cadence because of the "hanging" (suspended) feeling it invokes.


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             b1 c 
             }
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemDown
              g1 e
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             d1 c
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
             g1 a \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

At the beginning of the final movement of Gustav Mahler's 9th Symphony, the listener hears a string of many deceptive cadences progressing from V to IV6.

One of the most striking uses of this cadence is in the A-minor section at the end of the exposition in the first movement of Brahms' Third Symphony. The music progresses to an implied E minor dominant (B7) with a rapid chromatic scale upwards but suddenly sidesteps to C major. The same device is used again in the recapitulation; this time the sidestep is—as one would expect—to F major, the tonic key of the whole Symphony.

The interrupted cadence is also frequently used in popular music. For example, the Pink Floyd song "Bring the Boys Back Home" ends with such a cadence (at approximately 0:45–50).

Other classifications

Inverted cadence

An inverted cadence (also called a medial cadence) inverts the last chord. It may be restricted only to the perfect and imperfect cadence, or only to the perfect cadence, or it may apply to cadences of all types.[19] To distinguish them from this form, the other, more common forms of cadences listed above are known as radical cadences.[20]

Rhythmic classifications

Cadences can also be classified by their rhythmic position:

  • A metrically accented cadence occurs on a strong position, typically the downbeat of a measure.
  • A metrically unaccented cadence occurs in a metrically weak position, for instance, after a long appoggiatura.

Metrically accented cadences are considered stronger and are generally of greater structural significance. In the past, the terms masculine and feminine were sometimes used to describe rhythmically "strong" or "weak" cadences, but this terminology is no longer acceptable to some.[21] Susan McClary has written extensively on the gendered terminology of music and music theory in her book Feminine Endings.[22]

The example below shows a metrically unaccented cadence (IV–V–I). The final chord is postponed to fall on a weak beat.[23]


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4
             c2 b^~ b4 c2.
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
              f2 d_~ d4 e2.
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key c \major \time 4/4
             a2 g^~ g4 g2.
             }
         \new Voice \relative c, {
             \stemDown
             f2 g_~ g4 c2. \bar "||"
             }
         >>
    >>

Picardy third

A Picardy third (or Picardy cadence) is a harmonic device that originated in Western music in the Renaissance era. It refers to the use of a major chord of the tonic at the end of a musical section that is either modal or in a minor key. The example below shows a picardy third in J.S. Bach's Jesu, meine Freude (Jesus, My Joy), mm. 12–13.[24]


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key e \minor \time 4/4
             \partial2 b4 b a g fis2 e1
             }
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemDown
              \partial2 e4 e8 dis e fis g e e4 dis b1
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
             \stemUp \clef bass \key e \minor \time 4/4
             \partial2 g8 a b4 c b cis b8 a! gis1
             }
         \new Voice \relative c {
             \stemDown
             \partial2 e8 fis g e c d e c ais4 b e,1
             }
         >>
    >>

Upper leading-tone cadence

The example below shows a cadence featuring an upper leading-tone from a well-known 16th-century lamentation, the debate over which was documented in Rome c.1540.[25] The final three written notes in the upper voice are B–C–D, in which case a trill on C produces D. However, convention implied a C, and a cadential trill of a whole tone on the second to last note produces D/E, the upper leading-tone of D. Presumably, the debate was over whether to use C–D or C–D for the trill. (Play upper-leading tone trill  Play diatonic trill )


    { << \new StaffGroup <<
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 2/2
            \relative c' {
                \clef treble \time 2/2
                e2 f2~ f4 e d2~ d4 \once \set suggestAccidentals = ##t cis8 b \once \set suggestAccidentals = ##t cis!2 d1\fermata
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 2/2
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                r2 a f g a1 a1\fermata
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \clef bass \time 2/2
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                a1 d, e d\fermata
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \clef bass \time 2/2
            \new Voice \relative c {
                a1 bes a d\fermata \bar "|."
                }
            >>
    >>
>> }

In medieval and Renaissance polyphony

Medieval and Renaissance cadences are based upon dyads rather than chords. The first theoretical mention of cadences comes from Guido of Arezzo's description of the occursus in his Micrologus, where he uses the term to mean where the two lines of a two-part polyphonic phrase end in a unison.

Clausula vera

A clausula vera cadence from Lassus's Beatus homo, mm. 34–35.[26]

A clausula or clausula vera ("true close") is a dyadic or intervallic, rather than chordal or harmonic, cadence. In a clausula vera, two voices approach an octave or unison through stepwise motion[26] in contrary motion.


    { << \new StaffGroup <<
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \relative c'' {
                \clef treble \time 4/4
                b1 c
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                d1 c \bar "||"
                }
            >>
    >>
>> }
A three-voice clausula vera from Palestrina's Magnificat Secundi Toni: Deposuit potentes, mm. 27–28.[26]

In three voices, the third voice often adds a falling fifth creating a cadence similar to the authentic cadence in tonal music.[26]


    { << \new StaffGroup <<
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \relative c'' {
                \clef treble \time 4/4
                b1 c
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \relative c' {
                d1 c
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \clef bass \time 4/4
            \relative c' {
                g1 c, \bar "||"
                }
            >>
    >>
>> }

According to Carl Dahlhaus, "as late as the 13th century the half step was experienced as a problematic interval not easily understood, as the remainder between the perfect fourth and the ditone:[27]

In a melodic half step, listeners of the time perceived no tendency of the lower tone toward the upper, or the upper toward the lower. The second tone was not the 'goal' of the first. Instead, musicians avoided the half step in clausulas because, to their ears, it lacked clarity as an interval. Beginning in the 13th century cadences begin to require motion in one voice by half step and the other a whole step in contrary motion.

Plagal cadence

A plagal cadence was found occasionally as an interior cadence, with the lower voice in two-part writing moving up a perfect fifth or down a perfect fourth.[28]


    { << \new StaffGroup <<
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \relative c'' {
                \clef treble \time 4/4
                e1 d
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                c1 g' \bar "||"
                }
            >>
    >>
>> }

Pause

A pause in one voice may also be used as a weak interior cadence.[28] The example below, Lassus's Qui vult venire post me, mm. 3–5, shows a pause in the third measure.


    { << \new StaffGroup <<
        \new Staff <<
            \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 2 = 66
            \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs"
            \clef treble \time 4/2
            \relative c' {
                \clef "treble_8" \time 4/2 \key g \dorian
                r2 g a1 bes c bes r2 c
                }
            \addlyrics { ve -- ni -- re post me, ve -- }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs"
            \clef bass \time 4/2 \key g \dorian
            \new Voice \relative c {
                e1 f g f r2 g a1
                }
            \addlyrics { ni -- re post me, ve -- ni -- }
            >>
    >>
>> }

Evaded cadence

In counterpoint, an evaded cadence is one where one of the voices in a suspension does not resolve as expected, and the voices together resolved to a consonance other than an octave or unison[29] (a perfect fifth, a sixth, or a third).

Corelli cadence

The Corelli cadence, or Corelli clash, named for its association with the violin music of the Corelli school, is a cadence characterized by a major and/or minor second clash between the tonic and the leading-tone or the tonic and supertonic. An example is shown below.[30]


   \new PianoStaff <<
      \new Staff <<
         \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 72
         \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs"
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemUp \clef treble \key a \minor \time 3/4
             c4 b4. a8 a2.
             }
         \new Voice \relative c'' {
             \stemDown
              a4 a4. gis8 a2.
              }
            >>
     \new Staff <<
         \new Voice \relative c' {
            \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs"
             \clef bass \key a \minor \time 3/4
             c8 d e4 e, a2.
             }
         >>
    >>

English cadence

Another "clash cadence", the English cadence, is a contrapuntal pattern particular to the authentic or perfect cadence. It features the blue seventh against the dominant chord[31], which in the key of C would be B and G–B–D. Popular with English composers of the High Renaissance and Restoration periods in the 16th and 17th centuries, the English cadence is described as archaic[32] or old-fashioned[33] sounding. It was first given its name in the 20th century.

The hallmark of this device is the dissonant augmented octave (compound augmented unison) produced by a false relation between the split seventh scale degree, as shown below in an excerpt from O sacrum convivium by Thomas Tallis. The courtesy accidental on the tenor's G is editorial.


    { 
#(set-global-staff-size 18)
      \override Score.SpacingSpanner.strict-note-spacing = ##t
  \set Score.proportionalNotationDuration = #(ly:make-moment 1/16)
    << \new StaffGroup <<
        \new Staff <<
            \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 72
            \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs"
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \relative c' {
                \clef treble \time 4/4
                f8 e a2 \once \override NoteHead.color = #red gis4 a1
                }
            \addlyrics { (su) -- _ _ mi -- tur, }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs"
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                d4. c8 b4 b a1
                }
            \addlyrics { su -- _ _ mi -- tur, }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs"
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                f4 f e4. d8 cis2. e4
                }
            \addlyrics { Chri -- stus su -- mi -- tur, re- }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"voice oohs"
            \clef "treble_8" \time 4/4
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                a4 f \once \override NoteHead.color = #red g?4. f8 e1
                }
            \addlyrics { su -- _ _ mi -- tur, }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \clef bass \time 4/4
            \new Voice \relative c {
                d4 d e e a,1
                }
            \addlyrics { Chri -- stus su -- mi -- tur, }
            >>
    >>
>> }

Landini cadence

A Landini cadence (also known as a Landini sixth, Landini sixth cadence, or under-third cadence[34]) is a cadence that was used extensively in the 14th and early 15th century. It is named after Francesco Landini, a composer who used them prodigiously. Similar to a clausula vera, it includes an escape tone in the upper voice, which briefly narrows the interval to a perfect fifth before the octave.


    { << \new StaffGroup <<
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \relative c'' {
                \clef treble \time 4/4
                b2 a c1
                }
            >>
        \new Staff <<
            \clef treble \time 4/4
            \new Voice \relative c' {
                d1 c \bar "||"
                }
            >>
    >>
>> }

Classical cadential trill

In the Classical period, composers often drew out the authentic cadences at the ends of sections; the cadence's dominant chord might take up a measure or two, especially if it contained the resolution of a suspension remaining from the chord preceding the dominant. During these two measures, the solo instrument (in a concerto) often played a trill on the supertonic (the fifth of the dominant chord); although supertonic and subtonic trills had been common in the Baroque era, they usually lasted only a half measure.

Extended cadential trills were by far most frequent in Mozart's music, and although they were also found in early Romantic music, their use was restricted chiefly to piano concerti (and to a lesser extent, violin concerti) because they were most easily played and most effective on the piano and violin; the cadential trill and resolution would be generally followed by an orchestral coda. Beethoven was a good example of this, limiting it almost entirely to his concerti, and most other Romantic composers including Chopin and Schumann followed suit; Schubert, who did not write any concerti, hardly used it at all (the Adagio and Rondo Concertante D. 487, a chamber work, being one prominent exception). At the other end of the spectrum, even Mozart rarely used the trill in symphonies. Because the music generally became louder and more dramatic leading up to it, a cadence was used for climactic effect, and was often embellished by Romantic composers. Later on in the Romantic era, however, other dramatic virtuosic movements were often used to close sections instead.

Jazz

In jazz, a cadence is often referred to as a turnaround, chord progressions that lead back and resolve to the tonic (for example, the ii-V-I turnaround). Turnarounds may be used at any point and not solely before the tonic.

Half-step cadences are common in jazz if not cliché.[35] For example, the ascending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence, which—using a secondary diminished seventh chord—creates momentum between two chords a major second apart (with the diminished seventh in between).[36]

 {
    \relative c' {
        \time 4/4
        <b d f aes>1 <c es g bes> \bar "||"
    }

}

The descending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence is assisted by two common tones.[36]

 {
    \relative c' {
        \time 4/4
        <des e g bes>1 <c es g bes> \bar "||"
    }

}

Rhythmic cadence

Rhythmic cadences often feature a final note longer than the prevailing note values and this often follows a characteristic rhythmic pattern repeated at the end of the phrase.[3] The example below shows a characteristic rhythmic cadence at the end of the first phrase of J.S. Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, BMV 1048, mvmt. I, mm. 1–2:

 \relative c'' {
   \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"violin"
   \clef treble 
   \time 2/2
   \key g \major
   \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 96

   \partial8 g16 fis 16
   g8[ d16 c] d8[ g16 fis] g8[ b,16 a] b8[ g'16 fis]
   g8[ g,16 a] b8[ cis] d4 r
}

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Don Michael Randel (1999). The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians, p. 105-106. ISBN 0-674-00084-6.
  2. ^ Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p. 359. 7th ed. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
  3. ^ a b Benward & Saker (2003). p. 91.
  4. ^ Judd, Cristle Collins (1998). "Introduction: Analyzing Early Music", Tonal Structures of Early Music,. (ed. Judd). New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8153-2388-3.
  5. ^ White, John D. (1976). The Analysis of Music, p.34. ISBN 0-13-033233-X.
  6. ^ Thomas Benjamin, Johann Sebastian Bach (2003). The Craft of Tonal Counterpoint, p.284. ISBN 0-415-94391-4.
  7. ^ Caplin, William E. (2000). Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, p.51. ISBN 0-19-514399-X.
  8. ^ Darcy and Hepokoski (2006). Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata, p.. ISBN 0-19-514640-9. "the unexpected motion of a cadential dominant chord to a I6 (instead of the normatively cadential I)"
  9. ^ a b c Jonas, Oswald (1982). Introduction to the Theory of Heinrich Schenker (1934: Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunstwerks: Eine Einführung in Die Lehre Heinrich Schenkers), p. 24. Trans. John Rothgeb. ISBN 0-582-28227-6.
  10. ^ White (1976), p.38.
  11. ^ Finn Egeland Hansen (2006). Layers of musical meaning, p.208. ISBN 87-635-0424-3.
  12. ^ Randel, Don Michael (2003). The Harvard Dictionary of Music, p. 130. ISBN 0-674-01163-5.
  13. ^ White (1976), p.129-130.
  14. ^ Harrison, Daniel (1994). Harmonic Function in Chromatic Music: A Renewed Dualist Theory and an Account of Its Precedents. University of Chicago Press. p. 29. ISBN 0226318087.
  15. ^ Notley, Margaret (2005). "Plagal Harmony as Other: Asymmetrical Dualism and Instrumental Music by Brahms". The Journal of Musicology. 22 (1): 114–130.
  16. ^ Caplin, William E. (1998). Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. Oxford University Press. pp. 43–45. ISBN 0-19-510480-3.
  17. ^ a b Foote, Arthur (2007). Modern Harmony in its Theory and Practice, p. 93. ISBN 1-4067-3814-X.
  18. ^ Owen, Harold (2000). Music Theory Resource Book, p.132. ISBN 0-19-511539-2.
  19. ^ Kennedy, Michael, ed. (2004). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music, p.116. ISBN 0-19-860884-5.
  20. ^ "Medial cadence". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 23 Jul. 2013.
  21. ^ Society for Music Theory (1996-06-06). "Guidelines for Nonsexist Language". Western Michigan University. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
  22. ^ McClary, Susan (2002). Feminism and Music. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4189-7.
  23. ^ Apel, Willi (1970). Harvard Dictionary of Music. cited in McClary, Susan (2002). Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, p.9. ISBN 0-8166-4189-7.
  24. ^ Bruce Benward and Marilyn Nadine Saker, Music in Theory and Practice: Volume II, eighth edition (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2009), p. 74. ISBN 978-0-07-310188-0.
  25. ^ Berger, Karol (1987). Musica Ficta: Theories of Accidental Inflections in Vocal Polyphony from Marchetto da Padova to Gioseffo Zarlino, p. 148. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54338-X.
  26. ^ a b c d Benward & Saker (2009). Music in Theory and Practice: Volume II, p. 13. Eighth Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-310188-0.
  27. ^ Dahlhaus, Carl (1990). Studies in the Origin of Harmonic Tonality. trans. Robert O. Gjerdingen. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09135-8.
  28. ^ a b Benward & Saker (2009), p. 14.
  29. ^ Schubert, Peter (1999). Modal Counterpoint, Renaissance Style, p.132. ISBN 0-19-510912-0.
  30. ^ Latham, Alison, ed. (2002). The Oxford Companion to Music, p.192. ISBN 0-19-866212-2.
  31. ^ van der Merwe, Peter (2005). Roots of the Classical: The Popular Origins of Western Music, p.492. ISBN 0-19-816647-8.
  32. ^ Carver, Anthony (1988). The Development of Sacred Polychoral Music to the Time of Schütz, p.136. ISBN 0-521-30398-2. If the clash cadence is already, "archaic, [and/or] mannered," in the music of Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672) it must surely be so now.
  33. ^ Herissone, Rebecca (2001). Music Theory in Seventeenth-Century England, p.170. ISBN 0-19-816700-8.
  34. ^ van der Merwe, Peter (2005). Roots of the Classical: The Popular Origins of Western Music, p.501. ISBN 0-19-816647-8.
  35. ^ Norman Carey (Spring, 2002). Untitled review: Harmonic Experience by W. A. Mathieu, p.125. Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 121–34.
  36. ^ a b Richard Lawn, Jeffrey L. Hellmer (1996). Jazz: Theory and Practice, p.97-98. ISBN 978-0-88284-722-1.
Andy Williams

Howard Andrew Williams (December 3, 1927 – September 25, 2012) was an American singer. He recorded 43 albums in his career, of which 15 have been gold-certified and three platinum-certified. He was also nominated for six Grammy Awards. He hosted The Andy Williams Show, a television variety show, from 1962 to 1971, and numerous TV specials. The Andy Williams Show won three Emmy awards. The Moon River Theatre in Branson, Missouri is named after the song for which he is best known—Johnny Mercer and Henry Mancini's "Moon River". He sold more than 100 million records worldwide, including more than 10 million certified units in the United States.Williams was active in the music industry for 74 years.

Anita Carter

Ina Anita Carter (March 31, 1933 – July 29, 1999), the youngest daughter of Ezra and Mother Maybelle Carter, was a versatile American singer who experimented with several different types of music and played upright bass with her sisters Helen Carter and June Carter Cash as The Carter Sisters. The trio joined the Grand Ole Opry radio show in 1950 (Anita was 17 years old at the time), opened shows for Elvis Presley, and joined The Johnny Cash Show in 1971. As a solo artist, and with her family, Carter recorded for a number of labels including RCA Victor, Cadence, Columbia, Audiograph, United Artists, Liberty and Capitol.

Cadence Design Systems

Cadence Design Systems, Inc. is an American multinational electronic design automation (EDA) software and engineering services company, founded in 1988 by the merger of SDA Systems and ECAD, Inc. The company produces software, hardware and silicon structures for designing integrated circuits, systems on chips (SoCs) and printed circuit boards.

Cadence Records

Cadence Records was an American record company based in New York City whose labels had a picture of a metronome. It was founded by Archie Bleyer, who had been the musical director and orchestra leader for Arthur Godfrey in 1952. Bleyer had written a few hot songs in 1932–34 (Fletcher Henderson's "Business in F" is a good example) and had a band that recorded for ARC in 1934 and 1935 (his records were issued on Vocalion, Melotone, Perfect and Romeo).

The first recording star for Cadence was Godfrey alumnus Julius La Rosa. Other Godfrey alumnae signed to the label included the Chordettes. According to legend, Bleyer was fired from the Godfrey show when he signed someone Godfrey regarded as a rival to a record deal. (Godfrey later fired singer Julius La Rosa in October 1954, causing a storm of controversy at the time.) The label also produced the early hits of Andy Williams and the Everly Brothers, as well as Johnny Tillotson and Lenny Welch. Virtuoso jazz/classical pianist Don Shirley was signed with Cadence in the 1950s and 1960s. Candid Records was the company's short-lived jazz subsidiary. One of Cadence's most popular songs in the 1950s was "Eloise", written and sung by Kay Thompson.

Cadence charted nearly 100 American singles between 1953 and 1964. It produced the 1962 smash bestselling parody album, The First Family starring comedic actor Vaughn Meader. Acclaimed at that time as the fastest-selling album in history, this White House satire on the Kennedy family and Capitol Hill politics remained at #1 on the Billboard 200 for 12 weeks. Featuring Meader's impression of President John F. Kennedy, the sketch revue included takes on First Lady Jackie Kennedy, newsmakers like Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev, and then Vice-President Lyndon Johnson. A follow-up album, The First Family, Volume Two, released in March 1963, reached #4. Both albums were immediately recalled and taken out of print following Kennedy's Dallas assassination. The departures of the Everly Brothers in 1960 (to Warner Bros. Records) and of Andy Williams in 1961 (to Columbia Records), along with radical changes in public taste and the music business brought on by the British Invasion, led to the rapid decline of the company by 1964. Bleyer opted to shut down Cadence, and sold Williams' masters to the singer, which he bought mainly because he wanted to keep any other buyer (Kapp Records and Liberty Records were two companies mentioned interested in buying the Cadence catalog) from reissuing his old material in competition with his new material. Bleyer wanted Williams to buy the entire Cadence catalogue, which he did. Williams reissued his old albums on Columbia and formed Barnaby Records to manage the Cadence catalogue.

Cadence Weapon

Roland "Rollie" Pemberton, better known by his stage name Cadence Weapon, is a Canadian rapper. Born and raised in Edmonton, Alberta, Pemberton released his first album, Breaking Kayfabe, in 2005 to positive reviews. He subsequently signed with the American record label ANTI-, releasing the albums Afterparty Babies in 2008 and Hope in Dirt City in 2012. In 2009, Cadence Weapon was named Edmonton's Poet Laureate. His first book Magnetic Days was published by Metatron in 2014.

Calypso music

Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and eventually spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century. Its rhythms can be traced back to West African Kaiso and the arrival of French planters and their slaves from the French Antilles in the 18th century.

Calypso drew upon African and French influences, and became the voice of the people. It was characterized by highly rhythmic and harmonic vocals, and was most often sung in a French creole and led by a griot. As calypso developed, the role of the griot became known as a chantuelle and eventually, calypsonian. As English replaced "patois" (Antillean creole) as the dominant language, calypso migrated into English, and in so doing it attracted more attention from the government. It allowed the masses to challenge the doings of the unelected Governor and Legislative Council, and the elected town councils of Port of Spain and San Fernando. Calypso continued to play an important role in political expression, and also served to document the history of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago.

Calypso in the Caribbean includes a range of genres, including: the Benna genre of Antiguan and Barbudan music; Mento, a style of Jamaican folk music that greatly influenced ska and reggae; Ska, the precursor to rocksteady and reggae; Spouge, a style of Barbadian popular music; Dominica Cadence-lypso, which mixed calypso with the cadence of Haiti; and soca music, a style of Kaiso/calypso, with influences from cadence-lypso, soul, and funk.

Chris Daughtry

Christopher Adam Daughtry (born December 26, 1979) is an American singer, songwriter, and actor. He is known as the lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist for the rock band Daughtry and as the fourth-place contestant on the fifth season of American Idol. After his elimination from Idol, he was given a record deal by RCA Records. Their self-titled debut album became the fastest selling debut rock album in Nielsen SoundScan history, selling more than one million copies after just five weeks of release. The album was recorded before the band was officially formed, making Chris Daughtry the only official member present on the album.

In its ninth week of release, Daughtry reached number one on the Billboard chart. Chris Daughtry is now the third most successful American Idol contestant in terms of record sales, behind only Kelly Clarkson and Carrie Underwood, who both won their respective seasons. At the 50th Grammy Awards, the band was nominated for Best Rock Song for the single "It's Not Over".

Since the band's first album, Chris Daughtry has collaborated with several artists, including Slash, Sevendust, Theory of a Deadman, Chad Kroeger, Brad Arnold, Vince Gill and Carlos Santana. He is known for his powerful vocal belting technique and wide vocal range.

Coda (music)

In music, a coda [ˈkoːda] (Italian for "tail", plural code) is a passage that brings a piece (or a movement) to an end. Technically, it is an expanded cadence. It may be as simple as a few measures, or as complex as an entire section.

Compas

Compas (Haitian Creole: konpa), or kompa, is a dance music and modern méringue in Haiti with African roots. The genre was popularized following the 1955 creation of the band Conjunto International by Nemours Jean-Baptiste. Compas is the main music of many countries such as Dominica and the French Antilles, etc. Whether it is called zouk where French Antilles artists of Martinique and Guadeloupe have taken it or compas in places where Haitian artists have toured, this méringue style is very influential in the Caribbean, Africa, Cape Verde, Portugal, France, part of Canada, South and North America.

Don Shirley

Donald Walbridge Shirley (January 29, 1927 – April 6, 2013) was an American classical and jazz pianist and composer. He recorded many albums for Cadence during the 1950s and 1960s, experimenting with jazz with a classical influence. He wrote organ symphonies, piano concerti, a cello concerto, three string quartets, a one-act opera, works for organ, piano and violin, a symphonic tone poem based on the novel Finnegans Wake by James Joyce, and a set of "Variations" on the legend of Orpheus in the Underworld.

During the 1960s, Shirley went on a number of concert tours, some in Deep South states, hiring New York nightclub bouncer Tony "Lip" Vallelonga as his driver and bodyguard. Their story is dramatized in the 2018 film Green Book.

Drum cadence

In music, a drum cadence or street beat is a work played exclusively by the percussion section of a modern marching band (see marching percussion). It is stylistically descended from early military marches, and related to military cadences, as both are a means of providing a beat while marching. Usually, each instrument will have a part that mimics a specific drum or drums on a drum set to create a sound similar to a drum beat.

According to Hiro Songsblog a drum cadence is, "'a drumline piece played in a parading marching band between or in place of full-band pieces'. Cadences, are also: 'a chant that is sung by military personnel while parading or marching'."Cadences employ the four basic drum strokes and often directly include drum rudiments. They have a wide range of difficulty, from simple accent patterns to complex rhythms including hybrid rudiments, and are played by virtually every modern drum line. Cadences are important from a performance standpoint, as a good drum cadence can make the band stand out from the rest in competition. Field shows are often preceded by the band marching to the beat of the cadence.Marching percussion generally consists of at least snare drums, tenor drums, cymbals, and bass drums, and may include timpani.

Frame rate

Frame rate (expressed in frames per second or fps) is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames appear on a display. The term applies equally to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems. Frame rate may also be called the frame frequency, and be expressed in hertz.

Indoor cycling

Indoor cycling, often also called spinning, as an organized activity, is a form of exercise with classes focusing on endurance, strength, intervals, high intensity (race days) and recovery, and involves using a special stationary exercise bicycle with a weighted flywheel in a classroom setting.

MapleMusic Recordings

MapleMusic is a Canadian independent record label founded by Andy Maize, Jeff Maize, Mike Alkier, Evan Hu, Lorique Mindel and Grant Dexter in 1999 and based in Toronto, Ontario. Other investors include Gary Slaight, Michael Burke and Universal Music. In 2016, MapleMusic changed its name to Cadence Music Group.

Military cadence

In the armed services, a military cadence or cadence call is a traditional call-and-response work song sung by military personnel while running or marching. In the United States, these cadences are sometimes called jody calls or jodies, after Jody, a recurring character who figures in some traditional cadences; Jody refers to the man with whom a serviceman's wife/girlfriend cheats, while they are deployed.

Requiring no instruments to play, they are counterparts in oral military folklore of the military march. As a sort of work song, military cadences take their rhythms from the work being done (compare sea shanty). Many cadences have a call and response structure of which one soldier initiates a line, and the remaining soldiers complete it, thus instilling teamwork and camaraderie for completion. The cadence calls move to the beat and rhythm of the normal speed (quick time) march or running-in-formation (double time) march. This serves the purpose of keeping soldiers "dressed", moving in step as a unit and in formation, while maintaining the correct beat or cadence.

The word "cadence" was applied to these work songs because of an earlier meaning, in which it meant the number of steps a marcher or runner took per minute. The cadence was set by a drummer or sergeant and discipline was extremely important, as keeping the cadence directly affected the travel speed of infantry. There were other purposes: the close-order drill was a particular cadence count for the complex sequence of loading and firing a musket. In the Revolutionary War, Baron von Steuben notably imported European battlefield techniques which persist, greatly modified, to this day.

Music of Dominica

The music of Dominica includes a variety of genres including all the popular genres of the world. Popular music is widespread, with a number of native Dominican performers gaining national fame in imported genres such as calypso, reggae, soca, kompa, zouk and rock and roll. Dominica's own popular music industry has created a form called bouyon, which combines elements from several styles and has achieved a wide fanbase in Dominica. Groups include WCK (Windward Caribbean Kulture), Native musicians in various forms, such as reggae (Nasio Fontaine, Lazo, Brother Matthew Luke), kadans (Ophelia Marie, (Exile One, Grammacks) and calypso (The Wizzard), have also become stars at home and abroad.

There is also "Cadence-lypso", the Dominica kadans, which has set the stage for some of the region's most significant musical developments such as zouk, bouyon (another Dominican creation) and soca music.

Like the other Francophone musics of the Lesser Antilles, Dominican folk music is a hybrid of African and European elements. The quadrille is an important symbol of French Antillean culture, and is, on Dominica, typically accompanied by a kind of ensemble called a jing ping band. In addition, Dominica's folk tradition includes folk songs called bélé, traditional storytelling called kont, masquerade, children's and work songs, and Carnival music.

Until the late 1950s, the Afro-Dominican culture of most of the island was repressed by the colonial government and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, both of which taught that African-derived music was evil, demonic and uncultured. This perception changed in the mid- to late 20th century, when Afro-Dominican culture came to be celebrated through the work of promoters like Cissie Caudeiron.

OrCAD

OrCAD Systems Corporation was a software company that made OrCAD, a proprietary software tool suite used primarily for electronic design automation (EDA). The software is used mainly by electronic design engineers and electronic technicians to create electronic schematics and electronic prints for manufacturing printed circuit boards. OrCAD was taken over by Cadence Design Systems in 1999 and was integrated with Cadence Allegro since 2005.

The name OrCAD is a portmanteau, reflecting the company and its software's origins: Oregon + CAD.

Ringtone

A ringtone or ring tone is the sound made by a telephone to indicate an incoming call or text message. Not literally a tone nor an actual (bell-like) ring any more, the term is most often used today to refer to customizable sounds used on mobile phones.

Specctra

Specctra is a commercial PCB auto-router originally developed by John F. Cooper and David Chyan of Cooper & Chyan Technology, Inc. (CCT) in 1989. The company and product were taken over by Cadence Design Systems in May 1997. Since its integration into Cadence's Allegro PCB Editor, the name of the router is Allegro PCB Router. The latest version is 17.2 (October 2016).

Specctra routes boards by presenting graphical data using a "shape-based" technology which represents graphical objects not as a set of points-coordinates, but more compact. This increases the efficiency of routing printed circuit boards with a high density of components, provides automatic routing of the same chain of tracks of different widths and more.

Specctra uses adaptive algorithms implemented in multiple trace runs. The routing is carried out in three stages:

preview routing

autoroute

additional processing of autoroute resultsOn the first pass, the connection of all conductors is performed, regardless of the presence of conflicts, which consist in crossing the conductors on one layer and breaking the gaps. On each subsequent pass, the auto-router tries to reduce the number of conflicts by breaking and re-building connections (the ripup-and-retry router method) and pushing the conductors by pushing the neighboring ones (the push-and-shove router method). Electromagnetic compatibility can be tested in Specctra through the “SPECCTRAQuest SI Expert” module.The program is compatible with many design systems for printed circuit boards, thanks to the use of industrial-standard DSN design file format for project description and Do-files to specify routing strategies.

The results are returned to the board editor via SES session files as well as RTE files. Protocol command execution is recorded in Did-file, which after editing can be used as new Do-files.

The DSN/SES file formats are also supported by a number of other auto-routers including KONEKT ELECTRA, Eremex TopoR and Alfons Wirtz's FreeRouting.

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