In golf, a caddie (or caddy) is the person who carries a player's bag and clubs, and gives insightful advice and moral support, almost like a coach. A good caddie is aware of the challenges and obstacles of the golf course being played, along with the best strategy in playing it. This includes knowing overall yardage, pin placements and club selection. A caddie is not usually an employee of a private club or resort. They are classified as an "independent contractor", meaning that he or she is basically self-employed and does not receive any benefits or perks from his association with the club. Some clubs and resorts do have caddie programs, although benefits are rarely offered. Particularly in Europe, the vast majority of clubs do not offer caddies, and amateur players will commonly carry or pull their own bags.
The Scots word caddie or cawdy was derived in the 17th century from the French word cadet and originally meant a student military officer. It later came to refer to someone who did odd jobs. By the 19th century, it had come to mean someone who carried clubs for a golfer, or in its shortened form, cad, a man of disreputable behaviour.
Traditional caddying involves both the golfer and the caddie walking the course. The caddie is in charge of carrying the player's bag, and walks ahead of the golfer to locate his ball and calculate the yardage to the pin and/or hazards. This is the most common method used in golf clubs and is the only method allowed in the PGA (Professional Golf Association) and LPGA (Ladies Professional Golf Association). The three "ups" of caddying are: show up, shut up, and keep up.
Fore-Caddying entails the caddie walking while the players ride in carts. The fore-caddie will give a hole description and then walk ahead to spot the players' tee shots. The caddie then gets the player's yardage (either with a GPS watch, laser, course knowledge, or sprinkler heads) while the players drive their carts from the tee to their shots. The caddie walks ahead again to spot the golfer's next shots. This process is continued until the players reach the green. Once on the green the caddie will read greens (if asked per proper golf etiquette), clean golf balls (if asked), fix ball marks, and attend the flag. The caddie is also responsible for raking traps on the course. Caddies will help with club selection, reading greens, weather variables, and marking balls on the green but should do so only if asked by the player. More than anything else, the caddie is there to make the player's round enjoyable by taking care of menial tasks, speeding up play, and providing mental support if asked.
Many clubs use a ranking system. Caddies will start as a trainee, and be promoted through the ranks of Intermediate, Captain, Honor, and finally Championship. Many courses start their caddies off at the B level, and after a year move them to A, and on their fourth year (if they have earned it), they will receive the title of Honor caddie. The intermediate and captain ranks can usually be obtained within the first year of caddying, and the honor rank is usually obtained in the second or third year of caddying. Championship takes at least 6 years and often as many as 10 years to obtain. An alternative ranking system often used in the American Mid-West proceeds as B level, A level, AA level, Honor level, and Evans Scholar. Caddies often obtain a promotion in rank once a year, while often Honor takes two years to achieve and Evans Scholars are only produced by winning the venerable Evans Scholarship for university. However, in many American clubs, caddies are divided simply between "B" caddies (usually younger, less experienced caddies who often carry only one bag), and "A" caddies (usually older, more experienced caddies who almost always carry two bags).
Caddies are most frequently employed at clubs on weekends, when the majority of country club golf takes place. Some (but usually not as many) opportunities to caddie exist during the week, as well. Additionally, caddies are often allowed to play the course at which they caddie for free, usually on a Monday (the day that most private clubs choose to close their course for maintenance). On pro golf tours, professional caddies accompany their player to all events, which usually take place from Thursday through Sunday. Additionally, the player may hire their caddie to carry their bag for them during training sessions and practice rounds.
At most clubs, caddies are paid at the end of the round by cash, or receive a payment ticket for which they can redeem their wages in the clubhouse. Generally, the player will tip the caddie based on their performance during the round, with extra money given for exemplary work. Most American club caddies earn between $80 and $120 per bag, though newer caddies will often earn less than more experienced caddies. Caddies working during a tournament, high-stakes match, or 4-Day member-guest will often earn significantly more, upwards of $150 per round, per bag, at times. It is common for experienced caddies to carry two bags at a time. It is considered acceptable to ask a professional at the course what the average pay for a caddie is, as courses differ.
In a professional golf tour setting, a player often pays their caddie a percentage of their winnings, which can be as high as 10%. A common pay scale is 5% for making the cut, 7% for a top 10, and 10% for a win. The caddie also usually receives a salary, as the player is not guaranteed to win money at every tournament.
Caddies have been depicted in films and books, including:
Caddie, A Sydney Barmaid is the fictionally embellished autobiography of Catherine "Caddie" Edmonds, who worked as a barmaid in Sydney during the Great Depression. Published anonymously in 1953 under Edmonds' nickname, which was coined by a lover who likened her to "the sleek body and class of his Cadillac motorcar", Caddie attracted wide critical acclaim upon its original publication in London, and became a bestseller when it was adapted into a feature film in 1976, one year after International Women's Year.Caddie (CAD system)
Caddie is a mid-range computer-assisted draughting (CAD) software package for 2D and 3D design. It is used primarily by architects, but has tools for surveyors and mechanical, civil and construction engineers. It was initially designed as an electronic drawing board, using concepts and tools clearly related to a physical board.Caddie requires a USB dongle. or software activation. Without the dongle or activation, the program can be used as a viewer and plot station for any DWG drawings, but it can't save drawings after the 14-day evaluation has expired. Caddie works on Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Windows 8.Caddie (film)
Caddie is an Australian film biopic directed by Donald Crombie and produced by Anthony Buckley. Released on 1 April 1976, it is representative of the Australian film renaissance which occurred during that decade. Set mainly in Sydney during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Great Depression, it portrays the life of a young middle class woman struggling to raise two children after her marriage breaks up. Based on Caddie, the Story of a Barmaid, a partly fictitious autobiography of Catherine Beatrice "Caddie" Edmonds, it made Helen Morse a local star and earned Jacki Weaver and Melissa Jaffer each an Australian Film Institute Award.Caddie Woodlawn
Caddie Woodlawn is a children's historical fiction novel by Carol Ryrie Brink which received the Newbery Medal in 1936 and a Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958. The original 1935 edition was illustrated by Newbery-award-winning author and illustrator Kate Seredy. Macmillan released a later edition in 1973, illustrated by Trina Schart Hyman.Daihatsu Wake
The Daihatsu Wake (Japanese: ダイハツ・ウェイク, Daihatsu Ueiku) is a kei car with sliding doors manufactured by the Japanese automaker Daihatsu. It was launched on 10 November 2014. It has interior cabin height of 1,455 mm (57.3 in), which is highest in its class. It has a mileage of 25,4 kmpl. Toyota in Japan also sold the Wake as the Toyota Pixis Mega (Japanese: トヨタ・ピクシス メガ, Toyota Pikushisu Mega). The van version of the Wake is called the Hijet Caddie (Japanese: ダイハツ・ハイゼット キャディー, Daihatsu Haizetto Kyadī).Downsville, Wisconsin
Downsville is an unincorporated census-designated place in the town of Dunn, in Dunn County, Wisconsin, United States. The community was founded at a crossing of the Red Cedar River in 1855. As of the 2010 census, its population was 146.The Empire in Pine Museum is located in Downsville. About 3 miles south of the community lies the girlhood home of Caddie Woodlawn, preserved at the Caddie Woodlawn Park.Eddie Lowery
Edward Edgar Lowery (October 14, 1902 – May 4, 1984) was an American caddie, amateur golfer and multi-millionaire businessman.
Lowery is best known as the 10-year-old caddie of Francis Ouimet during the 1913 U.S. Open, held at The Country Club in Brookline, Massachusetts, which Ouimet won in a playoff over Harry Vardon and Ted Ray. An iconic photograph of Lowery and Ouimet striding down the fairway together is one of the most memorable in American golf history. It was used as the logo for the United States Golf Association's centennial celebrations, appears on the cover of Mark Frost's account of the 1913 Open The Greatest Game Ever Played: Harry Vardon, Francis Ouimet, and the Birth of Modern Golf and inspired a memorial statue in Brookline. Lowery was prominently featured in the 2005 Disney movie The Greatest Game Ever Played, portrayed by actor Josh Flitter.
Lowery and Ouimet remained lifelong friends, and when Ouimet died in 1967, Lowery was one of the pallbearers.Francis Ouimet
Francis DeSales Ouimet (May 8, 1893 – September 2, 1967) was an American amateur golfer who is frequently referred to as the "father of amateur golf" in the United States. He won the U.S. Open in 1913 and was the first non-Briton elected Captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews. He was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1974.Golf cart
A golf cart (called golf car in ANSI standard Z130.1, since "carts" are not self-propelled) is a small vehicle designed originally to carry two golfers and their golf clubs around a golf course or on desert trails with less effort than walking.
Golf carts come in a wide range of formats and are more generally used to convey small numbers of passengers short distances at speeds less than 15 mph (24 km/h) per ANSI Standard z130.1 as originally manufactured. They are generally around 4 feet (1.2 m) wide × 8 feet (2.4 m) long × 6 feet (1.8 m) high and weigh 900 pounds (410 kg) to 1,000 pounds (450 kg). Most are powered by 4-stroke engines.
The price of a golf cart can range anywhere from under US$1,000 to well over US$20,000 per cart, depending on several factors. These factors may include whether or not a fleet of carts is being purchased for a golf course or a country club, for example, and whether the carts are new or used. Other factors may include options such as equipment requirements, and how many people the cart is meant to transport. With the rise in popularity of golf carts, many golf clubs or country clubs offer storage and energy options to golf cart owners. This has led to the modification of golf carts to suit use at a particular golf course. Typical modifications include windshields, ball cleaners, cooler trays, upgraded motor or speed controller (to increase speed and/or torque), and lift kits.
Originally golf carts were only electrically powered, but in time gasoline-powered variants appeared. The electric variety is now used in many communities where their lack of pollutants, lack of noise, and safety for pedestrians and other carts (due to slow speeds) are beneficial. When purpose-built for general transportation these are called Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs), but with various operating limitations such as top speed and heavy regulation on which type of streets these types of carts are permitted to be used. These may resemble the golf carts shown above, although some are now being made with all-weather car-like bodies.
The minimum age to drive a golf cart is 13 in Georgia, Alabama, California, Kansas, Kentucky, Rhode Island, Vermont, and South Carolina. Other US states, such as Florida, have a minimum age of 14–15 years.Golf equipment
Golf equipment encompasses the various items that are used to play the sport of golf. Types of equipment include the golf ball itself, implements designed for striking the golf ball, devices that aid in the process of playing a stroke, and items that in some way enrich the playing experience.Jamie Anderson (golfer)
James Anderson (27 June 1842 – 16 August 1905) was a nineteenth-century professional golfer who won The Open Championship three times.Jim "Bones" Mackay
Jim "Bones" Mackay is an American golf caddie and golf commentator. For 25 years, he was the caddie for Phil Mickelson. On June 20, 2017 it was announced that Phil and "Bones" were mutually parting ways. He had been on Mickelson's bag since 1992 including in all five of his major championships—the 2004 Masters, the 2005 PGA, the 2006 Masters, the 2010 Masters, and the 2013 Open Championship.Mackay was born in England; his family moved to New Smyrna Beach, Florida, when he was seven years old. He played golf for Columbus College in Georgia, followed by a job in the pro shop and bag room at Columbus' Green Island Country Club. There he met and began to caddie for Larry Mize and later Scott Simpson and Curtis Strange, before being hired by Mickelson at the start of his PGA career. Of their long and close relationship, Mickelson has been quoted as saying "Bones is the only guy on the golf course that wants me to play well, so why am I going to sit there and berate him and treat him poorly? He's the only guy trying to work his tail off for me." He is also known for being very strict about cell phones being out during tournament play.His nickname, "Bones", was created in 1990 when PGA Tour player Fred Couples couldn't remember the name of the lanky, 6-foot 4-inch Mackay.In 2017 Mackay joined NBC/Golf Channel to serve as a commentator.In January 2018, Mackay returned to caddying for one week. He went on the bag of Justin Thomas for the Sony Open in Hawaii after an injury to Thomas' regular caddie Jimmy Johnson.Mackay had both knees replaced in October 2016.He lives in Scottsdale, Arizona, with his wife, Jen (Olsen) – a friend of Phil Mickelson's wife, Amy, who was introduced to Mackay by the Mickelsons – and their children, Oliver and Emma.Johnny Revolta
John F. Revolta (April 5, 1911 – March 3, 1991) was an American professional golfer who played on the PGA Tour in the 1930s, 1940s, and early 1950s. He won a major title, the 1935 PGA Championship, and had 18 career wins on tour.
Born in St. Louis, Missouri, Revolta's family relocated to Oshkosh, Wisconsin in 1923 when he was twelve. He learned the game as a caddie at the public course in Oshkosh and won the state caddie championship at age 14. Like most professional golfers of his generation, Revolta started out as a club professional. He worked at Swan Lake Country Club in Portage in 1930, Chippewa Elks Golf Club in 1931, Menominee, Michigan 1932–1933, and Tripoli Country Club in Milwaukee from 1934–1936. He won the Wisconsin State Open four times in a six-year period; he was not eligible for two years while working in Michigan. Revolta was a member of the PGA Tour from 1935–1952.Revolta's best year as a tour pro was 1935, when he won five tournaments and led the PGA Tour's money list. He defeated Tommy Armour 5 & 4 in the PGA Championship held at Twin Hills Golf & Country Club and also won the Western Open, the era's "fifth major." He also played in the Ryder Cup in 1935 and 1937.
Revolta was known as the "Iron Master" because of his outstanding short game. Regarding his bunker play in particular, short game master Paul Runyan said Revolta "led the class [of outstanding bunker players] by a big margin. His skill from sand simply left me aghast." His instruction book, Johnny Revolta's Short Cuts to Better Golf, first published in 1949, is still in print today.
Revolta was the head professional at Evanston Golf Club in Skokie, Illinois, from 1935 to 1966, and continued to teach there during summers into the late 1980s. He died in Palm Springs, California in 1991, a month shy of his 80th birthday.List of Caddie Hall of Fame inductees
The following list shows inductees into the Caddie Hall of Fame, which was founded by the Professional Caddies Association in 1999. In 2011, the Western Golf Association began administering the Caddie Hall of Fame.Old Tom Morris
Thomas Mitchell Morris (16 June 1821 – 24 May 1908), otherwise known as Old Tom Morris, was a Scottish golfer. He was born in St Andrews, Fife, the "home of golf" and location of the St Andrews Links, and died there as well. Young Tom Morris (died 1875), also a golfer, was his son.RG-19
The RG-19 Caddie is a prototype Armoured Personnel carrier manufactured by TFM of South Africa. The company was later taken over by Reunert Defence OMC.Racing with the Moon
Racing with the Moon is a 1984 American drama film starring Sean Penn, Elizabeth McGovern, and Nicolas Cage. It was directed by Richard Benjamin and written by Steve Kloves. The original music score was composed by Dave Grusin.Steve Williams (caddie)
Steve Williams, MNZM (born 29 December 1963) is a New Zealander who has served as a caddie for several top professional golfers, most recently with Adam Scott. Williams is best known for having served as Tiger Woods' caddie from 1999 to 2011. Woods was the top-ranked golfer in the world for much of Williams' tenure as his caddy.Willie Park Sr.
William Park Sr. (30 June 1833 – 25 July 1903) was a Scottish professional golfer. He was a 4-time winner of the Open Championship.